Title: Hand-book for travellers in Egypt; including descriptions of the course of the Nile to the second cataract, Alexandria, Cairo, the pyramids, and Thebes, the overland transit to India, the peninsula of Mount Sinai, the oases, &c. Being a new edition, corrected and condensed, of "Modern Egypt and Thebes" [Electronic Edition]

Author: Wilkinson, John Gardner,; Sir,; 1797-1875.
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Being a new ed., corr. and condensed, of Modern Egypt and Thebes.
File size or extent: xxx p., 1 l., [xxxi]-xxxvii, 448 p. illus. (incl. plans) fold. map. 19 cm.
Place of publication: LONDON
Publisher: JOHN MURRAY
Publication date: 1847
Identifier: From the collection of Dr. Paula Sanders, Rice University.
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Origin/composition of the text: 1847
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  • Egypt -- Guidebooks.
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Hand-book for travellers in Egypt; including descriptions of the course of the Nile to the second cataract, Alexandria, Cairo, the pyramids, and Thebes, the overland transit to India, the peninsula of Mount Sinai, the oases, &c. Being a new edition, corrected and condensed, of "Modern Egypt and Thebes" [Electronic Edition]



In. France, at
In Germany, Holland, and Belgium, at
In Italy, at
In Switzerland, at



Being a New Edition, corrected and condensed,



a. Journey from England to Egypt. — b. Expenses to Egypt and India
by France. — c. Steamers from Marseilles to Egypt. — d. Steamers from
England, by Gibraltar and Malta, to Alexandria and India. — e. Quarantine,
on returning from Egypt.
a. Season for Visiting Egypt — Time required — Expenses of the
Journey. — b. Things useful for the Journey in Egypt. — c. Mode
of Living in Egypt, and Diseases of the Country. — d. Dress. —
e. Presents. — f. Firmans. — g. Money. — h. Weights and Measures.
i. Post Office. — j. Population and Revenue. — k. Mohammed
Ali. — l. Chronological Table. — m. List of Caliphs and
Sultans of Egypt. — n. Certain Points requiring Examination. —
o. English and Arabic Vocabulary
Route 1. — London to Alexandria 71
1. Arrival at Alexandria. — 2. Hotels. — 3. Servants. — 4. Boats. —
5. Things to be purchased at Alexandria for the Journey to Cairo. —
6. History of Alexandria. — 7. Plan of Alexandria, and site and
description of the Buildings. — 8. Monuments outside the Canopic
Gate. — 9. Present remains of Ancient Alexandria. — 10. Its Size
and Importance. — 11. Inhabitants. — 12. Climate — The Lake
Mareotis — Canals. — 13. The two Ports, Gates, Walls — The Old
Docks. — 14. Mosks, and other Buildings within the Walls. —
15. Amusements and Sights in Modern Alexandria
Route 2. — Alexandria to Rosetta, by Land 102
Route 3. — Rosetta to Atfeh and Cairo, by Water 105
Route 4. — Alexandria to Cairo, by Land, through the Delta 105
Route 5. — Alexandria to Cairo, by the Western Bank 106


Route 6. — Alexandria to Atfeh and Cairo, by the Canal and the
a. Hotels. — b. Houses. — c. Servants. — d. Horses and Asses. —
e. Places of public resort. — f. Quickest Mode of seeing Cairo and
the neighbourhood. — g. Boats. — h. History of Cairo. — i. The
Citadel. — j. Oriental character of the Town. — k. M⊙sks —
Early pointed Arches — Morostan, or Madhouse — Bab Zooáyleh.
l. Tombs of the Caliphs of Egypt. — m. Tombs of the Baharite
Memlook Kings. — n. Tombs of the Circassian Memlook Kings —
Tombs of the Memlooks. — o. Sibeels, or Public Fountains. —
p. Palaces. — q. Streets. — r. Cafés — Punch. — s. Baths. —
t. Slave Market. — u. Bazaars — Prices of Goods at Cairo. —
v. Quarters of Cairo. — w. Walls and extent of Cairo — Canal. —
x. Gates. — y. Antiquities in Cairo. — z. Population — Dogs. —
aa. Festivals and Sights at Cairo — Pilgrimage to Mecca — Opening
the Canal of Old Cairo — The Prophet's Birth-day — Fêtes. —
bb. The Magician. — cc. Institutions of the Pasha — Schools. —
dd. Internal Administration — Police — Courts of Justice. —
ee. The Mahkemeh, or Cadi's Court
Excursion 1. — a. Old Cairo . — b. Nilometer and Isle of Roda. —
c. Ḵasr el Ainee and College of Derwishes. — Ḵasr Dubarra
Excursion 2. — a. Heliopolis (Mataréëh) — Balsam Plants — Lake of
the Pilgrims — Old Jewish Towns — Red Gritstone Mountain. —
b. Petrified Wood
Excursion 3. — Gardens and Palace of Shoobra 171
Excursion 4. — Pyramids of Geezeh, Saḵḵàra, and Memphis
a. Things required in going to the Pyramids. — b. Village of Geezeh
— Egg Ovens. — c. History of the Pyramids. — d. Great Pyramid. —
e. Second Pyramid. — f. Third Pyramid. — g. Sphinx. — h. Tombs.
i. Causeway. — j. Small Pyramids, near that of Cheops — Nature
of the Rock. — k. Date of the Pyramids. — l. Pyramid of
Abooroàsh. — m. The two Arab Bridges. — n. Busiris. — o. Pyramids
of Abooséer. — p. Pyramids of Saḵḵàra — Tombs. — q. Pyramids
of Dashoor. — r. Memphis — Name of the hill of the Pyramids
Route 7. — Cairo to Suez. — a. Various Roads. — b. Distances. —
c. The Tariff of Charges at the Stations. — d. Time employed —
Remarks on the Road — Suez — Passage of the Red Sea by the
Israelites — El Muktala — Kolzim — The Ancient Canal of Arsinoë
— Heroöpolis
Route 8. — Cairo to Mount Sinai — Charges for Camels — Tricks of
the Arabs — Names of the Arab Tribes — Requisites for the Journey
— Distances — Manna — Remarks on the Road — Sarábut el
Khàdem — Names of Ancient Pharaohs — Convent of St. Catharine
— Burning Bush — Rock of Moses — Town of Tor — Primitive
and other Mountains


Route 9. — Mount Sinai to El Akába — Distances — Aila, or Eloth
— Journey to Petra, or Wadée Moosa — Distances to Petra, Hebron,
and Jerusalem
Route 10. — Cairo to Syria — Distances — Daphne, Pelusium
Tomb of Pompey — El Areesh — Gaza (Ghuzzeh)
Route 11. — Cairo, by Water, to Damietta — Distances — Bershoom
Benha-el-Assal (Athribis) — Semenood — Bebayt-el-Hagar
(Iseum) — Mansoóra — Damietta - Other Towns in the Delta —
Fêtes of Shekhs — Trilinguar Stones — Divisions of the Delta —
Route 12. — Cairo, by Water, to Menzaleh and Tanis — Distances —
Mansoóra to Menzaleh — Tel et-Mai (Thmuis) — Papyrus — Canal of
Menzaleh — Land of the Delta — Menzaleh and the Neighbourhood
— Mataréëh — Fish — Lake Menzaleh — Water Fowl — Ruins
of Tanis
Route 13. — Cairo, by Water, to Bubastis, Pharbæthus, and Tanis
Distances — Canal of Moëz — Ruins of Bubastis, now Tel Basta
Zaḳazeeḳ — Harbayt (Pharbæthus)
Route 14. — Cairo to the Natron Lakes — Distances — Natron
Springs — Convents — Productions — Animals — Petrified Wood —
The Bahr el Fargh, or Bahr-bela-ma
Route 15. — Cairo to the Seewah, or Oasis of Ammon — Distances. —
a. Road from Alexandria. — b. From Teráneh. — c. From the
Fyoom — Ruins — Dates — Government and Customs of Seewah —
Language — Town of Seewah — Conquered by Mohammed Ali.
Route 16. — Cairo, by Land, to the Fyoom. — a. Road to the Fyoom.
b. Distances from Cairo to Medeeneh — Toméëh — Senooris —
Biáhmoo (ruins) - Medeeneh — The Arsinoïte nome. — c. Excursions
from Medeeneh — Obelisk at Biggig. — d. Lake Moeris or
Birket el Ḳorn — Ruins at Kom Weseem — at El Hammam — at
Dimay, or Nerba. — e. Kasr Kharoon — Temple and other Ruins
— Nezleh — Large Canal — Sites of old Towns — El Ghereḳ
Route 17. — Medeeneh (in the Fyoom) to Benisooef (on the Nile) —
Distances — Pyramid of Howara and site of the Labyrinth
Pyramid of Illahoon — Bahr Yoosef
Route 18. — Cairo to the Little Oasis, the Great Oasis, and the Oasis
of Dakhleh, by the Fyoom. — a. Different Roads to the Oasis. — b.
Requisites for the Journey. — c. Distances. — d. Wadee Ryán, and
Moileh. — e. Little Oasis — Ruins — Warm Springs — Dates — Palm
Wine — Gardens — Origin of the Springs — Inhabitants — Distances
in this Oasis. — f. Small Oasis of El Hayz. — g. Oasis of Faráfreh.
h. Oasis of the Blacks. — i. Oasis of Dakhleh — Ruins — Population
— Productions. — j. The Great Oasis, or Wah el Khargeh
Temple of Ain Amoor on the road to it — Columbaria and other
Ruins in the great Oasis — The Great Temple, Name of Darius,
Inscriptions — Christian inscriptions and Tombs — Caravans from
Dar-Foor — Population — Productions. — k. Distances in the Great
Oasis, going to its southern extremity — Temples of Kasr Ain el
Goáytah, and Ḳasr Ain e' Zayán — Tomb of Emeer Kháled —
Temple of Doosh. — l. Road to Abydus. — m. Road to Esné


Route 19. — Cairo to the Convents of St. Antony and St. Paul, in
the Eastern Desert — Distances — The Arab tribes — Convents of
St. Antony and St. Paul — Alabaster quarries — Primitive and
secondary mountains — Gebel e'Zayt — Porphyry quarries — Ruins
of Myos Hormos — Granite quarries and ruins at Fateereh — Old
Kossayr (Philotera) — Modern Kossayr — Wadee Jasoos
(For the Desert South of Kossayr, See
Routes 26 and 27.)
Preliminary Information. — a. The Saeed, or Upper Egypt. — b. Denominations
of Towns, &c. — c. Ancient Divisions of Egypt — Ancient
Towns on the Nile, mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus.
d. Egyptian Temples, their Plans, and principal Features
Route 20. — Cairo to Benisooef by Water — Attar-e'Nebbee —
Toora — El Māsarah and ancient Quarries — Helwán — Dyke of
Menes — Pyramids of Lisht — False Pyramid — atféëh — Boosh —
Benisooef — Beggars
Route 21. — Benisooef to Minieh — Anasieh (Heracleopolis) — Bibbeh
— El Haybee, small ancient Town — Gebel Shekh Embarak
— Excursion to Behnesa, inland, from Aboo Girgeh — Gebel e'
Tayr, Convent — Gisr el Agoos — Téhneh (Acôris), Inscriptions,
Quarries — Minieh
Route 22. — Minieh to Osioot — Kom Aḥmar, Grottoes (Alabastron?)
— Curious sculptured Grottoes of Beni Hassan — The Speos
Artemidos — Shekh Abádeh (Antinoë) — Sculptured Grottoes of
E'Dayr e' Nakhl, Colossus on a Sledge — Reramoon — Oshmoonayn
(Hermopolis) — Gebel Toona — Mellawee — Sculptured
Grottoes and Remains at Tel el Amarna — Dôm Trees — Gebel
Aboofayda — Crocodiles — Ruins at El Hareïb — Crocodile Mummy
Pits of El Maábdeh — Manfaloot — Mankabat — Osioot, sculptured
Route 23. — Osioot to Girgeh — Abooteg (Abutis) — Gow, or Ḳow
el Keber (Antæopolis) — Gebel Shekh Hereedee, Snake — Itfoo,
(Aphroditopolis) — Soohag — The White Monastery, Athribis,
Ruins — Ekhmim (Panopolis), Ruins — Menshéëh (Ptolemaïs
Hermii) — Girgeh or Geergeh — Excursion from Girgeh to Abydus,
Route 24. — Girgeh to Ḳeneh — Bellianeh — Samhood — Farshoot
— The Howára Horsemen — Great Bend of the Nile at How (Diospolis
Parva), few Ruins — Ḳasr e' Syád, old Catacombs — Isle of
Tabenna — Dendera (Tentyris), Temples — The Tentyrites;
Crocodiles — Ḳeneh
Route 25. — Ḳeneh to Thebes — Ballas — Ḳoft (Coptos), few Remains
— Ḳoos (Apollinopolis Parva), few Remains — Shenhoor, a
small Roman Temple — Gamóla — Medamôt, Temple


Preliminary Information. — a. Arrival at Thebes. — b. Quickest mode
of seeing Thebes
1. Temple — Palace of Old Koorneh. — 2. Memnonium, or
Remeseum. — 3. The Two Colossi — The Vocal Memnon. —
4. Rise of the Land. — 5. Temples at Medeenet Háaboo —
The Great Temple; Battle Scenes. — 6. Other Ruins — Lake of
Háaboo. — 7. Tombs of the Queens. — 8. Other Tombs — Small
Brick Pyramid. — 9. Dayr el Medeéneh — 10. Dayr el Báhree. —
11. Tombs of the Kings. — 12. Tombs in the Western Valley. —
13. Tombs of Priests and Private Individuals — Arched Tombs —
The oldest Tombs — Large Tombs of the Assaseéf — Tombs of
Ḳoornet Murraee — Tombs of Shekh Abd-el-Ḳoorneh, the most interesting
at Thebes. — 14. Eastern Bank — Luxor, Temple. —
15. Karnak, Temples — Comparative Antiquity of the Buildings
— Names of the Foreign Kings — Historical Sculptures
Route 26. — Ḳeneh to Ḳossayr by the Moáayleh, or Moileh, Road 398
Route 27. — Ḳeneh to Ḳossayr, by the Russafa road 398
Route 28. — Thebes to Ḳossayr — Several Roads from the Nile to
Ḳossayr — The Russafa Road — Ancient Road and Stations —
Breccia Quarries, small Temple, and Names of Kings in Wadee
Foakhéer — arrival from India at Ḳossayr — Hints for those coming
from India — The Ababdeh Desert — Gold Mines — Ancient
Stations on the Coptos Road to BereniceBerenice — Basanite
Mountain — Nechesia — Leucos Portus — Emerald Mines — Ancient
Road from Contra Apollonipolis to those Mines, small
Temple — The Bisháaree, or Bisharéëh Tribe of Arabs
Route 29. — Thebes to Asouan, the first Cataract, Elephantine,
Sehayl, and Philæ — Erment (Hermonthis), few Remains — Tuot
(Tuphium), small Temple — Crocodilopolis — Tofnées — E'sné (Latopolis),
fine Portico, Zodiac; Almeh women — El Helleh (Contra
Laton) — Pyramid of El Koola — Kom el Aḥmar (Hieraconpolis),
few Ruins — Sandstones — El Kab (Eilethyas), Ruins; Natron;
Curious painted Grottoes — Edfoo (Apollinopolis Magna),
Temples — Hagar Sílsileh (Silsilis), Sandstone Quarries, Grottoes,
and Tablets; The God NilusKom Ombo (Ombos), Temples
— Sandstones and Granites — Asouan (Syene); Supposed Tropical
Well; Saracenic Wall and Tombs; Granite Quarries of Syene;
Syenite — Island of Elephantine; Nilometer — Island of
Seháyl — 1st Cataract — Isle of Philæ, Temples, and other Ruins
— Isle of Biggeh
Preliminary Observations. — a. Conquests of the Egyptians and Romans
above Philæ, and the first Cataract. — b. The modern Nubians,
or Barábras


Route 30. — Asouan (by Philæ) to Derr, by Water — Dabôd (Parembole),
Temple — Old Wall, Column, Remains of a Temple — Gartassee,
small Ruin, Quarry, Stone Enclosure — Wadee Táfa
(Taphis), Stone Ruins — Kalábshee (Talmis), Temple, Inscription
of King Silco, and others — Bayt el Wellee, Temple — Dendoor,
Temple; Sandstone Pier — Gerf Hossáyn (Tutzis), Temple —
Kostamneh, Doorway — Dakkeh (Pselcis), Temple, Ergamenes
king of Ethiopia — Modern Amazons — The White and Blue
(properly black) Nile — Inscriptions, God of Pselcis — Contra
Pselcis, Ruins — Korti, small Ruin — Maharraka (Hierasycaminon),
Ruins — Saboóa, Temple — Bend of the River — El Kharáb —
A'mada, Temple — Derr, the Capital of Nubia, Temple —
Route 31. — Derr to Aboo-Simbel and Wadee Halfeh — Grotto on road
to Ibreem — Tomb near Gattey — Ibreem (Primis Parva), Citadel),
few Remains, Petronius and Candace, Grottoes — Bostán — Reefs at
Tosko — Aboo Simbel (Abôccis?), two fine Temples — Ferayg, small
Temple — Faras — Serra — Wadee Halfeh — Second Cataract —
Samneh, two Temples



a. Journey from England to Egypt. — b. Expenses to Egypt and India by
France. — c. Steamers from Marseilles to Egypt. — d. Steamers from
England by Gibraltar and Malta to Alexandria and India. — e. Quarantine
returning from Egypt.


THE most usual route from England to Egypt is by Gibraltar and
Malta, or through France by Paris and Marseilles, and thence to
Malta and Alexandria. There is another route through Germany
by the Danube to Constantinople, and thence by Syra to Alexandria,
which has been described in the Hand-books of Southern
Germany, and of the East; and those who happen to be in the
vicinity of the Adriatic, and do not wish to cross Italy to Naples
or other ports in direct communication with Malta, may find
their way by the Ionian Islands and Greece to Egypt; or by the
Austrian steamer direct from Trieste to Alexandria.


Though the expenses of a journey depend on the arrangements
made by the traveller, the following, for which I am indebted to a
gentleman who passed through France in 1841, on his way to India,
may give some notion of the charges on the route by Châlons and
Lyons to Marseilles:
sh. fr. sous.
Fare in steam-boat to Boulogne 15 or 18 10
Expenses at Boulogne 17
Passport, passing baggage, &c. 12
Diligence to Paris and dinner 20
Extra for luggage by diligence 9 10
Porters to and from Meurice's 3
Meurice's bill 16
Fare to Châlons by diligence 44
Extra for luggage 12
Porter at Châlons and expenses
on the road
Bill at Châlons 12
Servants at Châlons 2
Passage in steam-boat to Lyons 8
Bill at Lyons 20
Porters to and from hotel 6
Place in diligence to Marseilles 41
Luggage at Marseilles 19
Total from England to Marseilles
or £ 10 12s. 9 1/2d.
266 0
According to another Calculation.
London to Paris 4
In Paris 1
Paris to Châlons 3
Paris to Lyons 1
Paris to Avignon 3
Paris to Marseilles 2
Total from England to
Thence direct to Alexandria 27
Alexandria to Suez 15
Total from London to
From Suez to Bombay
is from 52 to
Making the total to
In returning from India there is an additional expense for
quarantine, which may be calculated at 11l. 10s. for the 17 days at
Malta (or less if shared by two persons), making the total, according
to the second calculation, 139l. 10s.
It may be observed — 1st. That the first of the above calculations
appears to be made on the most economical plan; — 2nd. That in
both, the sum total does not include stoppages on the road, but
allows only for the actual expenses of the direct journey; — 3d.
That 170l. is generally considered necessary for a person leaving
India for England, who intends to travel economically by public
conveyances, or 150l. if taking a deck passage.


French steamers run direct from Marseilles to Egypt, and the
old line by Syra is abandoned.
There is also an English steamer between Marseilles and Malta
which goes once a month to and from Malta, where it meets the
packet coming direct from England. The fare from Marseilles to
Malta is 9l. including board, for a 1st class passenger; that of the
2nd class being 5l., living also included. It leaves Marseilles on the
9th of every month, arriving at Malta early on the third day, or the
12th; and brings with it the London mail for India, which is made
up on the 4th, unless it should happen to fall on a Sunday, when it
is deferred till the following day. By this junction-steamer letters
can be despatched from London three or four days later than by the
packet that goes round by Gibraltar to Malta.
The arrangements of the Mediterranean steamers are frequently
changing; and it is therefore advisable to refer to the Tariffs issued
annually by the different companies.


Steamers leave Southampton to Alexandria and India on the 3rd
and 20th of every month for Alexandria, calling at Gibraltar and
Malta. They are connected with the overland journey to India.
Those who have time to spare may visit Lisbon, and the neighbourhood,
or Cadiz and Seville, by going out in one of the previous
Gibraltar steamers, which leave England every week, (touching at
Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon, and Cadiz, on the way to Gibraltar) and join
the Alexandrian packet, the week or fortnight after, at Gibraltar.
The following is the latest information published by the Peninsular
and Oriental Company respecting their steamers to Egypt and


“First Line. — England to Alexandria, Aden, Bombay, Ceylon, Madras, and
Calcutta, Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong. 20th of every Month.
“The Company's Steamers (vessels of about 1500 tons and 450
horse-power) start from Southampton on the 20th of every month, at
2 P. M., and after calling at Gibraltar and Malta, and receiving at the
latter place the mail of the 24th from England, brought from Marseilles
to Malta by Her Majesty's steamers, arrive at Alexandria in
about sixteen days from Southampton.
Passengers are conveyed through Egypt by the Transit Administration
of his Highness the Pacha of Egypt.
The mode of transit is as follows: — 1st, Alexandria to Atfeh, by
the Mahmoodeeh Canal, in large track boats, towed by a steam-tug
or by horses. (See Route 6.)
2nd, From Atfeh, at the junction of the canal with the Nile, to
Boulak (the port of Cairo), by the river Nile, in steamers. (See
Route 6.)
3rd, Cairo to Suez across the desert; this part of the journey is
performed in carriages. (See Route 7.)
The entire journey from Alexandria to Suez is performed with
ease in about sixty hours, including a night's rest at Cairo, and a
sufficient time for refreshment and repose at the central station between
Cairo and Suez.
The following are extracts from the Tariff of the Transit Administration: —
  • 'Passengers are furnished with three meals per diem, during the time they
    are en route, free of charge, but their expenses at hotels must be defrayed by
    themselves, as also wines, beer, &c. during their entire transit.
  • 'The portmanteaus, trunks, carpet bags, &c. of the passengers, must
    bear the name and destination of the owners; such inscription to be legible and
    well secured.
  • 'On the arrival of each steamer the officer of the administration will attend
    to receive the luggage of passengers.
  • 'The administration will not be responsible for any loss or damage of
    luggage, nor unavoidable detention.
  • 'The administration will at all times endeavour to employ the easiest means
    of conveyance, such as donkey chairs, &c. for invalids and sick persons.”
On arriving at Suez passengers embark on board one of the Company's
steamers for Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta (vessels of about
1,800 tons and 500 horse-power), which start from Suez about the
10th of every month, call first at Aden, where they coal, and transfer
passengers and mails for Bombay to the Honourable East India

Company's steamers; the steamer then proceeds to Ceylon, arriving
there in about seventeen days, at Madras in about twenty-two days,
and at Calcutta in about twenty-seven days from Suez, including
all stoppages.
Passengers for Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong, leave the
main line at Ceylon, and there embark in one of the Company's
branch steamers (vessels of about 1,000 tons and 300 horse-power,)
and which arrive at Penang in about six days, at Singapore in about
nine days, and at Hong Kong in about sixteen days from Ceylon,
including all stoppages.
The length of time therefore of the voyage to India, and China,
by the Overland Route, is as follows: —
England to Bombay 35 days
Ceylon 40 days
Madras 45 days
Calcutta 48 days
Penang 46 days
Singapore 49 days
Hong Kong 56 days
“Second Line. — England to Alexandria, Aden and Bombay, 3d of every
“A second line of the Company's steamers leave Southampton on
the 3rd of every month, for Gibraltar and Malta, where the passengers
and mails are transferred to their steamer ‘Ariel’ for
On arriving at Suez, passengers embark on board the Honourable
East India Company's steamers for Bombay: the length of passage
from England to Bombay is about thirty-five days.
The dates of the departure of the Company's steamers from the
several intermediate ports, are about as follows: —
1st, Line Outwards from Gibraltar 25th of the month.
Malta 31st of the month.
Suez 10th of the month.
Aden 16th of the month.
Ceylon (Galle) 28th of the month.
Madras 1st of the month.
Penang 3rd of the month.
Singapore 6th of the month.
2nd. Line Outwards from Gibraltar 9th of the month.
Malta 14th of the month.
Suez (Honourable East India
Company's Steamer)
25th of the month.
Aden 30th of the month.


First Line. — Calcutta, Madras, Ceylon, Hong Kong, Singapore, Penang,
and Aden to England.
“From Calcutta 10th of the month.
Bombay (Hon. East India Co.'s Steamers) 15th of the month.
Hong Kong 28th of the month.
The Company's steamers start from Calcutta (Sandheads) on the
10th of every month, except in May, June, and July, when they
start on the 5th. From Calcutta they call at Madras, Ceylon, and
Aden, at which last place they receive the Passengers and Mails
(brought so far by the Hon. East India Company's steamers) from
Bombay. From Aden they proceed to Suez.
On landing at Suez, generally about the 7th of the month, passengers
are conveyed through Egypt in the same way as described
in the outward route, and, on arriving at Alexandria, embark on
board the Company's steamer for England, which conveys them to
Southampton, calling at Malta and Gibraltar. There is now no
quarantine upon this line of steamers, and passengers are allowed
to land at once, the vessel merely calling at the Motherbank to
receive pratique.
“Second Line. — Bombay and Aden to England.
“The Honourable East India Company's steamers leave Bombay
1st of every month, except in the months of May, June, and July,
when they leave on the 20th of the month; the length of passage
from Bombay to Suez is about sixteen days.
On arriving at Alexandria, passengers embark on board the Peninsular
and Oriental Company's steamer ‘Ariel,’ for Malta, where
they go on board another of the Company's steamers for Southampton.
The dates of departure of the steamers from the several intermediate ports homewards are about as follows: —
1st Line. Homewards Madras 13th of the month.
Ceylon 17th of the month.
Aden 28th of the month.
Hong Kong 28th of the month.
Singapore 4th of the month.
Penang 8th of the month.
Hon. East India Company's
Bombay 15th of the month.
2nd Line. Hon. East India Company's
Steamers from
Bombay 1st of the month.
Aden 11th of the month.
Peninsular and Oriental Co.'s
Alexandria 19th of the month.
Malta 24th of the month.
Gibraltar 30th of the month.
The Rates of Passage Money. — Passengers for Aden, Ceylon,
Madras, Calcutta, Penang, Singapore, and Hong Kong, are booked
through at the Company's Office, including expenses of transit.
Passengers for Bombay are booked only as far as they are conveyed
by the Company's Steamers, but the cost of the passage
throughout will be found in the table below.
The Rates of Passage Money have been lately greatly reduced,
and are
From England to Aden. Ceylon. Madras. Calcutta.
For a Gentleman 77 113 118 127
For a Lady 82 122 127 136
For a Gentleman and his Wife, a
whole cabin throughout
214 290 299 317
Children with their Parents.
5 years and under 10 50 65 70 80
2 years and under 5 35 45 50 60
Not exceeding 2 years Free. Free. Free. Free.
Servants — European Female 37 46 52 62
European Male 35 44 50 60
Native Female 30 32 38 44
Native Male 26 28 34 40
From England to Bombay. Penang. Singapore. Hong Kong
For a Gentleman 107 134 142 165
For a Lady 112 143 152 175
For a Gentleman and his Wife, a
whole cabin throughout
332 350 396
Children with their Parents.
5 years and under 10 70 75 85
2 years and under 5 50 55 65
Not exceeding 2 years Free. Free. Free.
Servants — European Female 52 57 67
European Male 50 55 65
Native Female 39 44 49
Native Male 35 40 45
These rates will be proportionately increased according to the
class of accommodation required.
The above rates include transit through Egypt, Steward's fees,
and table, wines, &c., for first-class passengers. Bedding, linen,
and all requisite cabin furniture, is provided in the Steamers at the
Company's expense, together with the attendance of experienced
male and female servants.
For large families an allowance will be made in the foregoing
“Baggage. — First-class passengers are allowed, in the Company's
Steamers only
, on either side of the Isthmus, 3 cut. of personal baggage
free of freight, and children and servants 1 1/2 cwt. each. And
passengers will please to take note, that the Company cannot engage
to take any excess of baggage over that quantity, unless
shipped at Southampton three days before starting and freight paid
All baggage must be shipped on the day previous to sailing,
except carpet bags or hat boxes. — All other baggage received on
board on the day of sailing will be considered as extra baggage, and
charged freight as such.
The charge for conveyance of extra baggage, should there be
room in the vessel, will be 2l. per cwt. between Suez and India,
and 1l. per cwt. between England and Alexandria.
Passengers will have to pay the Egyptian Transit Company in
Egypt 16s. per cwt. for conveyance of baggage through, should it
exceed, for first-class passengers, 2 cwt., and children and servants
1 cwt. No package of baggage should exceed 80 lbs. weight.
The best dimensions for a trunk or portmanteau are, length 2 ft.
3 in. — breadth, 1 ft. 2 in. — depth, 1 ft. 2 in.
Every package of baggage should have the owner's name and
place of destination distinctly painted upon it in white letters.
Passengers taking parcels or articles of merchandize in their
baggage will incur the risk of seizure by the Customs' authorities,
and of detention for freight by the Company's agents.
“Passengers for Bombay. — As the Company do not book the
whole way to Bombay, it is well that passengers should know that
they will find no difficulty, or inconvenience, in securing the passage
on, after leaving the Company's ships. If they proceed by the 1st
Line (20th of every month), they have merely to pay on board the
Honourable East India Company's Steamers at Aden, for the passage
from Aden to Bombay. If they proceed by the 2nd Line (3rd

of the month), they will have to pay for the transit through Egypt,
on arriving at Alexandria, and on arriving at Suez will have to pay
on board the Honourable East India Company's Steamers there for
their passage from Suez to Bombay.
The expenses of transit through Egypt are as under: —
From Alexandria to Suez, and vice versâ.
A Lady In Vans across the Desert. £12
A Gentleman 12
A Child above 10 years 12
A Child of 5 years and under 10 8
A Child of 2 years and under 5 6
A Child under 2 years free
A European Female Servant 10
A European Man Servant or Mechanic 8
A Native Female Servant 8
A Native Man Servant on a Dromedary or
The Honourable East India Company's Rates of Passage Money
are as under: —
For a Gentleman £55 0 0
For a Lady 60 0 0
For a Gentleman £27 10 0
For a Lady 30 0 0
The addition of the rate from Aden to Bombay (should the passenger
proceed by the 1st Line, 20th of the month), to the rate
charged by the Peninsular and Oriental Company from England to
Aden, will give the whole expense of the passage from England to
Bombay; and in the case of a passenger proceeding by the 2nd Line
(3rd of the month), the addition of 40l. (the Company's rate to Alexandria)
to the Transit rate, and the Honourable East India Company's
charge from Suez to Bombay, will also give the total amount
of passage money.”


By going direct in the Steamers from Alexandria to England, the
quarantine is avoided, and pratique is given on reaching the
Motherbank, provided they have a clean bill of health; the voyage
in like manner counts in going by the Austrian Steamers to Trieste.
Those who intend visiting Southern Italy will probably stop at

Malta, where the quarantine is less irksome than in most places.
The full quarantine with a clean bill of health is 24 days, but the
voyage reduces this number to 19, and it will probably soon be
less than at present; but when the plague is at Alexandria it is
increased to 22 and upwards.
Shortly after the steamer is anchored in the quarantine harbour,
an officer comes alongside to inquire about the number of the passengers,
in order to prepare for their accommodation in the lazaretto,
and fix upon the part they are to occupy. They then go ashore to
choose their rooms, leaving their baggage, properly packed up, to
follow after them. The traveller must make up his mind to be detained
some time before each person is satisfied, and he will be
fortunate if the passengers are few. When numerous, there is often
a scramble for rooms, and two persons are put into the same bed-room.
A sitting-room is not given except as a favour, or when
there are few passengers; but it is not refused to a party of five
or six persons who intend to dine together. If without a servant,
the first thing after securing rooms is to take one, who may be engaged
beforehand by writing to a friend at Malta, or may be found
at the door of the lazaretto; where many come to offer their services,
with letters of recommendation from former masters, which
may be read but not touched. When engaged, they come into
quarantine and perform the same number of days as their master.
They are paid 1s. 8d. a day wages, and 7d. a day for living. Two
or three persons may employ one servant between them. The necessity
of a servant is very evident, when it is remembered that no
guardian is allowed to render the stranger any services beyond those
demanded by lazaretto duties, and there is no one to bring him a
drop of water. Nor can the porters who carry his luggage from the
boat on hand-trucks touch any thing, as they are in pratique, and
all must be put on and taken off by the person himself, or his servant.
This is sufficiently explained in the quarantine regulations,
of which the following is a copy: —

General Regulations to be observed by all Persons performing
Quarantine in the Lazaretto of Malta.

  • 1. All passengers on landing are to give their names to the captain
    of the lazaretto, which are to be entered in the registry of
    the office.
  • 2. The captain of the lazaretto will assign apartments for passengers,
    and each passenger will be provided with two chairs, a table,
    and a wooden bedstead, for which no charges are made; but any

    damage done by the passengers to the apartments or furniture is to
    be made good by them before pratique.
  • 3. Passengers are not to be permitted to enter other apartments;
    nor can they be allowed to receive visitors except at the Palatorio
    of the lazaretto, and that only during office hours; nor are they to
    trespass the limits assigned to them by the captain of the lazaretto.
  • 4. Passengers must pay a strict attention to all the instructions
    they may receive from the captain of the lazaretto, and from the
    health guardians, and particularly in every point that regards their
    baggage, clothes, &c., being properly aired and handled during the
    period of their quarantine, and their quarantine will only commence
    to reckon from the day on which all their baggage, clothes,
    &c. have been duly opened and handled.
  • 5. All letters and parcels, or other effects brought by passengers,
    must be given up, in order that they may be fumigated or depurated
    separately from them as the occasion may require.
  • 6. All cases of sickness must be reported immediately to the
    captain of the lazaretto, and all persons sick are to be visited immediately
    by the physician to the lazaretto, after which official
    visit passengers are at liberty to avail themselves of any medical
    attendance they think proper.
  • 7. Passengers are to pay the government fee for the guardians
    employed to attend them, for the number of days of their quarantine,
    at the following rates: viz. at 1s. 3d. per day for the guardian who
    attends one passenger; and at 2s. 6d. per day for each guardian who
    attends more than one passenger. They are to victual the guardian
    or guardians during their quarantine, or to pay to each guardian
    an allowance of 7d. per day in lieu thereof. It is to be clearly
    understood that the guardians are employed solely for quarantine
    purposes, and they are strictly prohibited to interfere in any other
    service whilst they attend passengers.
  • 8. The office hours at the lazaretto are from 8 A.M. to 12, and
    from 2 P.M. to 5 daily; and all letters sent to the fumigating room
    before 9 A.M. daily will be delivered in Valetta at 10, and those sent
    before 3 will be delivered in Valetta at 4 P.M. by the letter messenger,
    who is entitled to receive from the passengers 1d. for each note,
    parcel, or letter, as a remuneration for his trouble and for boat-hire.
  • 9. A daily report of all circumstances is to be made by the captain
    of the lazaretto to the superintendent of quarantine and marine
Superintendent of Quarantine and Marine Police.
N.B. A trattoria has been established at the lazaretto for the
convenience of passengers who wish to avail themselves of it, from
whence they can be supplied with dinners, wines, &c. &c. in their
own apartments.
Beds complete and other articles of furniture, if required, can
also be hired from a person appointed to provide them.
A note of charges for the trattoria, and for the hire of furniture,
will be furnished to the passengers on their applying for it.
The next point, or perhaps the first, is to order breakfast or
dinner from the restaurateur; who has a trattoria in the lazaretto,
though he is in pratique, and brings over provisions every morning
from the town. He will present every one with a tariff of prices,
which are as follows: —


  • Fixed Prices for Breakfast and Dinner for a Single Person.
  • 1. Breakfast at 1s. 2d.
    Tea or coffee with milk (at pleasure).
    Two eggs.
  • 2. Breakfast at 1s. 8d.
    Tea or coffee with milk (at pleasure).
    One dish of hot or cold meat or fish.
    Two eggs.
  • 3. Dinner at 3s.
    Soup, fish, or boiled beef (at pleasure).
    One entrée.
    One roast.
    One vegetable dish.
  • 4. Dinner at 4s. 4d.
    Soup, fish or boiled beef (at pleasure).
    One entrée.
    One roast.
    One sweet dish.
    Two dishes of vegetables.
N. B. — Passengers will be supplied with table-cloths and dinner services,
but they are to pay for any article missing, broken, or in any manner
destroyed. Gentlemen wishing to alter the disposition of the above
detailed dinners, are requested to inform the innkeeper, that the prices
may be altered accordingly. Families having children pay according to
If a dinner should be ordered for five or six persons, the innkeeper will give
two entrées in lieu of one without charging for the additional entrée.
When four or five persons club together, the restaurateur will
make an arrangement to provide dinner and breakfast at a lower
rate, and charge only 3s. 6d. each person for the two; giving soup,
fish, 2 entrées, 1 roast, 2 dishes of vegetables, 2 of fruit and bread,
and the same breakfast as in No. 1.; sufficient remaining from the
dinner for three servants. Wine and all other extras had better be
sent for from the town.
Those who have their batterie de cuisine, a good cook, and other
requisites, may find it more comfortable to cook at home; and a
spenditore, or caterer, will supply every thing required from
Valetta. This would be far preferable for those who wish to dine
late; as it is with great difficulty that the restaurateur can be prevailed
upon to give dinner as late as 5 o'clock, his hour being
usually 4.
The next point is the furniture of the rooms. The government
allow for each person a table, two chairs, a bedstead, and wooden
horses for airing his things, gratis; and the only payment is 1s. 3d.
a day for the guardian, and 7d. for his living. The upholsterer's
low charges for hired furniture show how unnecessary it is to be encumbered
with any of the articles mentioned there. But I should
not recommend a traveller to abstain from carrying with him whatever
he may want for his journey, from any dread of the trouble of
putting it out on the horses, on which all his things must be aired
during his stay in the lazaretto. The bedstead furnished by government
is frequently made into a sort of divan, or given to a servant,
and an iron bedstead with mosquito curtains is hired with the other
things mentioned in the following list: —
J. Antony and Lewis Garcin, Brothers, supply articles of furniture
to passengers at the lazaretto and Fort Manoel, at the following
rates: —
Iron bedstead with mosquito curtain 2 1/2 per day.
A mattress and two pillows 3
A paliass 0 1/2
A pair of sheets 1
A pair of pillow cases 0 1/2
Coverlids, each 0 1/2
Small mat, bed-side table, &c. 0 1/2
Wash-hand table complete, and tub 1
Dressing table and looking glass 0 1/2
N.B. Passengers taking the whole set of furniture will only pay 8d.
a day.
Extra furniture may be had, if required, at the following prices
during the quarantine: —
s. d.
For a large mat 3 0
a sofa 5 0
an easy chair 2 6
a screen 3 0
Passengers are to pay for any article of furniture missing, torn,
or in any manner damaged or destroyed.
If travellers happen to have any furniture with them, they can
easily dispose of it, when they leave the lazaretto, or send it by sea
to England; and those who have carried a canteen, cooking things,
and table services on their journey, may as well use them in
There are two lazarettos at Malta. That of Fort Manoel is by
far the most comfortable.
The rooms in the lazaretto of Malta are not large, but they are
sufficiently so for one person, and they have the comfort of fire-places,
which, in winter, is a very great point. They are given
gratis, and not as at the Piræus, with the exorbitant charge of 5s. a
day, as if the punishment of imprisonment were not sufficient; for
Quarantine has been justly defined “imprisonment, with the
chance of catching the plague.”
There is one thing very deficient at Malta, the means of transporting
luggage from the beach to the lazaretto, which might be
easily improved, and calls loudly for the attention of all who have
the direction of these matters. A traveller who has no servant finds
himself on the beach without any one to move his things: even if
the sailors are willing to take them to his room, he must wait a long
time, until the boat has landed the whole luggage. Each box has
to be carried some distance; and if he is the last served, he may
have to wait several hours before all his things are removed from
the shore to the lazaretto.
Every one on entering the lazaretto is obliged to unpack all his
things, and put them out on wooden horses, during the whole time
of his stay, the last three days excepted, which are allowed for packing
up; and his quarantine does not begin to count until they have
been so exposed. All sealed letters or packages must also be opened,
unless he chooses to give up the former, and have them forwarded,
after proper fumigation, by the post. Any thing may be sent for
from the town, but nothing can be returned, unless it can pass uninjured
through the process of fumigation. The guardians are

obliged every now and then to inspect the rooms, to see that the
things have been laid out and properly exposed to the air. Great
care must be taken to avoid touching any one not in quarantine, as
he would be condemned to pass the same number of days in the
lazaretto as the person so compromising him, who would have to
pay all his expenses; and these he might increase to any amount,
in revenge for his confinement. Equal care should be taken not to
come in contact with any new comer, after a portion of the quarantine
is over; as the person touched would be doomed to an additional
imprisonment, or the same number of days that the other had still
to keep quarantine.
As things cannot be sent to the wash out of the lazaretto, it is
necessary to engage a washerwoman from the town, unless the
traveller has a servant who can perform this office. The washerwoman
is, of course, subject to the same number of days' quarantine
that remain to be performed by her employer, after the time of
her coming into the lazaretto. She is paid 1s. 8d. a day; and for
soap and labour, according to the things washed. If a party join
together, they may share the expenses.
The total expense of quarantine, for living, furniture, guardians,
one servant, a washerwoman during the whole time (which is unnecessary),
letters, coffee, fruit, and other extras for lunch or supper,
for one person is about 11l. 10s., without wine. For two persons,
or a party, less, or about 9l.; for a large party much less, or between
6l. and 7l. each, the guardians then being charged only 11s. 4d.
each person.
Visits may be received during the day, at the parlatorio from
8 A. M., or even 6 A. M., till sunset. The parties stand at a barrier,
separated from each other about 10 feet; but, as a favour, they are
sometimes permitted to sit in the adjoining court, a certain distance
apart, attended by a guardiano, to see that they do not touch each
other, or pass anything out of quarantine.
A person who is alone, and can find friends willing to join him in his
confinement, may obtain quarters for them in the lazaretto. Another
privilege is being allowed to bathe in the sea every morning from
6 till 8, under the surveillance of a guardiano.
On taking pratique, you have only to send your things down to a
boat, and across the harbour to the Marsa Muchétt stairs, from
which they will be carried by porters to the hotel. For taking them
from the rooms in the lazaretto to the boat, you pay according to
the quantity of luggage. For two boxes and two portmanteaus, for
instance, 1s. 6d., which is ample. The boatmen will probably endeavour
to impose on a stranger, but he should remember that the

hire of a boat across the harbour is only 2d. each person; and if 6d.
be given for two persons with their luggage, it is more than enough.
This is the price of a boat when hired for a whole hour; and the
same is paid to a guardiano, who accompanies any one on a visit to
a friend in the lazaretto. You cannot pay a boat for less than half
the hour, when taken by time.
Porters at Malta are far more troublesome than boatmen, who are
generally very civil and easily satisfied. They are generally paid
6d. for each package, but if very heavy 8d., 10d., and sometimes 1s.
There are also carts with one horse, which will take a load from the
Marina to the main street for the same sum. With regard to a
number of small packages, I recommend a traveller always to have
as few as possible; it is better to put things together in a single
box, or case, than to have many little parcels, which are easily lost,
and give an infinity of trouble in looking after; and if it is thought
necessary to have several of these encumbrances, they had better be
put together into a bag when carried from place to place. The less
baggage one has the better. Have as many comforts as possible in
a small space, but no superfluities. No better name was ever
applied to any thing than “impedimenta” to “baggage” by the
Romans; and an old traveller will always have all he requires very
compactly put away in a small compass.
In landing from a ship in the great harbour, as, for instance, from
the Marseilles, Naples, or Gibraltar steamers, the best plan is to order
the boatmen to take you to the “custom-house,” and on landing
your things, give him 1s., which is liberal pay (in spite of his pretending
to be dissatisfied), and call for one of the many carts that
are always kept ready close to the spot. Your baggage being put
upon it, take care to accompany, or to send your servant with it;
and on arriving at the hotel dismiss the cart with 1s., and the porters
who have loaded it, and carried the things to your rooms, with
another. They would not be satisfied with 58., or any other sum;
but of this no notice need be taken, being well paid; and the assumption
of discontent is part of their profession.
In the great harbour the hire of boats is, — from the Nix Mangiare
stairs, or the Calcara gate, to the ships, or to the dockyard,
— 2d. there, and the same back: and from this harbour to St.
Julian's Bay, Is. You may pay more if you like, and give 6d. instead
of 2d. At night the prices are increased.
Hotels at Malta. — The best hotels in Valetta are, Morell's, in
Strada Forni; Dunsford's, in Strada Reale; Madame Goubeau's, ot

the Clarence, in the same street; and the Victoria, in Strada Giovanni,
opposite St. John's church. The smaller ones are, Vicary's,
in Strada Vescovo, looking upon the Parade, lately taken by another
person, and fitted up under the name of the Princess Royal Hotel;
the Hotel de la Mediterranée, in Strada Reale; the Hotel d'Orient,
in Strada Teatro; and a few others of less note.
Morell's is very comfortable, and the prices there and at Dunsford's
are about the same. Madame Goubeau's is the only hotel
with a table d'hôte, which is at 5 o'clock in summer and 6 in
winter, and is pretty good. The house has the advantage of hot
and cold baths. The Mediterranée is small, but has the reputation
of having by far the best cuisine; it is therefore much frequented as
a restaurant, and the prices are moderate. At Morell's a bed-room,
furnished to answer also as a sitting-room, is charged 3s. a day:
breakfast, of tea, bread and butter, and eggs, Is. 6 d.; with toast
and coffee, 2s., with meat, &c., 2s. 6d.: plain dinner, with soup,
meat, &c., 3s., and with side dish, 4s.: tea, 6d., and with bread and
butter, 1s.
Dunsford's is about the same, or a little cheaper.
At the Clarence, a bed-room 2s., and bed-room with small sitting-room
4s., larger apartments paying in proportion: breakfast 1s.
and 1s. 6d.: private dinner 3s. to 4s., and at table d'hôte 2s. 6d.,
exclusive of wines.
There are also lodging-houses, many of which are very comfortable:
two belonging to Dunsford, in Strada Forni, and Strada
Zecca: Morelli's, in Strada Reale, close to the church of Santa
Catharina; and one or two more in Strada Forni. They are well
adapted for persons intending to make some stay in Malta, and
then it is better to come to an agreement, according to the time.
The usual price of a bed-room and sitting-room is about 5s. a day,
and small rooms are charged 3s. The average price of dinner is 4s.,
and breakfast 1s. 6d.
English money is the current coin in Malta, from a sovereign to
a farthing.
Carriages and Horses. — Carriages, with a pair of horses, let at
45 dollars a month; a pair of horses, without carriage, 40 dollars;
by the day, 3 dollars; half a day, 1 1/2 dollar. A saddle-horse for the
whole day, 5s. to 6s.; half a day, 2s. 6d.; from 9 A. M. until evening
4s. to 5s.; from 9 to 2 o'clock, 3s. to a dollar; and from 3 o'clock
till 9, 2s. 6d. to 3s. If you keep a calesse with one horse, the food
of the horse will cost 10d. a day; and the calessier, besides attending

to the horse and carriage, is expected to wash the floor of your
house — an instance of the multifarious occupations of servants in
this part of the world.
Sights at Malta. — There are few objects worthy of a visit at
Malta. The principal in the town of Valetta are the palace, the
government library, the cathedral church of St. John, the fortifications,
the view from the two Baraccas, and the palaces of the
knights, called Auberges, particularly those of Castille and Provence.
In the palace are the armoury, a few good pictures, and some
curious tapestry. Many of the apartments are good, and not less
so the ball-room.
The armoury is well arranged, but the specimens of armour are
not so curious, nor so varied, as might be expected in the city of the
knights. The complete suit of Vignacourt is very elegant and
simple. It is the same he wore when painted by Caravaggio in a
picture in the dining-room, a copy of which is placed above it.
There is a large suit near the other end of the room, that appears,
from its immense weight, not to have been worn: and not far from
this is a very primitive field-piece, made of copper bound round
with ropes, over which a composition of lime was put, cased in
The Turkish arms are few, and remarkable neither for beauty
nor curiosity; which is singular in a place so long at war with the
Osmanlis and the Moors. The library was founded in 1790 by the
Bailli de Tencin, who presented the public with 9700 volumes. It
contains many curious and old works, and is composed of the private
collections of the knights, who were obliged to bequeath their
books to this public institution. Here are deposited some antiques
of various kinds found in Malta and Gozo; among which are a
parallel Greek and Punic inscription, several strange headless
figures from Crendi, two curious coffins of terra-cotta, and a few
other objects of various styles and epochs.
Of St. John's Church the most curious part is the floor, where the
arms of all the grand masters are inlaid in various coloured marbles.
They have been very useful for heraldry.
The tapestry of this church is also very fine. It is put up at the
fête of St. John, and continues to be exposed to public view for
several days, before and after that ceremony. The silver railing in
the chapel of the Madonna, at the east end, is curious. It is said to
have owed its preservation, at the time of the French occupation of

the island, to the paint that then concealed the valuable quality of
its materials.
In one of the side chapels is a picture by Michael Angelo Caravaggio,
representing the beheading of St. John; a good painting,
but badly preserved, It is said that the artist made this a present
to the order, on condition of being created a knight of Malta, in
consequence of the following occurrence: — One of the knights
having offended the artist, the latter challenged him to single combat,
and satisfaction being refused, on the plea of his not being
worthy to meet his antagonist in a duel, Caravaggio sought to obtain
a position which should entitle him to this right. He therefore applied
to the grand master, in the hopes of obtaining the rank of
knight; which was granted, on condition of painting this picture.
It was done, he became a knight, and fought his duel; but in order
to diminish as much as possible the value of a work, which the pride
of a member of the order had condemned him to execute, he painted
the picture on cotton instead of canvas, whence its decayed state,
and the difficulty of its restoration. Such is the story at Malta, the
truth of which may be doubted; though the most important point is
true that he painted the picture.
In the crypts below the cathedral are the tombs of some of the
grand masters.
The principal objects in the vicinity of Valetta and in the country
are the ruins near Crendi, or Casal Crendi, the hollow called the
Devil's Punch Bowl, or Maklúba, St. Paul's Bay, Citta Vecchia and
the Catacombs, the Garden of Boschetto, the Governor's Villa of
San Antonio, the Grotto of Calypso, and the Aqueduct built by the
Grand Master Vignacourt in 1610.
These have been so frequently described that I shall only mention
the ruins near Casal Crendi, excavated by order of the governor, Sir
Henry Bouverie, in 1839-40. They are about twenty minutes'
walk from that village, and are called Hagar Ḳeem, “the upright
stone.” This name has been very improperly written Khem, and
has been supposed to bear some relation to Egypt, or the land of
Ham (Khem). They consist of several apartments of various sizes,
irregularly placed within one common enclosure, mostly connected
with each other by passages or doorways. The rooms are either oval,
or have one end of semicircular form; and their walls are composed
of large stones placed upright in the ground, or in horizontal
courses. The principal entrance is on the S. S. E. A short passage
leads from it into a small court, in which, on the left hand side,
is a small altar ornamented with a rude attempt at sculpture, representing

a plant growing from a flower-pot; and near it is a flat
stone like a seat, above which are engraved on an upright block two
volutes, protruding on either side of an oval body. There are no
other signs of sculpture; but a peculiar kind of ornament is common
on these and all the principal members of the building, consisting
of round holes punctured all over the surface of the stones,
extending little deeper than the surface.
On either side of this court is a semicircular chamber; and after
passing on, through a door in a line with the main entrance, you
come to a second court, at the upper end of which to the right is
the principal sanctuary. It is of semicircular form, and its walls
are built of stones placed in horizontal courses, put together with
care, and breaking joint.
Within this is a smaller enclosure of stones, placed upright in a
circle, with an entrance corresponding to that of the room itself.
All the stones of the sanctuary have been punctured in the manner
above mentioned.
On the left of this second court are two large stone altars; one
on each side of a door leading to a small apartment, connected with
which is another little chamber, also containing an altar. There
are four more apartments at this (south-west) end of the ruins;
and in the outer wall of circuit are some very large stones placed
upright, about 15 ft. high above the ground. A stone of similar
size stands near the sanctuary to the north-east, and another of still
larger dimensions is placed horizontally a little to the east of the
main entrance.
About 120 ft. to the north of these ruins are other semicircular enclosures,
made with stones placed upright in the ground; and about
a mile to the south, near the sea, are some ruins similar to the
Hagar Ḳeem, which are also deserving of examination.
In the same excursion may be included a visit to Maklúba, and
even to the cave called Ghar Hassan on the sea-coast to the southeast
of Crendi.
Other ruins of a similar kind are found close to Valetta, at the
Coradino, near Captain Spenser's monument and the new tank,
which may be visited at the same time.
With regard to the date of these peculiar structures and the
people by whom they were built, I will not pretend to offer any
opinion. Their general appearance has rather a druidical character,
and from their antiquity and the occupation of the island by the
Phœnicians, we might attribute them to that people; but the absence
of all inscriptions leaves the matter in uncertainty, and the small

headless figures discovered there (now preserved in the Government
library at Valetta) in no way aid in solving the question.
In Gozo is another ruin called Torre dei Giganti, “the Giants
Tower,” inland on the eastern side of the island, which is on a
grander scale than the ruins of Crendi, though of similar construction,
and evidently the work of the same people.
Rowing and sailing boats go over to Gozo from Valetta daily,
and sometimes a small yacht may be hired for the occasion, which
is cleaner and more comfortable.
Valetta has a small theatre, where Italian operas are performed
during the season. Many public and private balls are also given,
particularly in the winter.


Page 86. line 18., for “had not happened,” read “had happened.”
218. second column, 4th line from bottom, for “20 monks” read
“30 monks.”
293. first column, 3rd line from bottom, on the word “Omar,” insert
the following note: — “I understand the river now flows again
at the foot of the hill, where the caves are, which may be
reached in ten minutes from the boat.”



Preliminary Information.

1 London to Alexandria 71
2 Alexandria to Rosetta by
3 Rosetta to Atfeh, and Cairo,
by water
4 Alexandria to Cairo, by land,
through the Delta
5. Alexandria to Cairo, by the
Western Bank
6 Alexandria to Atfeh and
Cairo, by the Canal and
the Nile
1. Arrival at Alexandria. 2. Hotels. 3. Servants. 4. Boats. 5.
Things to be purchased at Alexandria for the Journey to Cairo. 6. History
of Alexandria. 7. Plan of Alexandria, and Site and description of the
Buildings. 8. Monuments outside the Canopic Gate. 9. Present Remains
of Ancient Alexandria. 10. Its Size and Importance. 11. Inhabitants.
12. Climate, Lake Mareotis and Canals. 13. The two Ports, Gates, Walls,
and Old Docks. 14. Mosks and other Buildings. 15. Amusements and
Sights at Alexandria.


The best season for visiting Egypt is October, when the cool weather begins,
and the northerly winds prevail; and boats may then go up the Nile
without the impediments of calms and contrary winds. At the beginning of
that month the traveller may have an opportunity of witnessing the curious

aspect of the inundation, which, when it rises very high, gives the villages of
the Delta the appearance described by Herodotus, of islands in the sea.
Almost every season may be considered favourable for seeing Egypt, but
good winds from April to July are not to be expected, and the comparative
prevalence of southerly and other adverse winds in May make it the worst
month in the whole year. It is then, too, that the Khamsín winds blow, which
begin about the 2nd of May, and prevail for fifty days, as the name implies.
It is not that they blow every day, but this period is more subject to them
than any other. The worst are from the S.E. The first day of the Khamsin
is called Shemt e' neseem, or “the smelling of the zephyr,” when the people
smell at an onion, and go into the gardens; frequently to be nearly suffocated
by the sand and dust raised by these strong hot winds. Though the thermo-meter
does not range as high as in the three following months, or the beginning
of September, the heat is more oppressive and disagreeable during this
season, and of all others it is the least advisable for a voyage up the Nile.
In choosing a time for going to Egypt, much will depend on the destination
of a traveller after leaving it. If he is going into Syria, it may be too
long for him to remain in Egypt from October till April, before which it is
too cold to travel comfortably in Syria.
All the winter months are good for going up the Nile, and if he intends
making any stay in the country he may choose his own time; but in that
case he had better arrive in October. Twenty days may be reckoned a fair
average for the voyage from Cairo to Thebes; with fair winds, it is possible
to go from Thebes to the second Cataract and back again in a fortnight, though
this is rarely done; and the least time for seeing Egypt conveniently, is three months.
As a general rule, a traveller should always make it a point to see every
thing when he can, and not put it off for a second visit, which may be prevented
by some unforeseen impediment; but in ascending the Nile it is as
well to go on direct as long as the wind is favourable, and only stop if it
fails at a spot where there is anything to be seen. At Thebes, however, I
should recommend his staying two or three days in going up, to look over
the ruins: in order that, after having taken a general view of them, he may
know what to go and examine in detail, on his return from Nubia or the
Cataracts. I may also observe, that if a steamer is ever established on the
Nile to run between Cairo and Thebes, a traveller who is interested in antiquities
should only take advantage of it for going up the river. He should
quit it at Thebes, and order a dehabéëh or cangia to be sent up for him to
that place to bring him back to Cairo; when he can stop, as he likes, at the
different ruins on his way down, without being hurried from one to the
Besides, the speed and certainty of the steamer's passage is only an object
in going up the stream, as a rowing boat can always come down in about
eight days from Thebes, and in it the traveller has all the comfort of a boat
to himself, going or stopping at his own option, and the great advantage of
being independent. The cangia may be either bespoken by him before leaving
Cairo, and even sent off then, or be engaged afterwards by a friend, according
to the time he intends staying at Thebes.
It is impossible to say what the expense of a journey in Egypt may be;
that will of course depend upon each individual; but it may be reckoned at
about 60l. for three months, if with a companion; or 80l. if alone; and this
may be diminished by making arrangements respecting the outfit at Cairo.


Before leaving Malta, it will be better to make purchases of certain things
more or less necessary in Egypt, according to the wants of each individual.
I shall therefore give a list of those most useful to a traveller, marking such
as should be taken from Europe with an E, those which may be obtained at
Alexandria with an A, and those which need not be bought before reaching
(or, which are better, at) Cairo, with a C. (See Route 1. No. 5. and Sect. 2. u.)
Jug and basin, E. or A.: if of copper
and in the Turkish style, at A. or C.
Mats, one or two at A., and others at
Carpets (Segádee), A. or C. (See
Route 1. No. 5.)
Common soap, A. or C.
Lamp, E. or cloth fanóos, A. or C.
Kitchen-cloths, E. or A.
Towels and table-cloths, E.
Sheets, horse-hair mattrass, pillows,
and pillow-cases, &c., E.
To those who wish to be entirely protected at night from intruders, I cannot
do better than recommend a contrivance of Mr. Levinge's, which he imagined
during his travels in the East, and which is equally adapted to a boat, a house,

or a tent. It consists of a pair of sheets (a), about six feet long, sewed
together at the bottom and the two sides, except where the piece (c) is attached

to them, and by which
you get in. To the
upper end (d) is added
a thin piece of
muslin, serving as a
mosquito net (b),
which is drawn tight
at the end by a tape or
string, serving to suspend
it to a nail (f).
A short way from the
end (at e) are fastened
loops, through which
a cane is threaded, to
form a circle for distending
the net. This
cane is in three pieces,
about three feet long,
fitting into each other
by sockets. After getting in by the opening of c you draw the tape tight to
close its mouth, and tuck it in under the mattrass, and you are secure from
intruders, whether sleeping at night, or sitting under it by day. Over the
part a, the blankets, or coverlid, are put.
Two or three blankets, E., or buttanéeh
at A. which will fold into
four. (See Route 1. No. 5.)
Mosquito net, E.
Iron bedstead to fold up, E.
Or a Cafass bedstead, C.
Gridiron, E. or C., (if thought necessary.)
20 okas of potatoes, A. or C.
Tobacco, A. or C.
Pipes, C.
Wire for cleaning pipes, put into a
reed, C.
Some tow for the same purpose, C.
Mouth-pieces and pipe-bowls, C.
A taḵḵatooḵa, or a brass plate, called
Sennéeh, and wire cover for pipe-bowl,
are useful, A. or C.
Salt, pepper, &c., A. or C.
Oil, and distilled vinegar, E. or C.
Butter, C.
Flour, C.
Rice, C.
Maccaroni. A. or C.
Coffee, C.
Portable soup and meats, E.
Cheese, A. or C., or English cheese, E.
Mishmish apricots, C.
Ḵumredeen apricots, C.
Tea, E. or A.
Wine, brandy, &c., E. or A. White
wine I believe to be better in a hot
climate than red.
Spermaceti candles, E. or A.
Table with legs to fold up, and top to
take off, E. or A.
Foot tub (of tin or copper), &c., E.
Washing tub, E.
Flag, E. or A. (for boat on Nile).
Small pulley and rope for flag, E. or A.
Coffee-pot, E. or A.
Small búkrag, or Turkish coffee-pot,
A. or C.
Tea-kettle, E., or a tin one at A.
Plates, knives and forks, spoons, glasses,
tea things, &c., in canteen, E.
A large bukrag might serve as tea-kettle
and for boiling eggs, &c., A.
Copper saucepans, one to fit into the
other (Hellel fee Kulbe-bād), may
be bought at A.; buy them not
tinned, in order to see if they are
Copper pan for stewing (Ṯáwa), A.
Baskets for holding these and other
things, A.
Candlesticks, E.
Bardaks (Goollel), or water bottles, C.
Zeer, or jar, for holding water, C.
Almond paste (rooág or terwéeg) for
clarifying water, C.
Some tools, nails, and string, E.
A Ḵadóom may serve as hammer and
hatchet, C.
Charcoal in mats, C.
Two fire-places (mungud), A. In the
boat going up the Nile have a set
put together in a large fire-place
with a wooden back; the whole will
cost about 54 piastres, if well made,
Small bellows, E., or fan, at A. or C.
Fez caps (tarboosh, tarabeesh) A. or C.
Manásheh, fly-flap, A. or C.
Cafass, or kafass, a coop for fowls,
with moveable drawer at the bottom,
in order that it may be kept
clean, A. or C.
White, or light-coloured boots or
shoes, being cooler, and requiring
no blacking, E.
Red Turkish slippers, C.
Biscuit, E. or C., or bread twice
baked, C. The bread in the villages
in Upper Egypt will not
please every one; but very good
bread is to be had at Thebes (Ḵoorneh),
and that of Osioot and some
other large towns is by no means
Small tin cases for holding coffee,
sugar, salt, pepper, &c., A.
Ballási, or earthen jars for flour, rice,
butter, and other things which rats
might eat, are useful, C.
Candles in boxes, or in tin cases, but
if in the latter not to be exposed to
the sun, E. or C.
Broom called maḵásheh, and a tin,
for sweeping cabin, C.
Gun, powder, and shot, &c., E.
Ink, paper, pens, &c., E.
Camp-stool and drawing table, E.
Umbrella lined with a dark colour for
the sun, E.
Drawing paper, pencils, rubber, &c.,
and colours, in tin box of Winsor
and Newton, E.
A saddle and bridle for Syria and
Tent (if required), ladder, and cushions,
may all be made at Cairo.
Telescope, E.
Thermo-meter, mountain barometer,
if required, E.
Measuring-tape and foot-ruler, E.
For observations, a sextant and artificial
horizon, or rather, Captain
Kater's Repeating Circle, chronometer,
&c., E.
Curtains for boat, of common or other
cotton stuff, A. or C.
A packing-needle or two, and some
string, thin ropes, needles, thread,
buttons, &c, are useful: E., A.,
or C.
A filterer is not necessary. Ḵeneh
jars and goollel, or earthen water
bottles, supply its place.
A zemzeméëh, or water bottle of Russian
leather, for the desert, or even
for excursions to the ruins; though
for the latter goollel will answer
very well, without any trouble, C.
The seams must be first of all rubbed
with a mixture of melted tallow
and wax, and when this dries the
Zemzeméëh may be filled; but afterwards
it must never be left
without some water in it. Another
precaution, when on an excursion,
for preserving the water, is to insist
on the servants not drinking it.
A donkey, if he intends taking a large
boat from Cairo, or, at all events,
a donkey saddle, but no bridle, the
asses of Upper Egypt not having
any knowledge of such a luxury, C.
As many eatables, which will keep, as
he likes, most of which may be had
at Cairo. Portable soups, or meat,
&c., preserved in tins, may be
brought from England as occasional
An iron rat-trap for the boat, E.
Two sheets of Mackintosh, about 7
feet square, with loops here and
there, against damp ground and
rain, are very useful, especially in
the desert and in Syria.
With regard to instruments, they should, when it is possible, be of the
same materials throughout, wood and metal combined ill according with the
heat of an Egyptian climate; and in the top and bottom of the cases nails, or
screws answer better than glue.
In his medicine chest, the most necessary things for a traveller are, scales,
and liquid-measure, lancet, diachylon and blistering plaster, lint, salts, rhubarb,
cream of tartar, ipecacuanha, sulphate of bark or quinine, James's and
Dover's powders, calomel, laudanum or morphine, sugar of lead, sulphate of
zinc, nitrate of silver, and sulphate of copper (these 4 being of great use in
ophthalmia), nitre, oil of peppermint, and other common medicines. They
had better be brought from Europe, though they may be had in Alexandria
or Cairo. Powders and other medicines should be put into bottles, well
closed with glass stoppers.
Nearly all the above-mentioned things may, indeed, be found in Egypt,
but they are better and cheaper in Europe: many, too, will be thought
unnecessary by many travellers; it must therefore be left to them to decide
if any, or what, can be dispensed with.
The choice of a library (which cannot be collected in Egypt) will, of
course, depend on the occupations or taste of each person: I shall therefore
only recommend the most useful works, as vols. ii. and iii. of Larcher's
Herodotus; Champollion's Phonetic System of Hieroglyphics, Letters, and
Grammar; Pococke; Denon; Hamilton's Ægyptiaca; Savary's Letters;
Clot Bey's Aperçu Générale de l'Egypte; Gliddon on the Hieroglyphics;
Mengin's “Egypte sous Mohammed Aly;” Robinson's Palestine and
Mount Sinai; Lane's Modern, and Wilkinson's Ancient, Egyptians; Hoskins's
Ethiopia, and Visit to the Great Oasis; Colonel Leake's, Lapie's,
or Wilkinson's Map of Egypt; Captain Smyth's Alexandria; Wilkinson's
Survey of Thebes; Costa's Delta; and Parke and Scoles's Nubia; to which

may be added Burckhardt, Laborde's Petra, Ptolemy, Strabo, and Pliny;
but of these three last, as well as Diodorus, extracts will suffice, if considered
too voluminous. (Of the libraries in Egypt see Sect. 2.)


In winter, it is unnecessary to make any change in the mode of living
from that usually adopted in Europe; and most persons, unless they commit
excesses, may eat whatever they are accustomed to in other countries. In
the summer months it is, however, better to avoid much wine or spirits, as
they tend to heat the blood; and cause the hot weather to be more sensibly
felt; and some (though I may say, very few) will find that fish (chiefly
those without scales), eggs, and unboiled milk, do not always agree with
them. Bathing in the Nile is by no means prejudicial in the morning and
evening; and, except in the neighbourhood of sandbanks, there is no fear of
crocodiles. Fruit and vegetables are wholesome and cooling, and mutton is
better than beef. The fish of the Nile are not very good; the booltee and
ḵisher are perhaps the best.
The diseases of Egypt are few. Fevers are very rare, except about Alexandria,
Damietta, and other places on the coast; and almost the only complaints,
to which strangers are subject in the interior, are diarrhœa, dysentery,
and ophthalmia. The following is a good mode of treatment for diarrhœa,
or even for the beginning of suspected dysentery. First take an emetic of
ipecacuanha, and in the morning a mild aperient, as 15 grs. of rhubarb with
2 grs. of calomel; on the following day, 2 grs. of ipecacuanha with 1/4 gr. of
opium morning and evening, nothing being eaten but boiled rice, sweetened
with white sugar. But if this does not stop the complaint, and tenesmus
gives the well-known sign of decided dysentery, a dose of 20 grs. of calomel
with 1/4 gr. of opium, should be taken, which must be followed next morning
by a dose of castor oil. This generally cuts the matter short; but it is as
well to follow it up with 2 grs. of ipecacuanha and 1/2 gr. of opium three or
four times within the 12 or 24 hours, for two or three days after. In severe
cases, an injection of nitrate of silver (caustic) has been employed with great
success; but this can only be done under medical advice.
For ophthalmia, in the first stage, mix 10 grs. of sulphate of zinc in 1 oz.
of distilled or rose-water, and put one or two drops into the eye, reducing the
strength for succeeding applications. In the purulent stage, mix 7 grs. of
sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol, in 1 oz. of rose-water, and drop it into the
eye once a day. Fifteen grs. of sulphate of zinc may even be put into 1 oz.
of rose-water, and one or two drops be put into the eye; and I have been
recommended by an eminent practitioner to use 7 grs. of nitrate of silver to
1 oz. of rose-water in the same manner.
In slight inflammation, a wash of 2 grs. of sulphate of copper to 1 oz. of
rose-water may be frequently used. Warm water will often remove an irritation
which if neglected often ends in ophthalmia; and spirits of wine
will generally have the same effect, particularly if the hand be held over the
eye to cause an external heat; the eye being, of course, kept closed to prevent
the spirit entering it. Steaming the eye over boiling water is also highly
beneficial; or bathing it in a decoction of poppy-heads.
The cause of ophthalmia has frequently been assigned to the sand of the
desert; but, in order to show the error of this conjecture, I need only
observe, that ophthalmia is unknown there, unless taken from the Nile; and
I have always cured myself and others, after two or three days, by a visit to
the interior of this dry tract. I do not, however, mean to affirm that sand

blown into the eye, or a great glare from the sand, will not produce it; dust
and the glare of snow will cause it in other countries; but still they are not
the causes of ophthalmia, generally speaking. There are, in fact, both direct
and accidental causes. Among the latter are a blow, dust or sand, glare of
the sun, a draught of wind, and other things; but the former must be looked
for in a fixed and specific agent, peculiar to Egypt. This, I am persuaded,
after many years experience, and frequent attacks of ophthalmia, arises in
the transition from excessive dryness to damp; and though Egypt is, perhaps,
the driest climate in the world, the difference between the generally dry
atmosphere and the damp exhalations on the river, or in the streets of Cairo
and other towns (which are not only narrow, but are watered to keep them
cool), is so great, that the eye is readily affected by it; particularly when in
that susceptible state, caused by the sensible and insensible perspiration, to
which the skin is there subject. Hence it is, that during the inundation,
when the exhalations are the greatest, ophthalmia is most prevalent. The
facts of its non-existence in, and its speedy cure if a patient goes into, the
desert, sufficiently substantiate this opinion; and this is further confirmed by
the comparatively comfortable sensation there imparted to the eye, by the
dryness of the air.
It is always advisable to avoid sitting in a draught, particularly of damp
air; and if obliged to go out at night from a warm room, or the cabin of a
boat, to wash the eyes and forehead with a little cold water, by which means
the perspiration is not checked on going out, and the eye is prepared for the
change to a cooler temperature. They must, however, be wiped dry before
leaving the room.
It is unnecessary to say much respecting the plague: every one will take
care to avoid it, either by not going to Egypt when it rages there, or by leaving
the country on the first alarm. If he cannot do the last, he may avoid it
by remaining in Upper Egypt, where it never goes above Osioót; or he may
keep quarantine like other Europeans in the country. In Alexandria cases
rarely occur from September to the end of January, and at Cairo from thee nd
of June to the end of March; and that only in certain years. A violent
plague occurs about once in 10 or 12 years. It is less frequent at Cairo than
at Alexandria, and the worse plagues cease at Cairo by the end of June. It
is now no longer dreaded as of old; great precautions are taken by the board
of health, and the treatment is better understood. The first remedy should
be an emetic, which will often stop it if taken in time; but bleeding is


If the traveller inquires whether the Oriental dress be necessary, I answer,
it is by no means so; and a person wearing it, who is ignorant of the language,
becomes ridiculous. One remark, however, I must be allowed to make
on dress in that country — that a person is never respected who is badly
dressed, of whatever kind the costume may be, and nowhere is exterior appearance
so much thought of as in the East.


With regard to presents in Egypt, it may be laid down as a general rule that
they are quite unnecessary; which was not the case in former times. But it
will sometimes happen that the civilities of a Shekh Bélled, or even of a
Turkish governor, require some return; in which case some English gunpowder,
a watch, or a telescope for the latter, and a white shawl and tarboosh, or
and amber mouth-piece for the former, are, generally speaking, more than they

have any reason to expect. And although on those occasions, when their politeness
arises from the hope of reward, they may be disappointed in their expectations,
yet they would only consider greater presents proofs of greater
ignorance in the person who made them. But in all cases the nature of a present
must depend on the service performed, and also upon the rank of both


Firmans are no longer given by the Pasha, but a booyóoradee or teskreh may
be obtained from the Diwán el Khedéewee at the citadel, on application to the
consulate, which it is as well to have, and which is absolutely necessary if the
traveller intends going any distance from the Nile into the interior. Indeed,
I have known the governor of a town refuse protection to a traveller when
applied to for it, on the excuse of his having no firman or booyóordee; and the
want of one might, in some cases, be a very serious inconvenience.


The most common foreign coins current in Egypt are the dollar, the sovereign,
Venetian sequin, and 5 franc piece. The dollar is rated at 20 piastres,
though the Spanish colonnato, or pillar dollar, has latterly passed for 22, and
the Austrian thaler at 21; and it may be observed as a general rule, that in
mentioning a dollar 20 piastres are implied, unless the name of Spanish or
Austrian dollar be specified. The value of the dollar, like other foreign coins,
is frequently changing in Egypt, in consequence of the constant deterioration
of the piastre. In 1833 it was at 15, and the sovereign at 70 piastres. Formerly
it was at 90 paras, and to this day the sum of 90 paras is called real or
dollar. In Pococke's time, the para or máydee was 3 farthings English, and
the 1l. was 8 piastres. The small Constantinople coins were not then current
in Egypt.
The principal gold coins of the country are kheréëhs, beshliks, and pieces of
20 and 10 piastres. Those of silver are 3 and 1 piastre pieces, half and quarter
piastres; and the only copper coins are pieces of 5 paras. Large sums are
reckoned by purses, as throughout the Turkish empire. The purse is always
500 piastres, now equal to 5l.; there is also the kházneh, wich is 1000 purses.
The money of Egypt has lately undergone a change, and Mohammed Ali
has called in all the worthless coin of Constantinople, and issued a new currency, which is very good. The only bad part of it was, that instead of calling
in the old coins, and giving the people the price at which they received them,
the Pasha merely altered their value, and treated them as we have the Maltese
in the case of the dollar.
In January, 1842, the Spanish dollar, hitherto passing for 22, was rated at 20 piastres 28 paras, the Austrian dollar of 21 at 20; and after various
changes, a tariff was published, stating the different proportionate reductions of the other coins.
The following is the value of the different pieces of money circulating
in Egypt, according to the new tariff of 1842: —
Piast. Par.
Doubloons, doppie di Spagna 313 30
English sovereigns (reduced from 100) 97 20
Portuguese pezzi d'oro 174 4
Venetian sequins 46 17
Hungarian ducats, or Mugger 45 26
Louis d'or of 20 francs 77 6
Old Mahmoodéëhs 60 22
New Mahmoodéëhs 50 33
Fendooklee of Mahmood 43 10
New Fendooklee of Mahmood 34 10
New Fendooklee of Selim 36 12
New Mahbóob of Selim 25 13
Old Adleeh of Constantinople. 17 16
New Adleeh of Constantinople 15 28
Old Zariffe of Constantinople 3 2
New Zariffe of Constantinople 2 28
Old Khereeh (or Khayréëh) of Constantinople 20 5
New Khereeh of Constantinople 17 10
New Khereeh of Abdel-Megeed 17 10
Cairene piece of 100 piastres 100 0
New Khereeh of Cairo 20 0
Old Khereeh of Cairo 8 32
New Khereeh of Cairo 8 32
Mahbóob of Cairo, Mootstefáwee 24 8
Mahbóob of Cairo, Mahmoodee 20 34
Saadeeh or small Khereeh of Cairo 3 37
Piast. Par.
Austrian dollar 20 0
Spanish pillar dollar 20 28
Neapolitan schdo 19 22
5 Franc piece 19 10
American dollar 19 0
Sardinian dollar 13 27
Old Beshlik of Constantinople 16 20
New Beshlik of Constantinople 2 24
Ekkeelik of Constantinople 10 0
Old Tuslik of Constantinople 11 27
Old Altmishlik of Constantinople 3 0
A'lteelik Abd-el Megéed 5 0
A'lteelik 4 30
A'lteelik, Haméedee 9 15
Silver coin of Mahmood 6 6
Sittéenee, Megéed 1 3
Half piastre, Megéed 0 8
Quarter piastre, Megéed 0 4
Para of Abd-el Megéed for every thousand 10 17
Piastre of Abd-el Megéed 0 24
Cairene dollars 20 0
Cairene 3 piastre piece 3 0
Cairene piastre 1 0 or 40
Cairene 1/2 piastre 0 20
Cairene 1/4 piastre 0 10
Maydee, fodda, noos (noosf), or 1 para piece 0 1
Piece of 5 paras, or Khámsa fodda 0 5
The best money to take to Egypt is English sovereigns, or Spanish and
Austrian dollars. It is also necessary to have bills on London. They may
be drawn either at Alexandria or Cairo; but it must be remembered that no
money is to be obtained in Upper Egypt, and the traveller must take all
he wants for his journey, before he leaves Cairo. He should also provide
himself with a sufficient quantity of piastres, 20, 10, and 5 para pieces, as
in buying fowls or other things in the villages, his servants will not always
find change for larger coins; it is not convenient to be delayed, until a poor
peasant can search for it; and many object to taking gold, even of the
country, from the natural fear of losing it, or of suffering from some change in
its value. Sometimes it is possible to negotiate a bill at Ḵeneh, through our

agent Sayd Hossayn, who, though acting without any pay from our government,
is always ready to oblige travellers; but this is of course only done as
a favour, and cannot be relied on, unless the stranger is furnished with a
tends making a long stay at Thebes, would be advisable. Circular notes are
also very useful at those two places; but some merchants prefer a letter of
credit, as bills are more secure against loss on the way, when drawn in duplicate
or triplicate.
The piastre and the smaller Egyptian coins now pass throughout Ethiopia;
though, in the southern parts, the old prejudice in favour of the Spanish
pillar-dollar of Charles IV. (once common throughout Ethiopia as low as the
first cataract) may perhaps still remain. That dollar was preferred, and had
a greater value, partly from its having four lines in the number, and partly,
as they affirmed, from the superior quality of the silver.


8 Mitḵál make 1 Oḵéea (woḵéea) or Arab. oz.
12 Oḵéea 1 Rotl pound (about 1 lb. 2 oz. 8 dwt. Troy.)
2 3/4 Rotl 1 Oḵa or Wuḵḵa.
100 to 110 Rotl 1 ḵantár (about 98 3/4 avoirdupois).
108 Rotl 1 Ḵantár for coffee.
102 Rotl 1 Ḵantár for pepper, &c.
120 Rotl 1 Ḵantár for cotton.
150 Rotl 1 Ḵantár for gums, &c.
For Gold, Gums, &c.
4 Ḵumh (Grains) make 1 Ḵeerát (Carat) or Kharóobeh.
64 Grains or 16 Ḵeerat 1 Derhm (47 5/8 to 49 grains English).
1 1/2 Derhm, or 24 Ḵeerát 1 Mitḵál (from about 1 drachm to 72 grs. English).
12 Derhm 1 Okéea or oz. (from 571 1/2 to 576 grs. English).
12 Oḵéea 1 Rotl or pound.
150 Rotl 1 Ḵantár.
Measures of Length.
Fitr, or span, with fore finger and thumb.
Shíbr, longest span with little finger and thumb.
Ḵubdeh, human fist with the thumb erect.
1 Drah beledee, or cubit, equal to 22 to 22 2/3 inches English.
1 Drah Stambóolee equal to 26 to 26 1/2 inches English.
1 Drah Hindázee (for cloth, &c.) equal to about 25 inches English.
2 Bah (braces) equal to 1 Ḵassobeh or 11 1/2 feet.
Land Measures.
22 (formerly 24) Kharóobeh or Ḵúdeh make 1 Ḵassobeh, equal to
from 11 ft. 4 1/2 in. to 11 ft. 7 1/4 in. English.
13 7/8 Ḵassobeh or rods 1 Ḵeerát.
24 Ḵeerát, or 333 Ḵassobeh 1 Feddán or acre.
Corn Measure.
In Lower Egypt.
2 Kuddah make 1 Melweh.
4 Kuddah 1 Roob.
2 Roob 1 Kayleh
4 Roob 1 Waybeh.
24 Roob 1 Ardeb.
In Upper Egypt.
4 Roftow make 1 Mid.
3 Roob 1 Mid.
8 Mid or 1 Ardeb, or nearly 5 Eng. bushels.
6 Waybeh


There is only one Foreign post-office in Egypt, which is at Alexandria.
Letters to England (which need not be prepaid) can be sent to Alexandria,
and forwarded without difficulty; but those for Malta and other parts of the
Mediterranean, which require the postage to be paid, must be sent to some
one in Alexandria, who will pay them there, as this cannot be done at Cairo.
Those for Germany, and inland places in Europe, must be sent to some
house at Marseilles, in order that they may be there prepaid and forwarded,
as this is not to be done in Egypt.
The following is a copy of the notice in the British Government Packet
Office at Alexandria: —
“Mails are made up at this office only for the following ports in the Mediterranean
by H. M.'s packets, namely, Malta, Gibraltar, Syra, and Marseilles;
and all letters for these ports (excepting Marseilles) must be prepaid at the
following rates, or cannot otherwise be forwarded: —
s. d.
Not exceeding 1/2 an ounce 0 6
1 ounce 1 0
2 ounces 2 0
3 ounces 3 0 and so on.”


The population of Egypt, which 200 years ago was estimated at 4,000,000,
now amounts only to about 1,800,000 souls, having been reduced since 1800,
from 2,500,000 to that number. Plague, and the Turkish system of Government,
have lessened and still continue to lessen, the population of all Egypt,
Alexandria alone excepted; which, through increasing commerce, contains
nearly ten times the number of inhabitants it had before the time of
Mohammed Ali.
The revenue of Egypt is said to be about 2,500,000l. sterling.


Mohammed Ali was born at Cáwala, a small town of Roumelia, opposite
Thasos, in 1769; the same year that gave birth to the two most illustrious
persons of the present era, Napoleon and Wellington.
His father was Réngber, peasant, or farmer; who followed the double
occupation of tilling his lands, and deriving a part of his livelihood from the
sea. A military life was the only one that suited the active disposition of his
son; and Mohammed Ali having entered the service of the shórbagee or
governor of Cáwala, received the rank of Bóolook-Báshi, or subaltern, under
the chief of the guard (Agha-t-el bab, “officer of the door”), at the palace.
On the death of his commanding officer, he was appointed to succeed him
as Agha-t-el bab, and married his widow. She had two children, the
present Ibrahim Pasha, born in 1789, and his young sister, the late Taféedah

Hánem, widow of Moharrem Bey; she afterwards became mother of Toossoom
and Ismaïl Pasha. Mohammed Ali after his marriage continued to
hold the same office in the governor's household; and though he may have
entered into speculations in trade, like many Turkish soldiers, he never quitted
the military profession; and when, in 1799, Cáwala was required to furnish a
contingent of 300 men for the army of the Vizeer, then levying to oppose the
French in Egypt, he was sent with them, and soon afterwards obtained the rank
of Bin-bashi. His conduct on several occasions, when engaged with the
French, merited and obtained the approbation of the commander-in-chief, particularly
at the battle of Abookir; and when attached with a corps of Turks,
to part of the British army, he attracted the notice of several of our officers
by his courage and activity in the field.
At the period of the evacuation of Egypt by the French, he had attained
the rank of Sar-cheshmeh, Brigadier-General, and his courage having gained
for him the admiration, as his manners the affection of the army, he soon felt
himself possessed of an instrument for increasing his influence in the country,
of which he was not slow in taking advantage. The discontent of the troops,
in consequence of long arrears of pay, had already begun to manifest itself,
when a threatening message of Khosrow Pasha to Mohammed Ali, was the
signal for open rebellion. They looked upon him to be the defender of their
rights; and since he had displayed great anxiety for their welfare, they were
ready to protect him from the anger of the viceroy; and the rest of the army,
when called upon to quell the mutiny, and seize the rebellious chief, was too
much interested in his safety not to join in his defence. Thus strengthened
in the affections of the army, his career became more and more successful;
Khosrow, and his successor Khoorshid Pasha, were expelled from Egypt;
and on the payment of a large sum to the Porte, Mohammed Ali was appointed
to the Pashalic in 1806.
In the spring of 1807, our unfortunate expedition to Egypt under General
Fraser took place; the result of which is well-known: and the triumph then
gained by Mohammed Ali over an enemy, who had attempted to interfere in
a province of the Ottoman Empire, obtained for him fresh support at Constantinople.
Many of the Memlooks also thought it a favourable opportunity
for courting his friendship. This invasion, and the necessity of putting the
sea-coast into a better state of defence, gave him an opportunity of ridding
himself of the unwelcome interference of the Captain-Pasha; which, had it
continued, would have stood greatly in the way of those projects he afterwards
devised. Alexandria was fortified, and garrisoned by his own troops; and
thus strengthened at home, his thoughts were free to occupy themselves on
more distant projects. But ere that could be done, it was necessary to crush
the remaining power of the Memlooks. With this view a large force was
sent into Upper Egypt; and, after various encounters, a truce was agreed
upon between the Pasha and the Beys, who were even admitted to the capital.
The deliverance of the Holy Land of Arabia from the Wahábees, who had
taken possession of Mecca and Medina, was the next object of Mohammed
Ali's wishes. The only impediment was the fear of leaving Egypt exposed to
the intrigues of the Memlooks. They, on the other hand, looked with eager
anxiety for the opportunity which the absence of the Turks would afford
them, of regaining their power, and of destroying the man whose talents had
defeated all their plans.
It was a question, which should perform the first successful act of treachery.
The failure of one led the way to the other. While at Suez, superintending the
preparations for the Arabian expedition, Mohammed Ali received a letter from

Mohammed Laz, his Kehia Bey, telling him that the Memlooks intended to
way-lay him on his return to Cairo. Instead, therefore, of remaining at Suez,
as expected, he left it that night on a dromedary, without letting any one
know where he was going, and reached Cairo, with 4 out of 18 attendants,
before day break next morning. This intended treachery, and another plot
revealed to him about the same time, determined Mohammed Ali to be beforehand
with them, and he laid his plans for their destruction. The expedition
for Arabia was ordered to be hastened by every possible means; and the
investiture of his son Toosoom Pasha with the command of the army was set
forth as the prelude to its immediate departure. The day fixed for this important
ceremony was the ist of March, 1811. All the principal officers
attended at the citadel on the occasion, and the Memlooks were invited to be
present. When the ceremony was over, they mounted their horses to retire
from the citadel. On reaching the gates, they were surprised to find them
closed, and no one there to open them: the suspicion of treachery immediately
flashed across their minds, and a volley of musketry from above revealed the
horror of their position. Men and horses fell under a shower of balls: no
courage could avail against an enemy protected behind walls; and those who
attempted to fly from the scene of slaughter were picked off by the Albanians
wherever they turned.
Emín Bey, who leapt his horse over a gap in the wall, was the only one
who escaped.
The houses of the Memlooks were now given up to plunder: orders were
issued to exterminate all who could be found in the city; and punishment
was denounced against any one known to harbour them or facilitate their
escape. At length, on the second day a cessation of the persecution was
proclaimed; Mohammed Ali himself went through the city to stop the tumultuous
licence of the troops; and those who had escaped the general massacre
were permitted to retire, or remain unmolested. It is said that about 440,
with their chief Ibrahim Bey, perished in the citadel; and in the city and
country it is supposed that no less than 1200 were sacrificed.
Those who were in Upper Egypt retired into Ethiopia, after having
suffered from the treachery of Ibrahim Pasha at Esne, and took refuge
with the Mek of Shendy; until, on the approach of the Turks in 1820,
they retired from the valley of the Nile, and crossing over to the westward,
passed through Dar-Foor; whence they at last found their way through Africa
to the sea-coast of the Mediterranean. On reaching Tripoli, their numbers
were reduced to fourteen or fifteen, some of whom terminated their wanderings
and their life in obscurity at Constantinople; the remnant of upwards
of 4000, against whom Mohammed Ali had begun his contest for the
possession of Egypt.
Some few who had remained in Egypt were afterwards employed by the
Pasha. Osman Bey, and a few more, obtained the rank of governors of
provinces; and those who had the means of living independently were permitted
to establish themselves at Cairo. One of these, Soolayman Agha, who
has the honorary rank of wellee, or civil governor of the city, told me the
following anecdote. At the time of the massacre of the Memlooks he was
already a friend of Mohammed Ali's, from whom he received an indirect intimation
“not to go to the citadel” on that occasion; and as soon as order
had been restored in Cairo, the Pasha made diligent search for him, hoping
to find he had escaped the indiscriminate slaughter of his comrades.
A confidential messenger conducted him to Mohammed Ali. He was

overjoyed to see him, and his first question was respecting his escape. “I
disguised myself as a woman,” said the Memlook. “How! — With that
voice and that beard?” I am sure I should have discovered you. “I think
not,” was the reply; and the conversation then turned to other matters.
A few days after this, a stranger dressed in the usual veil and black
hábbarah of the Cairene women appeared before the Pasha, complaining of
ill-treatment from her husband. He pronounced judgment in the case, and
orders were given that the injured wife should be relieved from her husband's
injustice; when the complainant, throwing up the veil and disclosing the
face of a man, asked the Pasha if he acknowledged himself deceived by the
voice and appearance of Soolayman Agha. This incident was the cause of
great merriment to the Pasha and his Memlook friend.
It is surprising that the Memlooks, versed in and accustomed to all the
artifices of treachery, as they had ever been, should have fallen into a similar
trap, which Mohammed Ali himself had shortly before avoided, when invited
by Khoorshid to the citadel to receive the pelisse and title of Pasha of Judda;
and it is probable that, like a chess-player too intent on his own game, they
overlooked the intended move of their adversary, from being too sure of their
own success.
The destruction of the principal Memlooks left Mohammed Ali free to
prosecute the war he contemplated; and in the autumn of 1811, the army
was sent to Arabia. The young Toossoom, his son, took the command,
assisted by the ablest of his father's generals; but he received a severe check
from the valour of the Wahábees; and it was not till 1818 that Ibrahim Pasha
succeeded in taking the capital of the Draéëh.
Abdallah, the son of Sāóod, was made prisoner; and having been sent to
Constantinople, was there beheaded in 1819, after having been exposed to
the gaze of the people and every insult; and the other chiefs were taken to
Egypt, to be kept as hostages for the future tranquillity of Arabia.
In the year 1820, an expedition was sent into Ethiopia under Ismaïl
Pasha, with orders to annex the kingdoms and provinces of Dongola, Dar-Shéḵeëh,
Bérber, Shéndy, Sennár, Kordofán, and the intermediate districts,
to the Turkish empire. Nubia, between the first and second cataract, had
been previously overcome by Ibrahim Pasha, when driving before him the
Memlooks, who had passed through it, on their way south in 1811. The
present expedition had for its pretext the pursuit of those enemies of the
Pasha, who had taken refuge with the Mek of Shéndy, and were said to
threaten the tranquillity of Egypt. But the real motive of the expedition
originated in far deeper views. The turbulent spirit of the Albanians and
Turks precluded the possibility of introducing Mohammed Ali's favourite
project of European tactics: the removal of all the most obnoxious spirits
was the only means of overcoming their opposition; and the conquest of
those countries promised increase of wealth, power, and renown. His intention
was to send a large force into Upper Ethiopia, and bring from thence
a body of Blacks, to be disciplined, and formed into Nizám, or regular troops,
in some out-of-the-way place unobserved by the Turks; who too could not
object to this system being adopted towards foreigners, and could forsee in it
no danger to their own importance.
For this purpose he employed Colonel Sève (now Soolayman Pasha), a
French officer of great military talents, who had fled from France at the time
of the Restoration in 1815; and having established a military school at
Asouan in 1820, under the direction of Mohammed Bey Laz, sent 500 of his

Memlooks to be drilled and taught the duties of officers. At the same time
the Blacks were forwarded from Ethiopia to this, depôt, and drilled for soldiers;
and Mohammed Bey (if I remember correctly) told me that the project was
to have 80,000 of them as infantry, with Turkish artillery and cavalry; some
irregular Arab horsemen; and a few Albanians and Turks as a corps de
reserve, to supply the divisions in Arabia and Sennar.
But notwithstanding every care, the Blacks died off so rapidly that it was
found necessary to supply their places by native Egyptians; and this was
the origin of the present disciplined army. This was unfortunate both for
the viceroy and the people; as it drained the population of a thinly-peopled
country, and diminished the number of hands required for the cultivation of
the soil; which were doomed to be still farther reduced a few years after by
the establishment of numerous manufactories.
The introduction of the cotton plant gave the first impulse to Mohammed
Ali's scheme of making Egypt a manufacturing country; the impracticability
of which the experience of many years, the immense expense he has
incurred, the drain on the population, the destruction of machinery by the sand,
and universal opinion, have sufficiently demonstrated. The culture of the cotton,
which is of very good quality, is certainly beneficial to the revenues of Egypt;
as are the indigo, and many other kinds of produce introduced or increased
by Mohammed Ali; and had he been satisfied with the manufacture of
common stuffs, as in former times, for ordinary purposes, which did not
require expensive machinery, he would have found it more profitable in the
end. The export of the raw produce was obviously more beneficial to the
country, and the Pasha, contented with that, would have been a gainer in
money and disposable hands.
Indigo, cotton, and sugar-cane have been for many years cultivated in the
valley of the Nile. The first of these is of very excellent quality in Upper
Ethiopia, where the latter plant also grows; and a coarse sugar from the
cane was made long ago in Upper Egypt. But the indigo, as it now is, was
brought from Nabloos in Syria, in 1824, and the Indian cotton was introduced
by Maho Bey, assisted by M. Jumel, about 1819, and first grown at
Heliopolis. From him it received the name of Maho cotton, and it is a
curious fact, that it has been found growing at Fazoglo, above Sennar. A
sugar refining manufactory was established at Reramoon, in Upper Egypt,
by Mr. Brine, an Englishman, in 1818; and the coarse sugar of the peasants
being sent there to be refined, was found to be very good both in sweetness
and appearance.
Ibrahim Pasha, who had returned victorious from Arabia, was sent to
prosecute the war, and extend the Turkish conquests in Ethiopia; and Kordofan,
Sennar, and the other provinces were annexed to Egypt. He then
returned to Egypt, and other events soon called him to a new field;
for the moment had arrived when Mohammed Ali felt himself sufficiently
strong to attempt the subjugation of the revolted Greeks; and he sent to request
permission of the Sultan to undertake the war of the Morea, which he
promised to terminate at his own cost, and solely with his own troops; provided
he might withhold the tribute from Egypt during that time, for the
expenses of the war. This apparently disinterested offer was welcomed by
the Porte; and the Sultan rejoiced in a proposition which promised to destroy
an enemy, while it tended to weaken the resources of a too-powerful vassal;
and the assent of His Highness was returned in the form of a command to
Mohammed Ali to put an end to the Greek insurrection.
It is generally supposed that the order emanated solely from the Porte;

but the fact of Mohammed Ali's having proposed it was known to me between
two and three months before any order came from Constantinople, in
the following manner: — Happening to be acquainted with a Turk in the
Pasha's confidence, and conversing with him on his probable intentions, I
remarked that many in Cairo talked loudly of his kind reception of the
Greeks, and supposed that he was likely to join them in their rebellion against
the Porte. He then told me, that, so far were they from being right in their
surmises, the Pasha had sent to make the above proposition to the Sultan; and
in less than three months he added, “You will see the permission arrive
as an order from the Porte to send an army into Greece.” The result proved
the truth of what he said; and accordingly, in 1824, a fleet and army were
sent, under Ibrahim Pasha, to the Morea.
The results of this campaign, the intervention of the European powers in
July, and the battle of Navarino, October 20th, 1827, are well known.
Candia not having been included in the independence of Greece, was permitted
to be retained by the Porte, and Mohammed Ali, who had overthrown
the revolted Greeks there, was afterwards allowed the complimentary distinction
of appointing a pasha to that island, in lieu of obtaining the pashalic of
Syria, which he had solicited.
The Egyptian troops having been taken back to Egypt, and his Greek
projects having failed, Mohammed Ali turned his thoughts to obtaining possession
of Syria by force: this and the Morea, as one of his courtiers observed
to me, “being two doors that lead to the same place” — Constantinople.
For I need scarcely observe now, what I had so often mentioned to
English travellers whom I met in Egypt, while the war was going on in the
Morea, that the ultimate object of the Greek war was an attack on Constantinople;
though few would then believe that he had either the intention to
attempt so ambitious a project, or the means to oppose the (reputed) power
of the Porte.
There is little doubt that Sultan Mahmood, by his incessant animosity
against Mohammed Ali, and his repeated attempts to destroy him, paved the way,
in a great degree, for the success of his vassal's ambition; that the supineness
of European nations, in not preventing a collision between the Sultan and
the Pasha, led to the late unsettled state of Syria; and that their subsequent
interference was misplaced; but this subject is too long for discussion
at the present moment, and does not, of course, come within the scope
of this brief notice. Nor is it necessary to enter into the details of the Syrian
war, which are well known to every reader.
In contemplating the private character and political career of Mohammed
Ali, it is evident that, as an individual, he possesses many excellent qualities,
and is kind, indulgent, and humane; while in his public capacity he must be
censured for ambition, for extorting money from the people, and for neglecting
to relieve them from the state of misery to which they have been
reduced by his expensive projects.
On the other hand, it may be said, that, considering all he has done, which
originated solely in his own energies, his endeavours to civilise the country
have been highly praiseworthy; and when we compare him to others of his
nation, his superiority stands forth in a still more remarkable light. But
it is certain that his conduct may be presented under different aspects,
according to the views of his enemies or his friends; and this has led to the
great discrepancy in the character given of this extraordinary man. It may
be said that the various establishments set on foot in Egypt, the dykes, canals,
and other public works, are as much for the benefit of the government, as for

that of the people. This is true; but what other Turk has done it? and what
native would have made the attempt? and may not this be said of all great
works in any country? at the same time, how many prejudices of the people
has he not had to encounter? and how gradual must be the steps in the
commencement of civilisation? For these, then, he deserves full credit;
and the point for which he merits censure, is his having done little to ameliorate
the condition of the people, though indebted so much for his greatness
to the money wrung from their labours.


The family of Mohammed Ali consists of Ibrahim Pasha, Saïd Pasha,
Hossayn Béy, Alim Bey, and Mohammed Ali Bey; Nuzleh Hanem,
his eldest daughter, the widow of Mohammed Bey Defterdar, and other
Toossoom and Ismaïl Pashas died many years ago, and the former left a
son, now Abbas Pasha, who will probably one day succeed to the Pashalic of
Ibrahim Pasha has some children, the eldest of whom are Aẖmed Bey,
born in 1825, Ismaïl Bey, and Mustafa Bey.
The other members of Mohammed Ali's family are his nephews, Hossayn
Bey, Aẖmed Pasha, Ibrahim Pasha the younger, Ismaïl Bey, and some
younger ones.


In order to assist those who are interested in Egyptian antiquities, I shall
introduce a list of the kings, which may be useful in examining the monuments,
particularly at Thebes.
Letter in Plate. Kings. Ascend the Throne B.C. Events.
A Menes, Menai 2320 First King of Egypt, according to Josephus lived upwards of 1300 years before Solomon.
Athothis, his son (Other kings) 2300
2204 Foundation of the kingdom of Assyria by Nimrod.
Suphis, or Saophis 2123 Built the Great Pyramid.
2089 Kingdom of Sicyon founded.
Sen-Saophis 2083 Built the Second Pyramid.
2057 Era of the Chinese Emperor Yao.
Moscheris, Mencheris, or Mycerinus 2043
Built the Third Pyramid.
Apappus 2001 Or Aphoph “the Giant.”
1920 Abraham arrives in Egypt. Probably the queen called Nicaule by Josephus.
1856 Foundation of the kingdom of Argos.
1848 Deluge of Ogyges in Attica.
NE Menmoph, or Menmôthph 1830 Perhaps the only king of this xvth Dynasty, and a Theban.
ΨΩ Osirtasen I. 1740 Reigned at least 43 years.
1706 Arrival of Joseph.
AB Amun-m`-Gori? 1696
CD Amun-m`-Gori II.? 1686 Reigned at least 35 years.
EF Osirtasen II. 1651
GH Osirtasen III. 1636 Called also Nofrí-ftep, or Nofri-ôthph.
1635 Death of Joseph.
IJ Amun-m`-Gori III.? 1621 Reigned at least 41 years.
KL …. .? 1580 Phonetic name not found.
MN Amosis 1575 Or Ames, “the new king (or Dynasty) who knew not Joseph.” Reigned at least 22 years.
1571 Moses born.
1556 Cecrops founds the kingdom of Athens, from Saïs.
OP Amunoph I. 1550 Crude brick arches used in Egypt.
QR Thothmes I. 1532 Flight of Moses, 1531.
Qa Ra Amun-neit Gori? Included in the reign of Thothmes II. Perhaps a queen. Nitocris?
ST Thothmes II. 1505 Glass already known in Egypt.
1503 Deluge of Deucalion.
UV Thothmes III. 1495 A great architect.
1491 Exodus. Moses died in 1451.
WX Amunoph II. 1456 His son. Came to the throne young.
YZ Thothmes IV. 1446 His son.
(Some foreign kings ruled in Egypt about this time.)
a b Amunoph III. (while a minor, his mother, Maul-m`-shoi, Zb, was probably Regent.) 1430 His son. The supposed Memnon of the vocal statue at Thebes.
a2 b2 Amun-Toonh? A foreigner, cotemporary of Amunoph III.
c d Horus 1408 Iron first used in Greece, 1406.
e f Remeses I. 1395 Or Remesso.
g h Osirei, or Osiri I.? 1385 A great conqueror.
i 1, 2 Amun-mai Remeses or Remeses II. (His two Queens) 1355 Or Remeses the Great. The supposed Sesostris, son of Osirei, or Se-Osirei: hence, perhaps, confounded with Sesostris?
j 3, 4
5, 6
k 1 Pthahmen 1289 His son.
k 2, 12 Pthahmen-Se-Pthah 1269 (Sethos?) not admitted into the Theban lists, perhaps from being a Memphite, or from having only married the Princess Taosiri.
1263 Argonautic expedition.
m n Osirei II. 1255
o p Osirei III. 1245
q r Remeses III. 1235 His son, called also Miamun, and Amun-mai.
s t Remeses IV. 1205 His son.
u v Remeses V. 1195 Sons of Remeses III. Troy taken 1184.
w x Remeses VI. 1180
y z Remeses VII. 1170
α β Remeses VIII. 1155
γ δ Remeses IX. 1140
ε ζ Remeses X. 1125
η θ Remeses XI.? 1110
ι κ Amunmai Pouee? 1095 This name should perhaps come before εζ.
λ μ Amunmeses?
(Other kings)
1080 To about 1068.
1, 2 Sheshonk I. 978 Shishak of SS. (Solomon.)
3, 4 Osorkon I. 945 Zerah, king of Ethiopia, battle with Asa, 941.
5, 6 Takelothe 925
7, 8 Osorkon II. 908 Money of gold and silver first coined at Argos, 894. Age of Homer 907, or 844.
9, 10 Sheshonk II. (More kings) 890 To about 860.
Tnephactus, or Tnephachthus. 820? The Technatis of Plutarch. The father of Bocchoris. Name not found.
1, 2 Bocchoris, or Pehor? 812 Called “the Wise.”
1, 2 Sabaco, or Sabakôthph 778 So of SS.
753 Rome founded.
3, 4 Sebechon, or Shebek, 728 I am not certain which of these two kings should come first.
721 Captivity of the Ten Tribes.
5, 6 Tehrak, or Tirhaka 714 Sethos said by Herodotus to have ruled at Memphis at the same time. Sennacherib attacks Judah 710.
Ammeres? 698
(Uncertain.) The 12 kings or monarchs.
7, 8 Psamatik, or Psamaticus I. 664 Psamiticus, or Psammitichus, son of Neco I.
9, 10 Neco II. 610 Nechao of SS., defeated Josiah 610 B.C. Era of Solon, Alcæus, and Sappho.
11, 12 Psamaticus II. 600 Captivity of Jehoiakim, 599.
Apries 596? Or Vaphres, the Hophra of SS. Takes Sidon. Perhaps 9a, 10a are his name.
13, 14 Psamaticus III. 590? It is uncertain whether he was the same as Apries.
15, 16 Amasis, Ames 571 Married the daughter of Psamaticus III. Era of Thespis, Pythagoras, and Æsop. 560.
Psammenitus, or Psammicherites 525 After 6 months Egypt conquered by Cambyses.
19 Cambyses 525 Canbosh in hieroglyphics.
20, 21 Darius Hystaspes 521 Ntareosh. Egypt revolts.
22 Xerxes 485 Khsheersh. Recovers Egypt, 484.
23 Artaxerxes, or Artksheshes 472 Egypt revolts, and elects Inaros and Amyrtæus Kings. 463, the Persians retake Egypt. Inaros is crucified. Herodotus visits Egypt, 460.
Xerxes II. 425 Reigns 2 months.
Sogdianus — 7 months.
Darius Nothus 424 — 19 years.
24, 25 Amyrtæus 414 Egypt revolts, and Amyrtæus is recalled.
26, 27 Nepherites 408 Nefaorot. Long vowels first used in Greek, 403.
28, 29 Achoris, or Acôris 402 Hakori. Death of Cyrus the younger. Retreat of the 10,000, 401.
30, 31 Psammoutis, or PseMaut 389 Nepherotes and Muthis not on the Monuments.
32, 33 Nectanebo, I. 387 Naḳ̱htnebo. Nectabis of Pliny.
Teos or Tachos 369 Persians defeated, 362.
Nectanebo II. 362 Defeated by the Persians, 340.
Ochus 340 In his 20th year. Philip dies, 335
Arses 338
Darius 336 Alexander conquers Egypt.
Philip Aridæus 323 Ptolemy made governor of Egypt in their name, 322.
Alexander, son of Alexander the Great 317
1 Lagus, or Soter 305 Married, 1 Eurydice, 2 Berenice.
2 Philadelphus 284 The Ethiopian king Ergamenes lived at this time. Mar. Arsinoë.
3 Euergetes I. 246 Mar. Berenice.
4 Philopator 221 Mar. Arsinoë.
5 Epiphanes 204 Mar. Cleopatra.
6 Philometor 180 Mar. Cleopatra. Antiochus invades Egypt, 170.
7 Euergetes II., or Physcon 145 Mar. 1 Cleopatra, 2 Cleopatra Cocce. Also called Philometor.
8 Soter II., or Lathyrus 116 Mar. 1 Cleopatra, 2 Selene. Called also Philometor, expelled 106.
9 Alexander I. 106 With his mother. Mar. Cleopatra. Lathyrus restored, 88.
10 Berenice 81 Daughter of Lathyrus.
11 Alexander II. 80 Bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans.
12 Neus Dionysus, or Auletes 65 Mar. Cleopatra. Expelled 58, restored 55.
13 Ptolemy, the elder son of Auletes 51 With Cleopatra, his sister and wife.
14 Ptolemy, the younger 47 Mar. Cleopatra also.
15 Cleopatra 44 Alone, and then with Cæsarion or Neocæsar, her son by J. Cæsar.
A.D. Events.
122 Visit of Adrian to Egypt; and again, A.D. 130.
297 Taking of Alexandria by Diocletian.
325 Council of Nicæa in reign of Constantine. Athanasius and Arius.
379 Edict of Theodosius. Destruction of the Temple of Sarapis.
622 Conquest of Egypt by Amer (miscalled Amrou). (See Table of Caliphs.)
1517 Conquest of Egypt by the Turks under Sultan Selim.
1763 Rebellion of Ali Bey.
1798 Invasion of Egypt by the French.
1801 Expelled by the English.
1806 Mohammed Ali made Pasha of Egypt. (See above, p. 12.)
In the era of Menes I have followed Josephus; and by allowing 17 years
for each reign from Apappus to Menes, which requires a sum of 323, his era
would be about the time I have given, or B.C. 2324; though the number of the
reigns intervening between those two kings is by no means certain. In the
XVth Dynasty I have been guided by the Table of Kings at Thebes, which
gives one Diospolitan between Menes and the XVIIIth Dynasty.
The contemporary reigns of Shishak and Solomon are the earliest fixed epoch
for the construction of a chronologial table; but reckoning back the number
of years of each king's reign, either according to Manetho, the dates on the
monuments, or the average length of their ordinary duration, we may arrive
at a fair approximation; and the epoch alluded to on the ceiling of the Memnonium,
at Thebes, in the reign of Remeses II., seems greatly to confirm
my opinion respecting the accession of that Prince. And, allowing for the
reigns of the intervening monarchs his predecessors, the Exodus of the
Israelites agrees with Manetho's departure of the Pastors in the reign of
Thothmes III.
Those who wish to compare the lists of kings given by Manetho and
Eratosthenes, will find them in the History of Egypt given in my “Manners
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians,” and in that very useful work,
“Ancient Fragments,” published by Mr. Cory.
Of the Shepherd Kings nothing certain has yet been discovered; nor is it
always possible to make the names given by Manetho and Eratosthenes accord
with those on the monuments.
The government of Egypt appears first to have been, as with the Jews, a
hierarchy, which was successively composed of the priests of one or other of
the principle deities; but its duration is uncertain. We then come to the
Kings, the first of whom, by universal consent, was Menes; and with him I
commence my chronological series.
The 2 ovals contain their prenomen and phonetic name, and the third that
of the Queen, whenever it has been found. Many other names of kings occur
on the monuments; but as their date and relative position are uncertain,
I have not been able to place them in this list.



* This title, or Phrah, i. e. the sun, is prefixed to the names of all the kings as a banner. See the beginning of Dynasty 24., in this page.
Other kings here [illeg.] LIST OF KINGS. — PTOLEMIES, OR LAGIDES.




The frequent mention of these Kings, particularly in describing the monuments
of Cairo, and the necessity of knowing at least when they reigned, induces
me to give this Chronological Table
Ommiades, or Ammawéëh. Events during their Reign. Began to reign.
Aboo Bukr, or Aboo Bekr (e' Sadéeḵ). Invasion of Syria commenced. 632.
O'mar (ebn el Khuttáb, or Khattab). Conquest of Persia, Syria, and Egypt. A'mer, or Amr (ebn el As) enters Egypt in June, 638. 634.
Othmán. Conquest of Africa begun. 644.
A'li (or Alee), and Moáwieh I. Ali in Arabia reigns till 661; and El H̱assan, his son, nominally succeeds him, and having reigned six months abdicates, A. D. 661. Death of H̱assan, 670. Moáwieh in Egypt and Syria. 656.
House of Ammawéëh (Omminades).
Moáwieh I. Alone. Fruitless attack on Constantinople by the Saracens. 661.
Yezéed I. His son. H̱ossayn killed at Kerbela. 680.
Moáwieh II. His son. 684.
[Abdallah, son of Zobaýr, reigned nine years in the H̱egáz (Arabia), from 64 to 73 A. H., or 684 to 693 A. D.*]
Merawán I. 684.
Abd el Mélek. His son. Conquest of Africa completed. Abd el Azéez, his brother, made a Nilometer at Helwán. In 76 A. H. first Arab coinage. The oldest coin found is of 79 A. H. (699 A. D.); it is a silver Der'hem. The oldest gold deenárs are of the years 91 and 92 A. H. 684.
El Weleéd I. His son. Conquest of Spain, 710. First invasion of India by the Moslems. 705.
Soolaymán. His brother. Second failure before Constantinople. Was the first who founded a Nilometer at the Isle of Roda. 714.
Omar II. Son of Abd el Azéez. 717.
Yezéed II. Son of Abd el Mélek. 720.
Heshám. His brother. Defeat of Abd e' Rahmán in France, by Charles Martel, 732. 724.
El Weleéd II. Son of Yezéed. 743.
Yezéed III. His son. 744.
Ibrahím. His brother. 744.
Merawán II. Grandson of Merawán I., killed at Abooséer, a town belonging to the Fýoóm, in Egypt. 744 to 749.
* The Hégira, or Moslem era, begins 622 A. D., dating from the “flight” of the prophet
from Mecca. To reduce any year of the Hégira to our own, we have only to and 622 to the
given year, and deduct 3 for every 100, or 1 for every 33; e.g. 1233 + 622 = 1855; then for
the 1200 deduct 36, and 1 for the 33 = 37, leaves 1818 A.D.
Dynasty of the Abbasides, or Abbaséëh, descended from Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed. Began to reign. Contemporary Dynasties. Began to reign.
A. D.
E' Seffáh, Aboo 'l Abbas, Abdallah. 749.
El Munsoór, Aboo Gáfer, Abdallah. His brother. Bagdad is founded by Muns̱oór, and becomes the seat of empire. Under these Caliphs, astronomy and other sciences were particularly encouraged. 754. Abd e' Raẖmán. Established the Ommiade dynasty at Cordova in Spain; an example followed by the House of Ali, the Edrissites of Mauritania, and the Aglebites and Fatemites of Eastern Africa. 755.
El Maẖdee Mohammed. His son. 775.
El Hádee Moosa. His son. 785.
Haroón e' Rasheéd, or E'Rasheéd, or E' Rasheéd Haroón. His son. The hero of Arabian tales, the “ally” of Charlemagne, and the dread of the Romans. The Edrisites found the kingdom of Faz (Fez). 786. Aglebéëh, or Aglebite Dynasty in Africa.
El Ameén Mohammed. His son. 809. Ibrahim ebn* (or ben) el A'gleb (or Aḵleb). Governor of Africa. Throws off his allegiance to the Caliphs. Regular troops first introduced by him. 800 to 811.
El Mamoón Abdallah. Son of Haroón. A great encourager of arts and sciences, particularly astronomy. By his order Greek authors were translated into Arabic. Measures a degree of the meridian. 813. This Dynasty rules till the year A. D. 900. Ḵayrawan (Cairoan), 70 miles south of Tunis, was their capital. It was founded A. D. 670.
(Ibrahim, son of El maẖdee, his competitor from 817 to 818). This is followed in 910 by the Fowátem or Fatemite Dynasty.
El Mautússim billáh, Mohammed. His brother. War with Theophilus. Turkish guards taken into the service of the Caliphs. Decline of the Caliphate. 842?
* In these names, Ibrahim el Agleb, Ahmed ebn e'Tooloon, and
others, the word ebn, “son,” should properly be written ben;
but in speaking (at least in Egypt) ebn is used.
El Wátheḵ billáh, Haroón. His son. The Saracens attack Rome and fail, 846. 843?
El Motawúkkel al Alláh, Gáfer. His brother. Makes the new Nilometer in the Isle of Roda. 847.
El Muntússer billáh Mohammed. His son. 861.
El Mostain billáh, Ahmed. 862.
El Mautúz billah, Mohammed. 866.
Tooloonides, Dowlet e' Tooloonéëh, in Egypt.
El Mohtúddee billah, Mohammed. The power of the Caliphs was weakened by the factions of the Taherites, in 813; Soffarides, 872; Samanides, 874; Aglebites and Tooloonides, 800 to 906; Ikshidites, 934; Hamadanites, 892; and Bowites, 933. 869.
Aẖmed ebn e' Tayloón (or e' Tooloón). Governor of Egypt. Usurps the sovereignty of that country in 868. Builds a mosk at the back of the Ḵuttaeea, or Ḵalat el Kebsh, now within the walls of Cairo, with pointed arches, in his 11th year (A. H. 265, A. D. 879). 868.
El Mautummid al Allah, Aẖmed. New sect of the Carmathians, 890. (El Mowuffuḵ billáh, his coadjutor from 871 to 891). 870.
Aboolgáysh Khamarawéëh. His son builds a series of palaces from Egypt to Bagdad. His daughter Ḵutr e' Nedda marries the Caliph Mautuddíd. Dies at Damascus in 896. 884.
El Mautússim billáh, Aẖmed. 892.
Abool Asáker Gaysh His son. 896.
Aboo Moosa Haroón. His brother. 897.
El Moktuffee billáh, Ali el Mautuddìd. 902.
Abbaséëh or Abbaside Dynasty. A.D. Tooloonide Kings. A.D.
Abool Magházee Sheeban. Son of Aẖmed ebn e' Tooloón. Reigns ten days. In him ends this dynasty. The Caliphs retake Egypt. 906
Dynasty of the Fatemites (Fowátem), or the Fatméëh Dynasty.
Abayd Allah El Maẖdee billáh. Usurps the government of Eastern Africa. Assumes the title of Maẖdee or “Guide.” Subdues the Edrissites of Western Africa. Invades Egypt in 912. Is defeated by the forces of Moḵtuddir. from 910 to 934.
El Moḵtuddír billáh, Gáfer. The Carmathians under Aboo Ṯáher pillage Mekkeh (Mecca), 929. 908.
El Ḵáher billáh, Mohammed. 932 to 934.
Abbaséëh. A.D. Fowátem in Africa. A.D. Cotemporary Kings of Egypt. Akhsheed Dynasty of Turks. A.D.
E'Rádee billáh, Mohammed. 934. El Ḵaiem be amr Illah, Mohammed. His son 934. El Akhsheed, Mohammed ebn Tughg, e'Toorkee, el Faraghánee. Usurps the government of Egypt. 936.
El Mostúḵḵée Ibrahim. 940
El Mostúkfee billah, Abd-Allah. 944. El Munsoor Ismáïl. The Arabic character first employed about this time; but Cufic still used. 945. Aboól Ḵásem ebn el Akhsheed. His son. 948.
El Motée al Illah, El Fodl. The Byzantine arms, under John Zimisces, threaten Bagdad. 946 to 974.
Aboo Tummím, or El Möéz deen-Illah, Aboo Tumméem (Tummím) Maad (his son). Sends Góher el Ḵáëd with an army to invade Egypt, which he takes. Góher founds a new city, under the name of Musr El Ḵáherah (Cairo) A. H. 358. In 362 A. H. it becomes the capital of Egypt. El Moéz arrives himself in 360 A. H., and removes the seat of empire to Cairo, leaving Yusef ebn Zeiri, his viceroy, in Africa. 952 to 969. Abóol Hassan, Ali. His brother. 962.
Kafóor el Akhsheedee. A slave of El Aksheed. 967.
Aboóol Fowáris, Aẖmed. Son of Ali, deposed by Goher. 969 to 970.
Abbaséëh. Began to reign. Fowátem in Egyyt. Began to reign.
A.D. A.D.
E'Táieea billah, Abd el Kereem. Rise of the Turkmans, 980. Mahmood created Sultán by the Caliph, in 997; overruns, about the year 1000, the whole of the provinces from the Caspian to India, which he also invades. Rise of the Seljuk Dynasty. 974.
El Moëz (as above) 969.
El A̱zeéz billah, Aboól Nusr, Nizár. His son. 975.
El Ḵáder billáh, Aẖmed. Peter the Hermit, 995. 991. El Hákem, be Omr — Illah, Aboo — Ali, Munsoor (his son). The prophet of the Druses, aids Derari and Hamzah in founding this new sect. 996.
El Ḵáiem be Omr Illah, Abdallah. Alp Aslan, nephew of Togrul, defeats Romanus, Emperor of Constantinople, and takes him prisoner, 1063. Accession of Melek Shah, 1072. 1031.
A mosk of his remains at Cairo, with pointed arches, and date 393 A. H. or 1003 A. D.
El Moktúddee billáh, Abdallah. Jerusalem taken, 1076. Division of the Seljuk empire into Persian, Kermani, Syrian, and Room Dynasties, 1092. 1075 to 1094. E'Záher, or E'Dtháher, le Azáz deen Illah. His son. 1021.
Aboo Tummím, El Mostúnser Billah (his son). Moëz, third successor of Yusef ebn Zeiri, in 1050, defeated by Mostúnser, whose rights to the African throne had been disputed. William I. of England, 1066 to 1087. William II., 1087 to 1100. 1036 to 1094.
El Mostúzhir billáh, Aẖmed. Expedition of Godefroy de Bouillon, and taking of Jerusalem, 1096-99. 1094. El Mostálee billah, Aboól Ḵsém, Aẖmed (his son). Takes Jerusalem from the Turks, 1098. It is taken by the Latins in 1099. Henry I. succeeds in 1100. First Crusade, 1098. 1094.
El Mostúrshid billáh, El Fodl. Foundation of the Mohades Dynasty in Africa and Spain, 1120. 1118.
E'Rashéed billáh. 1136. El Amr, be-ah-kam Illah, Aboo Ali el Munsoor. 1101.
El Moktúffee leomr-Illah, Mohammed. Crusade of the Emperor Conrad III. and Louis VII., 1148; Noor e'deen, son of Zenghi, in Syria, 1145-74. 1136.
El Háfuz le deen Illah, Abd el Megeed, Mohammed. 1130.
Stephen, 1136.
El Mostunged billáh, Yusef. 1160 to 1170.
E'Dtháfer, Iah, Ismáïl. Henry II., 1154. 1149.
El Fiyéz, le Nusr Illah, Aesa. His son. 1155.
El Aádud le deen Illah, Abdallah. The intrigues of Shawer and Darghan bring about the dissolution of this Dynasty in Egypt. The Franks penetrate to Cairo under Amaury, or Amalric, king of Jerusalem; the city is burnt on their approach, and they are forced to retreat. 1160 to 1171.
Abbaséëh. A.D. Aioobite Sultáns. A.D.
Eiyoobeëh, or Aioobite Sultáns of Egypt. Curd Dynasty.
El Mostúddee be-Noor-Illah. 1170. El Mélek Yusef, Saláh -e' deen; or E'Nás̱er Saláh-e'deen, Yoosef ebn Eiyoob. (Saladin.) Retakes Jerusalem from the Crusaders, in 1187. Crusade of the Emperor Frederick I. (Barbarossa,) and Philippe Auguste, and Richard Cœur de Lion, 1189—1192. 1171.
El Mélek e'deen, or Melek el Azéez, Othman. His second son. (Melek Afdal, his eldest son, ruled in Syria.) 1193.
El Mélek el Munsoor, Mohammed. His son; a child. 1200.
In England the large massy column of Norman architecture began to be divided into smaller pilasters; and the arch took a pointed form about 1200.
E'Náser le-déen-Illáh, Aẖmed. Fourth Crusade. Taking of Constantinople by the French and Venetians, from the Greeks, 1204. Fifth Crusade, 1218. 1180 to 1225. El Mélek el A'del, Sayf-e'deen, Aboo Bukr. (Mélek Adel.) Brother of Saladin, usurps the throne. Fifth Crusade. The Frank penetrate into Egypt, and take Damietta, but are obliged to abandon it, 1218 — 1221. 1200.
E'Dthaher, or E'Ẕáher billáh, Mohammed. 1225. El Mélek el Kámel, Mohammed. His son. 1218.
Crusade of Frederick II., who obtains possession of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Tyre, and Sidon, 1228.
El Mostúnsir billáh, Aẖmed. 1226 to 1242.
El Mélek el A'del, Aboo Bekr. His son. 1238.
El Mélek E'Sáleh, Eiyoob, Nigm e'deen. His brother. Sixth Crusade. St. Louis takes Damietta, 1249. In advancing towards Cairo the Count d'Artois is killed, and the king taken prisoner. On the evacuation of Damietta, and the payment of 400,000 pieces of gold, he is released. 1239.
El Mélek el Moëzzem, Tarawán Shah. His son, murdered by his father's Memlóoks. He was not his son by Shegeret e' door. 1249.
Shégeret e'doór, Om Khaléel. Widow of Sáleh, after three months abdicates. 1250.
El Mélek el Ashraf Moosa. From 1250 to 1254. Deposed by Moëz, who dates from the beginning of this reign. 1250.
Abbasséëh in Egypt. A.D. Baharite Memlook Kings. A.D.
Baharite Memlooks, Sultáns, or Kings of Egypt. Dowlet el Memaleek el Bahréëh or Torkéëh.
El Moëz, Eze'deen, I'bek e' Toorkománee, e'S̱álehee. Marries Shegeret e'door, and is killed by her from jealousy. 1250.
El Munsoor Noor e'deen, Ali. His son. 1256.
El Mostásum billáh. In whom ended the Caliphate of Asia. 1242 to 1258. El Mozúffer Sayf e'deen, Ḵotoz el Moëzzee. Syria, which had been conquered by the Tartars (Tatárs), recovered to Egypt in 1260. 1259.
Nominal Caliphate of the Abbaséëh, in Egypt. E'Ẕáher Baybérs el Benduḵdáree (a Memlook of E'Sáleh). Called also Rookne'deen and Aboo'l Fotóoh. Succeeds, having assassinated his predecessor. Syria again invaded by the Tartars. Baybers marches thither, and takes Damascus. In 1264-5 he again goes into Syria, and extends his conquests over great part of Armenia. 1260.
El Hakem be Omr Illah, Aẖmed e'Rasheed, el Abbásee. Appointed Caliph in the time of E'Ẕáher Baybérs, in 1263, and died in 1302. 1263.
St. Louis dies before Tunis, 1270.
Mohammed e'Sáeed, Naser e'deen, Bárakat Illah. His son. 1277.
El Aádel, Béder e'deen, Salámish. His brother. 1279.
Dowlet el Ḵalaoonéëh, e'Salahéëh; a division of the same Baharite Dynasty.
El Munsoór Ḵalaóon (a Memlook of E' Saleh). In 1279-80, sends an army into Syria, and recovers Damascus, lost to Egypt since the death of Baybérs. Founds the Hospital Morostán in Cairo, 1286. 1279.
El A'shraf Saláh e'deen, Khaleel. His son. Takes Akkeh (Acre) from the Christians. 1290.
E'Nás̱er Mohammed. Ebn Ḵalaoón. His brother. 1298.
El Aádel Ketbogha el Muns̱oóree. Syria again overrun by the Tartars, 1295-6. 1294.
El Munsóor Hesám e'deen Lagéen, el Muns̱óoree. 1296.
E' Nas̱er Mohammed Ebn Ḵalaóon (restored). An Egyptian army sent against the Tartars, who had obtained possession of all Syria, completely defeated. The Tartars are routed by a second Egyptian army, and driven beyond the Euphrates, 1302-3. Absolute Gothic began in England about 1300. 1298.
Abbasséëh in Egypt. A.D. Baharite Memlook Kings. A.D.
El Medúffer, or el Mozuffer, Rookn-e' deen, Baybérs, e' Gáshenkéer, el Munsóoree. 1309.
El Mostúkfee billáh Soolayman. His son. Abdicated and was banished to Ḵoos, by Nás̱er Mohammed, who crowned El Wátheḵ as the new caliph. 1302.
El Wátheḵ billáh, Ibrahim. Deposed by Nas̱er at his death. 1341. E' Nás̱er Mohammed, Ebn Ḵalaóon (restored again). Agriculture and the arts encouraged. 1310.
El Hakem be Omr Illah, Aẖmed. Son of Mostúkfee. 1341. El Munsoor Aboo Bekr. His son. 1341.
El Ashraf Kégek. His brother. 1341.
E' Nás̱er Shaháb e'deen, Ahmed. His brother. 1342.
E' Sáleh Ismáïl. His brother. 1342.
El Kámel Shabán. His brother. 1345.
El Meduffer (or Mezuffer) Hágee. His brother. 1345.
E' Náser Hassan. His brother 1348.
E' Sáleh, Saláh — e'deen. 1351.
E' Náser Hassan (restored). Built the mosk of Sultan Hassan in Cairo. 1354.
El Mautuddid billáh, Aboo Bekr. His brother. 1352. El Munsoor Mohammed. Son of H̱ágee, the son of Ḵalaóon. 1361.
El Ashraf Shaban. (A great grandson of Kalaóon.) The first who ordered the Shereefs, or descendants of the Prophet, to wear green turbans. In 1365 Peter de Lusignan, King of Cyprus, besieges Alexandria and fails. 1363.
El Motawúkkel al Alláh, Mohammed. His son, deposed in 1362. El Munsoor Ali. 1377.
E' Sáleh H̱ágee. Deposed 1381 to 1382.
El Mautússim Zakaréëh. Deposed after one month. 1378.
El Motawúkkel. Restored, and deposed again after six years. 1378. Dowlet el Memaleek el Borgéëh, e' Gerákseh (or Teherkaséëh)
Circassian or Borgite Memlook Kings.
El Wátheḵ billáh, Omar. 1384. E' Záher Berḵóoḵ. Marches into Syria, and twice repulses the Tartars under Teemoorlang, or Teemóor (Tamerlane or Timur), in 1393-4. 1082.
El Mautússim Zakaréëh. Restored in 1387, and reigned till 1390. 1387. E' Náser Fúrreg. His son. 1399.
The Governor of Syria having rebelled, Fúrreg marches against him, takes him prisoner, and puts him to death, 1399-1400.
The Tartars again invade Syria: Fúrreg marches against them, but is defeated, and returns to Egypt, 1400-1.
He recovers Syria, 1405-6.
Abbasséëh in Egypt. A.D. Borgéëh, or Circassian Memlooks. A.D.
El Motawúkkel. Restored again, and died in 1406. 1390. El Munsoor Abd el Azeez. Reigns forty-seven days. 1406.
El Mostain billáh, Aboo 'l Fodl, el Abbas. His son, deposed by Moáïud Shekh, in 1413, and imprisoned at Alexandria till his death. 1406 to 1413. El Náser Fúrreg (restored.)* 1406.
El Moáïud, Aboo l'Nusr, Shekh. The para was, until this reign, of a drachm's weight of silver, and Moáïud coined, instead of it, the moáïudee, now corrupted into máydee. 1412.
El Meduffer Ahmed. 1421.
E' Záher, Aboo 'l Futteh, Tatr. 1421.
E' Sáleh Mohammed. 1421.
El Ashraf, Bursabái, or Borosbai. Attacks Cyprus, and taking John III. prisoner, enforces the regular payment of tribute, 1423-4. 1422.
El Mautuddid billáh aboo 'l Fet-h, Daood. His brother. 1413. Abd el Azeéz, Aboo 'l Mahásin, Yoosef. 1438.
El Mostukfee billáh, Soolaymán. His brother. 1442. E' Záher Geḵmeḵ. 1438.
El Ḵaiem be omr-Illáh, Hamza. His brother; deposed by El Ashraf Eenál, in 1455, and exiled to Alexandria. 1452. El Munsoor Othman. 1453.
El Ashraf Eenál. 1453.
* According to a MS. in my possession, of the Noozhet e' Nazereen.
El Moáïud Ahmed. Gives the crown of Cyprus to James son of John III., on condition of receiving tribute. 1461.
E' Záher Khooshkudm. 1461.
E' Záher Bolbai. 1467.
El Mostunged billáh, Aboo 'l Mahásin Yúsef. His brother. 1455. E' Záher Tumr Boghá. 1467.
El Ashraf Aboo 'l Nusr, Káëdbai (or Ḵaitbay) e' Záheree. After a successful war against the Turks, concludes a treaty of peace with them, 1490-1. 1468.
Fall of Grenada, in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, and extinction of the Moslem power in Spain, 1492.
El Motawúkkel (or Metawúkkel) at Allah, Aboo 'l Ez, Abd el Azeéz. His cousin. 1480. E' Náser Mohammed, Aboo 'l Sadát. Son of Ḵaitbay, reigned six months. 1496.
El Ashraf Ḵansoóh. A Memlook of Ḵaitbay, eleven days. 1496.
El Mostunsik billáh, Yaḵoob, or Mostunsir billáh. His son. 1497. E' Náser Mohammed. Son of Ḵaitbay, one year and a half. 1496.
E' Záher, Aboo Saeed, Ḵansoóh. 1498.
El Ashraf Ganbalát. 1500.
El Ā'del Toman Bai (Bay). 1500.
Abbasséëh. A.D. Borgéëh, or Circassian Memlooks. A.D.
El Motawúkkel al Allah, Mohammed. His son, taken to Constantinople by Sultan Selím. After the death of Selim he returned to Egypt, and reigned there till 1543, when he died, in the time of Daood Pasna. 1517 to 1543. El Ashraf Ḵansoóh el Ghóoree, (or El Ghóree). Defeated by the Turks under Sultan Selím, near Aleppo, and slain. The Turks advance to Egypt. 1501.
El Ashraf Toman Bai, or Toman Bay (his nephew). Elected by the Memlooks to succeed El Ghóree; defeated by the Turks near Heliopolis, and in a second battle taken prisoner, and hanged at the Bab Zooayleh, in Cairo, A.D. 1517. 1517.
In him ended the Caliphate in Egypt. The Sultans of Constantinople thenceforward assumed the title of Caliph.
Sultan Selím abolished the Monarchy, but left the Aristocracy
of the Memlooks, on certain conditions; the chief of which
were — annual tribute, obedience in matters of faith to the
decisions of the Mufti of Constantinople, and the insertion
of the name of the Sultan of the Osmanlis in the public
prayers and on the coin. But the total subversion of the
power of the Memlooks dates, in reality, from the invasion
of the French and the subsequent occupation of Egypt by
the Turks; and the finishing stroke to their real or nominal
power, and to their very existence, has been since put by
Mohammed Ali.


The attention of those who are induced to make researches might be usefully
directed to the following points: —
  • 1. Alexandria. — Ascertain the sites of the buildings of the old city.
  • 2. Canopic branch. — Ascertain the site of Naucratis, Anthylla, and Archandra,
    and the course of the Canopic branch.
  • 3. Saïs. — Excavate, and make a plan of Saïs; at least look for the temple of
  • 4. Delta. — Examine the sites of the ruined towns in the Delta. Look for
    their name in hieroglyphics, and for Greek inscriptions; but particularly
    for duplicates of the Rosetta Stone. Look at Fort Julian below
    Rosetta for the upper part of that stone. A trilingular stone is said to
    be at Menouf, and others at Tanta and Cairo.
  • 5. Heliopolis. — Excavate (if possible) the site of the temple of Heliopolis.
  • 6. Pyramids. — Clear the Sphinx; and look on the N. side for the entrance.
    Look for the hieroglyphic record mentioned in the Greek inscription
    in honour of Balbillus, found before the Sphinx.
  • 7. Memphis. — Make a plan of Memphis. Excavate about the Colossus for
    the temple. Examine the mounds.
  • 8. Look for new names of Memphite kings, about the pyramids, Sakkara, and
    the site of Memphis.
  • 9. About Cairo. — Ascertain the exact height of the column in the Nilometer,
    or Meḵḵeeas at the Isle of Roda. Obtain from the Coptic Convent
    at Babylon the inscription on wood of the time of Diocletian.
  • 10. Look for trilingular stones in the mosks of Cairo.
  • 11. Suez. — Look for an arrow-headed inscription to the N. of Suez, on the
    way to Syria.
  • 12. Onice. — Excavate the mounds of Onice, and look for the temple built
    by Onias.
  • 13. Fyoom. — Excavate about the pyramids or pyramidal buildings of
    Biahmoo, and at the obelisk of Biggig. Examine the site of M. Linant's
    supposed lake.
  • 14. Ahnasieh. — Ascertain the hieroglyphic name of Ahnasieh (Heracleopolis).
  • 15. Oshmoonayn. — Look for and excavate a small temple said to be there.
    Look for names of Bakhan and other foreign kings. Visit Copt convents
    in the neighbourhood.
  • 16. Kom Aẖmar. — Inquire for and visit alabaster quarry in the mountains
    near Kom Aẖmar. Look for hieroglyphics there, and if any, copy them
    all. Go with an Arab of the Desert.
  • 17. Metáhara. — Copy kings' names at the tombs of Metáhara, and columns
    with full-blown lotus capitals.
  • 18. Hermopolitana and Thebaïca Phylace. — Look for tombs in the neighbourhood.
  • 19. Gebel Aboofayda. — Look for and copy hieroglyphics in the tombs of the
  • 20. Examine the white and red convents near Soohag and Itfoo.
  • 21. Ekhmim. — Look for its tombs. Examine the Greek inscription. Ascertain
    the hieroglyphic name of the goddess Thriphis. [See Ekhmim.]
  • 22. How. — Excavate the Ptolemaic temple there.
  • 23. Gow el Kebeer. — Look for the figure of the god Antæus.
  • 24. Ḵasr e' Syád. — Look for old kings' names in the grottoes of the mountain
    behind the village.
  • 25. Thebes. — Copy all the astronomical ceilings in the tomb of Memnon,
    and other tombs of the kings; also the whole series of the sculptures and
    hieroglyphics of one entire tomb.
  • 26. Esné. — Look for inner chambers of the temple behind the portico.
  • 27. Ascertain what town stood near El Ḵenán, and the pyramid of Koola.
  • 28. Edfoo. — Copy the great hieroglyphic inscription of 79 columns.
  • 29. Asouan. — Look for early Saracenic buildings, and the oldest pointed
  • 30. Oasis. — Ascertain the date of the crude brick pointed arch given by
    Mr. Hoskins at Doosh.
  • 31. Ethiopia. — Copy the names and sculptures of Upper Ethiopia, and
    make a list of Ethiopian kings according to their succession, and ascertain
    their dates.
  • 32. Mount Sinai. — Make a plan of the temple at Sarábut el Khadem.
There is a monument in Asia Minor, which is said to be Egyptian. If so,
it is probably one of the stelæ of Sesostris mentioned by Herodotus, and similar
to those on the Lycus, near Beyroot, in Syria; and is worth examining.
It is the figure of a man, cut on the rock, near Nymphio, the ancient Nymphæum,
about 15 feet from the ground, with a javelin in his hand; and was
seen by the Rev. G. Renouard some years ago, who observes that one of the
ancient roads from Mysia to Lydia passed that way. Others are said to be
found near Tyre.

The Noreḵ, a machine used by the modern Egyptians for threshing corn.


In introducing this imperfect Vocabulary, I must observe that it is only
intended for a person travelling in Egypt, to which the dialect I have followed
particularly belongs. I have kept in view, as much as possible, the English
pronunciation, guiding my mode of spelling by the sound of a word, rather
than by its Arabic orthography, and have consequently so far transgressed,

that I have now and then introduced a p, which letter does not exist in Arabic,
but which nevertheless comes near to the pronunciation in certain words. I
have also thought it better to double some of the consonants, in order to point
out more clearly that greater stress is to be put on those letters, rather
than follow the orthography of the Arabic, where one only was used. He,
his, him
, at the end of words, should properly be written with an h; but I have
merely expressed it, as pronounced, with oo. For the verbs, I have preferred
the second singular of the imperative, which in Arabic gives their general
form better than either the present or perfect tense, and is preferable for a
beginner to the músder or infinitive. Those in Italics are either derived
from, have been the origin of, or bear analogy to, an European or other
foreign word.
I may also observe, that I have sometimes introduced words used only by
the Arabs (of the desert), and some of the common expressions of the people,
in order that these (when of frequent occurrence) might not be unknown to a
traveller; but in general the first and second words are the most used.
The four kinds of Arabic are the ammee, vulgar or jargon; dárig, common
parlance; lóghawee, literal; and náhwee, grammatical.


The a, as in father; ay, as in may; ā or ā very broad, and frequently nasal.
E, as in end; ee as in seek; eëh, nearly as i, in the Italian mi.
Ai and ei, as in German, or as y in my; but ai, rather broader. A single
e, at the end of words, as in Doge, stroke, &c.
I, as in is. J, as in English, but for it I have almost always used g.
Indeed in Lower Egypt the g (gim), which should be soft, like our j, is
made hard, and pronounced as if followed by a short i, like the Italian word
Ghiaccio; but whatever letter it precedes or follows, it should properly be
pronounced soft. For the ghain, however, I am obliged to use gh, a hard
guttural sound. Dj as j.
H, as our h; and with a dot, a very hard aspirate.
K, as in kill.
For the ḵaf, or gaf, I have used with a dot, or line, below it. Its sound
is very nearly that of a hard g, almost guttural, and much harder than our c,
in cough. Indeed it is frequently pronounced so like a g that I have sometimes
used that letter for it.
Kh, as the German ch and Greek ξ, but much more guttural.
O, as in on, unless followed by w.
O, as in go; ō and ô, rather broader; oo, as in moon; ow, as in cow.
R is always to be distinctly pronounced, as well as the h in a; this is
frequently as hard as ch in loch.
S, and sh, as in English; but , a hard and rather guttural sound.
T, as in English; and with a line, , very hard, almost as if preceded
by u. Dth is like our th in that.
U, as in bud; qu, as in English, when followed by another vowel: as
quiyis, or queiïs, “pretty.”
Y, as in yes at the commencement, and as in my in the middle of syllables.
Before words beginning with t, the, g, d, dth, r, z, s, sh, and n, the l of the
article el is ellipsed, and the e alone pronounced; thus, el shemál reads
e'shemál, the left, or with the consonant doubled, esh-shemál; e' ras, or
er-rás, the head. The doubled consonant indeed is nearer the pronunciation.
Words within a parenthesis are either uncommonly used, as khobs, kisra
for “bread,” or are intended, when similar to the one before, to show the

pronunciation, as maḵasheh (magasheh), a “broom;” though the two words
are often only separated by or, and a comma. Some give another meaning.
I ought to observe that the difference of letters, as the two h's, t's, and others,
are not always marked, but those only which I have thought of most importance,
and in some words only here and there, to show their orthography.
Able ḵáder.
About howalaýn.
Above fōk, or foke.
Absurdity mus'khera.
Abundance zeeádeh.
Abuse, v. ish'tem.
Abuse, s. sheteémeh.
Abusive language id.
By accident; see By force ghusbinánee (i. e. in spite of myself).
Accounts, or reckoning hesáb.
Add up eg'mā.
Adore ábed.
Advantage, profit fýda, or fáideh, nef'fā.
Afraid kheif (khyf).
I am afraid ana kheif, a-kháf.
After bād.
Afterwards bā'dén, bād-zálik.
Again Kummun, kummun nóba, tánee.
Age om'r.
His age om'roo.
Agent wekeél.
Long ago zemán.
Agree, v. ittef'fuḵ.
We agreed together itteffuḵ'na wéeabād.
Air how'a, or how'eh
Alabaster mar'mor, boorfeér.
Alive hei, s̱áẖeh (awake).
All, collectively gimleh, gemméeān.
All kool, loolloo, pl. kool,-koohom.
All together koolloo weeabad, kolloohom sow'a.
At all wásel.
Allow, v. khal'lee.
Almond lōz, or loze.
Aloe subbára.
Alphabet ab'ged.
Also la'kher, gazálik, aíḏun.
Alter, v. ghéier.
Altitude ertifáh.
Alum sheb.
Always déiman, or dýman.
Amber kaẖrámán.
America Yénḵee doóneea (Turkish, i.e. the New World).
Amuse, v. itwun'nes.
Anchor mur'seh, hélb.
Ancient Ḵadeém, antéeḵa.
The ancients e'nas el ḵadeém.
And oo.
Et cætera oo ghayr zálika.
Angel malák, pl. maléiïkeh.
Anger ḵahr, gẖudb, zemk, homḵ.
To be angry ez'muḵ, ez'muḵ, ugh'dub, inham'meḵ.
Angle zow'yeh.
Animal hýwán.
Ankle kholkhál.
Annoy, v. iz'āl.
Annoyed zālán. [ghayroo.
Another wahed tánee, wáhed
Answer gowáb (jowáb).
Answer, v. rood, or roodd.
You are answerable for el'zemak.
Ant nem'el, or neml.
Antimony koẖl (for the eyes). Ezek. xxiii. 40.; 2 Kings, ix. 30.
Ape ḵird, pl. ḵoróod (goróod).
Apostle rossoól.
Apparel lips (libs), hedoóm, howáig.
It appears bain, or býin.
Appetite nefs.
Apple [mata) teffáh.
Love apple (to- bedingán ḵóta.
Custard apple kish'teh.
Apricot (fresh or dry) mish'mish.
Apricot dried sheet of, kumredéen (kumr eddéen).
Arabic A'rabee.
In Arabic bil A'rabee.
Arab (i.e. of the desert) Beddowee, pl. Ārab* (Shekh el Arab, an Arab chief).
Arch, bridge ḵantara.
Architect mehéndez.
The ark of Noah sefeénet saýdna Noóeh.
Arm (of man) drah.
Arms (weapons) silláẖ, soolláẖ.
Arrange, v. sullah, súl-lah.
Arrangement tusléëẖ.
Art, skill sun'nā.
Artichoke khar-shóof.
As zay.
Be, or I am, ashamed astaýhee, akhtíshee.
Ashes roomád.
Ass hōmár.
Ask, v. essāl, saal.
Ask for, v. étloob.
Assist, v. sād, saad.
At fee, and.
Avaricious tummā'.
Awake, v. a. sáheh.
Awake, v. n. as'her.
Awl mukh'ruz.
Awning (of a boat, &c.) esh'eh, tenda (Ital).
Axe, or hatchet bal'ta.
Pickaxe. fás, toóree (Coptic).
Back dáhr, ḵuffá'.
Bad (see Good) rádee, wáhesh, moosh-ṯy'eb.
A bag kees, or keese.
Bald aḵ'ra.
Ball kō'ra.
Balsam belisán.
Banana mōz (moze).
Bank of a river gerf.
Barber mezaýin, mezaýn.
Bark, v. hábháb.
Bark, s. ḵishr (gishr).
Barley shayéer.
Barrel burmeél.
Basket muḵ'taf, ḵóffah.
Basket (of palm sticks) ḵáffass.
Wicker — me-shénneh.
Bason tusht, or tisht.
Bat (bird) watwát. pl. watawéet
Bath hammám.
Bathe, v. istahámma.
Battle harb, shemmata.
Bead kharras, hab.
Beads, string of, carried by the Moslems sib'ha.
Beans fool.
Bear, support, v. is'ned; (raise) er'fā [see Carrys].
Bear, put up with, v. istah'mel.
A bear dib'-h.
Beard dagn, daḵn.
His beard daḵnoo.
Beat, v. id'rob (drub).
A beating derb, hal'ḵa, kut'leh.
Beau, dandy shellebee.
Beauty queiása, ḵoueiása.
Beautiful quéi-is,quiyis.
Because seb'bub, beseb'bub.
Become ib'ḵa (ib'ga).
Bed fersh, fursh.
Bedstead serér.
Bee dabóor (dabboór).
Hive-bee nāhl, náh-I.
Beef Iahm buḵḵar, Iahm khishn.
Beetle górán or jōrán, khónfus.
Before (time) ḵub'lee.
Before (place) ḵod-dám.
Beg,v. ish-hat.
Beggar shahát.
The beginning el owel, el as'sel, assl, el ebtidáh.
Behind warra, min ḵuffáh.
Believe,v. sed'deḵ.
I do not believe ana-ma aseddeḵ'shee or lem aseddeḵ.
Bell gilgil,naḵóos.
Belly ban, or boṯn.
* Beddowee and Arab have the same meaning; one is singular, the other plural: thus “that is an Arab,” “da Beddowee;” “those are Arabs,” “dól Ārab.”
This belongs to me deh betáee,f. dee (betẖatee is used, but is vulagar).
Below; (see Under) taẖ-t.
A bench mus'taba.
Bend,v. et'nee, inten'nee.
Bent (crooked) métnee (māóog).
Berry. hab.
Besides gh yr, kheláf.
Besides—, except l'.
The best el aẖ'-san.
Better aẖ'-san, a-kháyr.
You had better do so aẖ'san támel keddee.
A bet ráhaneh.
Betray,v. khoon.
Between bayn.
Beyond bad, warra (i.e. behind).
Bible towrát.
Big kebéer.
Bill, account. hesáb.
Bird, small asfóor.
Bird, large tayr.
Bit, piece het'teh.
Bit of a horse legâm.
Bite,v. odd,or āód.
Bitter morr.
Black as'wed,f. sóda or sōdeh; az'reḵ (blue, or jet black).
Blade silláẖ.
Blanket herám, buttanéëh.
Blind amián.
Blood dum.
Blow,v. um'fookh.
A blow derb; on the face, kuff (English,cuff).
Blue (see Colours) az'reḵ, kōẖ'lee.
Light blue genzáree, scanderánee.
Sky-blue semmáwee.
Blunt bard (i.e. cold).
A wild boar ẖalóof.
A board Iōẖ.
Boat seféeneh, ḵyáseh, feloókah.
Boat, ship mérkeb.
Boatman nóotee, marákebee, týfeh.
Body gessed, bed'dan.
Boil,v. ighlee.
Boiled (water) mugh'lee.
Boiled (meat) masloóḵ.
Bone ādm, ādthm, āthm.
Book ketáb, pl. koóttub.
Boot gez'ma.
Border harf, terf (turf).
Border of cloth, selvage keenár.
Born mowloód.
Borne, raised merfóā.
Borrow sellef.
Both el ethnéen, wáhed oo e'tánee, dee oo dee (i.e. this and that).
Bottle ḵezás, ḵezáz (i.e. glass).
Bottle, square mourub'ba.
Bottle, earthen, for water ḵoolleh, dórak, bardak (Turkish).
Bottom, of a box, &c. ḵar (gar).
Bow ḵōs (ḵōz).
Bow and arrows ḵōs̱'oo nisháb.
Bowl ku̱̱āh.
Box sendóok, pl. senadéek.
Small box el'beh, as elbet e'neshōk, a snuffbox.
Boy wellet, or wullud (whence valet).
Brain mōkh.
Brandy ar'rakay (árakee).
Brass náháss-ásfer, espedráyg.
Brave geddā.
Bread esh (khobs, ki̱'sra).
Roll of bread raḵéef esh.
Breadth ord.
Breadth, extent wússā.
Break,v. ek'ser.
Broken maksóor; (cut, as a rope), muḵtoóā.
Breakfast fotoór.
Breast súdr (sídr).
Breath neffes (nef'fess).
Bribe berteeél.
Brick ḵáleb, toob áẖ-mar.
Crude brick toob ny.
Bride haroóseh.
Bridge ḵan'tara.
Bright menówer.
Bright shining Iámā–it is, yílmā.
Bright light colour maftóoẖ.
Bringv. āāt, geéb.
Broad āréed.
Broad extensive wása.
Broom me-ḵásheh (pronounced magásheh).
Brother akh.
His brother akhóo; my—akhóoia (ya).
Brother-in-law neséeb.
Brush foor'sheh.
Buckle ebzéem, bezeém.
Buffalo gamóos.
Buffoon Sóotaree.
Bug buḵ (Engl. bug).
Build eb'nee.
A building benái, bináieh.
Bull tōr or tōre (taurus).
Burden, or load of camels hem'leh.
Buried madfoón.
Burn,v. aẖ'reḵ, ḵeed.
Burnt malōóḵ.
Bury,v. id'fen.
Business shoghl.
Busy mashghoól.
But,adv. láken, lákín, likán.
Butter semn, més-lee.
Butter, fresh zib'deh.
Buy,v. ish'teree.
By,pr. be (by kindness, bil māróof).
Cabbage kroómb.
Cabin maḵat (mag'at).
Cabin, inner khaz'neh.
Cable, rope ẖábl (cable).
Cairo Mus̱r, Mus̱r el Ḵáherah, Miśr.
Cake káhk (cake.)
Calamity dur'rer, azéëh.
Calculate,v. aẖ'seb.
Calico (originally Calcutta) buf'teh.
Caliph Khaléefeh.
Call, v. en'dā, kellem, nádem.
It is called es'moo, iḵóolahoo.
What is it called? es'moo áy? esh es'moo?
What is his name? es'moo áy? esh es'moo?
A calm ghaléenee.
Camel; (see Ship) gem'mel, pl. gemál.
Camel, female náḵa (náḵeh).
Camel, young male ḵaot (gaóot).
Camel, young female buk'kara.
Camp or'dee (whence horde?).
Camphor kafóor.
I can ana aḵ'der.
I cannot ma-aḵdér-shee.
Candle shem'mā.
Candle, wax shemma skanderánee.
Candlestick shemmadán.
Cannon mad'feh.
Cap, red tarbóosh.
Cap, white taḵéea (takéëh).
Capacious wása.
Caravan ḵaf'leh.
Care igtehád.
Take care ō-ā.
Take care of aẖ' fuz, istaẖ'rus.
I don't care ana málee.
I don't about it (or him) ana málee oo maloo.
Carpenter negár (nujjár).
Carpet segádeh.
Carpet, large keléem, boossát.
Carrion fateés, fatéese.
Carry, lift, v. sheel, ayn; érfa.
Carry, raise,
Carry away, v. sheel, wod'dee.
Cart, carriage arabéeh, áraba.
Cartridge rem'ieh, tāméreh.
Case (étui) zerf, bayt, élbeh, hōḵ.
Cat koṯṯ (goṯṯ, f. goṯṯa): bissáys; biss.
Catch, v. el'haḵ.
Catch, in the hand el'ḵoof.
Cattle bahéem, booḵár.
Cauliflower karnabeét.
The cause e'sebbub.
A cave maghára.
Ceiling suḵf.
The centre el woost (middle).
Cerasters snake héi bil ḵōróon.
Certainly māloóm, maloómak, helbét we laboób.
Chain sil'sileh, pl. selásil.
Chair, stool ḵoor'see, pl. karásee.
Chamber ō'da, pl. ōad.
Chance, good fortune bukht, nuséeb, rizḵ (risk, risque).
Charcoal faẖ'm.
Charity has'aneh, sow-áb, lilláh.
A charm hegáb.
Chase, v. istád.
Chase, s. sayd.
Cheap ra-kheés.
Cheat, v. ghushm, ghush-im, ghish.
Cheek khud.
Cheese gibn.
Cherrystick pipe shébook keráys.
Child, boy wulled.
Children welád.
Choke, strangle,v. itkhinniḵ.
Choose,v. nuḵ'ḵee (nug'gee).
Christian nusránee *, pl. Nassára.
Church kenéesh.
Cinnamon ḵeer'feh (i.e. bark).
Circle déira, dýreh.
Cistern hōd, hōde.
Citadel ḵálā
City, capital medéeneh.
Civet zubbet, zubbedéh.
Civility māróof.
Clean, v. nadduf.
Clean as a pipe sel'lik.
Clean, adj. nadeéf.
Clear réi-iḵ, rýeḵ.
Clever sháter.
Cleverness shutára.
Cloak bórnoos.
Close, near garéi-ib (garý-ib).
Close, v. iḵ'fel.
Closet khaz'neh.
Cloth gooh.(see Linen.)
Clouds ghaym, saháb.
Clover bersim' (burséem).
Coals fahm hag'gar.
A live coal bus'sa, bussa-t-nar, gumr.
Coarse, rough khishn.
Coast bur, shet.
Cobweb ankabóot.
Cock deek (Engl. dick, bird).
Cock-roach sursár.
Coffee ḵah'-weh.
Raw coffee bonn, bon.
Coffee-pot búkrag, ténnekeh (see Cup).
Coins gid'dat, or giddud.
Cold bard.
The cold el berd, e' suḵḵā (sugā).
Collect, v. lim.
College mad'-resee.
Colour lôn(lone), pl. elwán. shikl, pl. ashkál.
Colours elwán, ashkál.
black as'wed, az'reḵ; f.
sōda, zer'ḵa.
white ab'iad, f. baýda.
red aẖA'mar, f. ẖam'ra.
scarlet wer'dee.
dark red aẖ'mar dóodéh.
purple blue óodee.
purple men'oweésh.
primrose bum'ba.
peach khókh-ee.
peach of ashes roomádee.
green ákhder, f. khádra.
dark blue az'reḵ, f. zer'ḵa, kō'ẖlee.
light blue genzáree, skanderánee.
sky blue semmáwee.
brown as'mar, f. sam'ra.
light brown kammóonee.
yellow as'fer, f. saf'fra.
orange portoḵánee.
spotted menuḵ' rush (menug' rush), munḵoósh.
dark colour ghámuk.
light muftóoẖ.
Comb misht.
Come,v. ig'gee.
Come up, v. et'lā fōk (fōke).
I am (he is) coming ána (hooa) géi.(gy) [tāāl.
Come here tāāl hennee, tāāl gei,
* “He shall be called a Nazarence.”
I came ána gayt.
Common, low wátee.
Compass boos'leh, bayt-ébree.
Compasses bee-kár.
Complain, v. ish'-kee.
Complain of, v. ishtek'ee.
Composed of mitruk'kib min.
Consequently, behay's in (since).
Consulate bayt el Ḵónsol.
Consult, v. show'er (show'wer).
Constantinople Stambóol, Istambóol.
Continent, land, shore búr (burr). [bóol.
Continue, v. istamír, ber'dak.
Convent dayr.
Conversation hadéet.
Cook tabbákh.
Cook, v. et'bookh.
Cooked, meat tabeékh.
Cooked, drest. mestow'ee.
The cool e' tarow'eh, taraw'eh.
Coop, for poultry kaf'fass.
Copper nahass.
A copy (of book) noos'kha, nooskheh.
Cord (See Rope) hábl, hab'bel.
Cork, of a bottle ghuttā ḵezáss.
Corn ghulleh.
Indian corn, or mayz Doóra Shámee.
Corn, or wheat ḵumh (gumh).
Cornelian haggar haḵeéḵ.
Corner roók-n.
Corner, projecting, of a mountain ḵoor'neh (goorna).
It costs es'-wa.
Cotton ḵôton.
Cotton stuff ḵotnéëh.
Cover, v. ghuttee.
Cover ghutta.
Cough ḵōhh, seẖ1.
Count, v. ed, áẖ-seb.
A country belled, eḵleém.
The country el khulla, el khal'a.
A couple [half gōz, ethnéen (two)
A couple and a gōz oo ferd.
Cousin ebn am, f. bint am.
Cousin on mother's side ebn khal.
Cow buḵḵar, buḵḵara, pl. booḵar boogár) (Lat. Vacca.)
Coward khowáf, (khowwáf.)
Cream kish'teh.
Creator el kháluḵ.
Creation khulḵ.
A crack, fissure shuk (shug.)
Cracked máshóok.
Crocodile temsáẖ, pl. temaséeẖ.
Crooked māóog.
Cross seléeb.
Cross, out of humour zemḵán, zālán.
Crow ghoráb.
Cruel moẖ'zee, hásee.
Cruelty azéëh, azāb.
Cultivate, v. ez'rā, i. e. sow.
Cunning, artful sáẖab ẖay'leh, sáẖab dubar'ra.
Cup solṯ anéëh.
Cup glass koba, koobái, koobaíeh.
Coffee-cup fingán.
Coffee-cup stand zerf.
Cure, v. ṯéieb (ṯý-eb).
To be cured iṯéeb.
It is cured ṯáb.
Curious, wonderful agéeb, gharéeb (strange).
Curtain setárah.
Custom-house diwán [douane].
Cushion mekhud'deh.
Cut, v. eḵ'tā.
Cut with scissors, v. koo's.
Cut, part. p. muḵ-toóā, meḵuttā.
Cut out, as clothes, v. fussel.
The cutting out e' tufséel.
Dagger sekéen, khánger.
— large gembéëh, yatagán, yatakan (Turk.).
Damp, a. táree.
Damp s taráwa, rotóobeh.
Dance v. er'kus.
Danger khòf (i. e. fear).
Dark Dates ghámuḵ bel'taẖ.
Date tree, palm nakhl.
Daughter bint.
Day yôm, pl. iyám, náẖr.
to-day el yôm, e' naẖr dee.
every day kool yôm, koollyô'm.
in days of old áiam e'zemán, zemán.
a day's journey from hence saffer yôm min hen'nee.
from the day (or time), I came min náẖr ma gáyt, min yôm in gayt.
in those days (fee or) fil aiam dôl.
now, in these days el-yôm, fee haza el waḵt.
Sunday el had, naẖr el had.
Monday el ethnéen.
Tuesday e'thelát.
Wednesday el e'rbā.
Thursday el khamées.
Friday e' goómā.
Saturday e' sebt (see Morning).
Dead, s. mýit, méi-it, pl. mýetéen.
Dead, died, a. mat
Deaf at'trush.
Deal plank lōẖ béndooḵee (i. e. Venetian).
A great deal keteér ḵow'ee.
Dear ghálee, āzéez.
Dear, in price ghálee.
My dear to a woman ya ẖabéebee.
ya ẖabéebtee, ya aýnee, ya aynáy, ya ayóonee, i. e. my eye, my two eyes; ya róẖee, my soul.
Death môt.
Debt dayn.
Deceitful mukkár.
Deep ghareeḵ, ghowéet.
The Deluge e' toofán.
Deny, v. in'kir, unkóor.
Derived from mooshtúḵ min.
Descend, v. in'zel.
Descent nezóol.
The desert el burréëh, e'gebál, (i. e. the mountains).
Destiny neséeb.
The Devil e'Shaytán, el Eblées.
Dew nedda.
Diamond fuss, almás (Turk.).
Dictionary ḵamóos.
Die, v. moot.
He is dying bemóot.
He died mat, itwuf'fa.
Different beshḵa, beshḵeh.
Difficult saāb, war, tekéel, ḵásee.
Dig fāāt, ef'āt.
Diligence eg'tehád.
Dinner ghúdda.
Directly ḵawám; — in answer to a call, ẖáder.
Dirty wus'sukh.
Disgust (to sight or taste) ḵur'ruf (gurruf).
I am disgusted with it ana áḵruf mín oo.
Disposition tubbā.
Dispute, v. ẖanuḵ, it-ẖanuk.
A great distance mésh wár keeber, bayít.
Divide, v. eḵ'sum.
Divided maḵsoóm.
Do ámel (efāāl, sow'wee).
I have nothing to do with it ana máleesh dáwa boo.
I cannot do without it ma astag'nash (astaḵnash) an'oo.
Doctor ẖakím (ẖakéem).
Dog kelb.
Dollar (coin) réeal-fránza.
A Dome ḵoobbeh (al ḵoobbeh, alcoba, alcove).
Door bab (see Gate).
Dot nooḵ'teh.
Double, v. et'nee.
Dove yemám.
Ringdove ḵim'ree.
Draw, v. sow'er; ik'tub, i. e. write.
Draw out (as teeth) eḵ'la (eg'la).
Drawing tassowéer, sóora, ketábeh.
Drawers lebáss.
Drawers chest of beshtukh'ta(Turk).
Dress libs (lips).
Dress, v. el'bes.
Drink, v. ish'rob.
Drive, v. sooḵ (soog).
Dromedarist, courĭer haggán.
Dromedary heg'gin.
Drop, v. nuḵḵed.
A drop nooḵteh.
Drown, v. egh'-ruḵ, ghérreḵ.
A Druggist attár.
Dry ná-shef.
Dry, v. a. in'-shef.
Dry v. n. nésh-ef.
Duck, goose wiz.
Dumb ekh'-rus.
Dust trob, trab.
Duty wágeb.
it is my (his) duty wágeb-aláy.
Dwell, v. is'koon.
Dye, v. es'boogh.
Dye, dyer sabágh, sabbágh.
Each kóol-e-wáhed (every one).
Eagle aḵáb, oḵáb.
Ear widn.
Early bed'ree, bed'ree.
Earth ard.
East sherḵ.
Easy sáẖil, saẖ'leh.
Eat, v. kool, ákool.
Edge harf.
Edge of a sword, &c. had.
Egg bayd.
Egyptian Mus'ree, belledee, i. e. of the country.
Egypt Musr, ard Musr, Misr.
Upper Egypt e' Sā'eed.
Elbow kóoā.
Elephant feel.
Nothing else, there is nothing else. ma feesh hágee gháyroo; lem fée ha shay gháyrha.
Emerald zoomóorrud.
Empty fargh.
Empty, v. fer'regh.
The end el ákher.
The end, its end e'terf, ter'foo, ákheroo.
The enemy el ádoo, addoo.
English Ingléez, Inḵléez.
Enough bess, bizeeádeh.
It is enough ik'feh, yikfeh, ikef'fee.
Enquire, v. istuk'see.
Enter, v. id'-khol, khosh.
Entering dákhil.
Entire koolloo, kámel.
Entrails mussaréen.
Envy ghéereh.
Equal to ḵud, ála ḵud.
Equal to each other, alike ḵud-e-bad, zaybád.
Escape, v. et'fush, yetfush.
he escaped tuffush.
he has escaped with his life omroo towéel, neffed be ómroo.
An estate, rented ard (or belled) eltizám.
An property, possession milk.
Europe Európa, béled (belled), el Frang.
European kings el ḵóronat el Frang.
European people Frang, Afrang.
English Inglées, Inḵleés.
French Franseés.
Frenchman Fransoẃee.
Germans Nemsoweeh.
a German Nemsoẃee.
Russians Mosko, Moskowéëh.
a Russian Moskow'ee.
Italians Italiáni.
Poland Lekh.
Hungary Muggar
Greeks Erooam'.
a Greek Róomee.
Spain Beled el An'daloos.
Even, level, equal mesow'wee (mesáwee).
Even, also hat'ta.
Good evening (see Morning). messekoom bil khayr, sal khayr, sād messākoom.
The evening el messa, el āshéëh.
Every kool.
On every side fee kool e' náhia.
Every one koolle wáhed, koollohom (all).
Every where fee kool e'-mátrah, fee kool e'doóneea.
Every moment koolle saa.
Evident bein (bain, býin).
Evil rádee.
Exaction bal'sa.
Exactly temám, i.e. perfect.
Exactly so bizátoo.
Exactly like it zaýoo sow'-a, mitloo sow'-a, bizátoo.
For example mus'salen.
To excavate efāt, fāt.
Excavation fāt, fāāt.
Excellent āzeém.
Your Excellency genábak, hádretak (your presence), sādtak, (— highness), pl. genábkoom, hádratkoom, sādetkoom.
Except, adv. illa.
Exchange bed-del, ghéier.
Excuse heg'geh, pl. heg'geg, ōz'r.
Excuse me, I beg pardon ma takhoznásh, el āfoo.
Execute, decapitate dya, deia, deí-ya.
Expend, v. deía (deí-ya, dý-ya).
Expense kool'feh.
Expenses (of a house) masróof.
Explain, expound. fusser.
An extraordinary thing shay āgeéb, agéiib, shay gharéeb.
The eye el ayn, pl. el aīóon.
Eyeball habbet el ayn.
Eyebrow há-geb, pl. howágib.
Eyelash rimsh.
Eyelid ḵobbet el ayn.
The face el wish (el widj).
Faint, v. dookh.
A fair price temn hallál, temn menáseb.
Very fair, tolerable menáseb.
A fairy gin.
Faith (creed), testimony of shaháda.
Fall, v. uḵa, yoóḵa.
False keddáb.
His family aẖl baytoo, áẖloo.
Fan mérwáẖa.
Far bay-ít.
How far from this? ḵud-ay min hénnee.
A farce, or absurdity mús-khera.
Farrier beetār.
Farther abbād, ábād.
Fat, a. seméen, ghaleet.
Fat, s. semn, shahm, dehn.
Father ab, abóo, abée.
Fatigue tāāb.
Fault zemb.
It is not my fault mā'leesh zemb, mā'leesh daw'a.
Do me the favour, kindness āmel māróof, āmelni el māróof.
Favorisca, (Ital.) tefod'thel, tefod'del.
Fear khōf, khófe.
A feast azoómeh.
Feather reesh.
Feel, v. hassus.
Female netái, netéieh, netý, oónseh.
Ferry-boat mādéëh.
Field el ghayt.
Fig tin.
Fight, v. kátel, háreb.
A fight ketál, harb, shémmata.
File mub'red.
Fill, v. em'la.
Find, v. el'ḵah (elga).
Finger subā, (soobá).
Fore finger e' sháhed.
Middle — subā el woostánee.
Fourth — bayn el asába.
Little — khansur.
It is finished khalás, khá-les, khul'les, khólset. f.
Fire nar.
Fire, live coal bus'sa, bus'set-nár, gumr, jum'ra.
Fire a gun id'rob (or sýeb), bendooḵéëh.
The first el ow'-el, el owelánee.
When first I came ow'el ma gaýt.
At first ow'elen.
Fish semmuk.
Fisherman sý-ád, semmák.
Flag baýrek, banday'ra, san' gak.
Flat mebuttut.
Flax kettán.
Flea berghoót.
Flesh laẖm.
Flint sowán.
Flour daḵeéḵ.
Flower zahr, nowáh.
A fly debán (debbán).
Fly-flap menash'eh.
Fly, v.. teer.
Fog shaboór.
Fool magnoón.
Foot ḵúddum (gudm).
Footstep at'ter (attar).
For me-shán, ali-shán.
Force ghusb. (ghusp)
By force, in spite of him ghusbinánoo, ghusb āláy.
Forehead koóreh.
Forehead, lower part of gebeén.
Foreign barránee, ghareéb.
To speak in a foreign language értun; subst. rotán.
Forget, v. in'sa.
I forgot ana neseét.
Do not forget ma tinsásh.
Forgive me sud, málésh.
Forgive, v. se-máh.
Fork shōk (shoke).
Formerly Zemán.
Good fortune bukht, neséeb, risḵ.
Fountain feskéëh.
A fowl fur'-kher, faróog.
Fox abool-hossaýn, táleb.
Free horr.
Frenchman Franzówee, pl. Franzées. Fran'gee is a corruption of Français; it is frequently used as a term of reproach, but never as freeman.
Fresh, new gedeét.
Fresh (fruit) ṯar'ree; f. ṯaréëh.
Fresh water (sweet) moie hélweh.
Friend sáẖeb, ẖabéeb, reféeḵ, i. e. companion.
From min.
Fruit fowákee.
Fuel weeḵéd.
Full melán, melián.
Fur furweh.
Further ábád.
Gain (profit) muk'seb.
Gallop, v. er'maẖ.
Game (caccia) sayd.
Garden ginnaýneh, bostán, pl. ginneín, bussateén.
Gardener genaynátee.
Garlic tôm.
Gate (door) bab, pl. bibán, or aboáb.
Gather up, v. lim.
Gazelle ghazál, dubbee.
A general sáree-ásker (sarasker).
Generosity kar'rem.
He is generous éedoo maftoóh, i. e. his hand is open.
Gentlemanly rágel lateéf, rágel zereéf.
Gently be-shwō'-esh, ála maẖlak.
Get up ḵoom.
Gift hadéëh, bak-shéesh, (bakshish.)
Gilt medá-hab, mútlee be dáhab.
Gimlet bereémeh.
Gold dá-hab, dtháhab.
Ginger genzabeél.
Gipsey ghug'ger.
Gird, v. haz'zem, it-haz'zem.
Girl bint.
Give, v. id'dee, ā'-tee.
Glad fer-ẖán.
To be glad, v. éf-rah or effrah.
Glass ḵezáss.
Globe kóra.
Glove shuráb (i. e. stocking).
Glue gher'reh.
Gnat namoós.
Go, v. rooẖ.
Go, get away, v. im'shee, foot.
Go in, v. id'-khool, hōsh'.
Gone raẖ.
Going rýeh.
Going in, p. da'khel.
Going in, s. dokhóol.
I am going ana rye.
He is gone hooa raẖ.
I went ana rōẖt.
Go out, v. ekh'roog, étla, étla bar'ra.
Do not go out la-tétla, ma tetlash bar'ra.
Goat maý-zeh.
She goat an'zeh.
Kid giddee.
God(our Lord) Alláh(e'rob'boona).
A god or deity Illah, as la illáh il' Alláh, “there is no deity but God.”
Good ṯeieb, ṯýeb, me-léëh.
Good, excellent mádan(i. e.a mine).
Good for nothing bat-tál, ma es-wash hágeh.
Pretty good, fair menáseb.
Goose wiz.
Gossip,v. dur'dish.
Governor,-ment hákem, hōkmeh.
The government el bayléeḵ, el wes̱éëh.
Gradual, little by little shwō'-ya be shwō' ya.
A grain hab.
A weight ḵumh.
Grand ā-zeém.
Gratis bellésh.
Gratitude mā'refet e'gemeél.
A grave toórbeh, pl. toórob.
Grease ziffr.
Great kebéer, pl. koobár.
Greek Roómee, borrowed from Romanaus.
Ancient Greek Yoonánee, i. e. Ionian
Grieved (it has) hazéën(sāb āláy).
Grind, v. ís-ẖan.
A mortar mús-ẖan, ẖōn (hōne).
Grind(in a mill), v. ít-ẖan.
Groom sý-is, seíïs.
Grotto ma-ghára.
The ground el ard.
A guard ghufféer, pl. ghúffara.
Guard of a sword bur'shuk.
Guard, v. istaẖ'rus.
By guess be tekh-meén.
A guide khebeéree.
He is not guilty má loósh zemb.
Gum sumgh.
Gun bendooḵéëh (being originally brought from Venice by the Arabs), baroót.
Gunpowder baroót.
Gypsum gips (gibs).
Hair shar.
Half noos, noosf.
In halves noosaýn.
Halt, v. wuk'kuf (wugguf).
Hammer, axe ḵadoóm.
A hand eed, yed.
Handful keb'sheh.
Handkerchief mandéel, máẖ-rama.
Hand, v. now'el.
Happen eg'ra, yig'ra, yes̱éer.
Happened gerra, sār.
Happy fer-hán, mabsoót.
Harbour mer'seh, scála.
Hard gámed, yábes.
Hare, rabbit er'neb.
Harm dur'rer, doróora, zurrer
To do harm, v. door, idóor.
There is no harm (see Never mind) ma feesh durrer.
In haste ḵawám, belággel.
A hat bornayta (from Ital.)
Hatchet bal'ta, ḵadoóm.
Hate, v. ek'rah, yek'rah.
I have an'dee.
Have you? an'dak?
Hawk suḵr.
Hay drees.
He, it hoóa (she —), héea.
Head rās, demágh.
Heal, v. iṯéeb.
Heap kôm (kôme).
Hear, v. es'-ma.
Heart ḵulb.
Heat, v. sa'khen, ham'mee
Heat,s. ẖar, sōkhnéëh, ẖam'moo.
Heaven semma.
Heaven, paradise gen'neh.
Heavy teḵéel.
Hebrew Hebránee, Yahóodee
The heel el kāb.
Height él-oo, elloo, ertifáh.
High ground elwáich.
Hell gohen'nem.
Herbs ha-shéesh, khō-dár.
Here hennee, hen'i.
Here it (he) is a-hó, a-hó hennee.
Come here taal hennee.
Hereafter min de'lwáḵt,min elyōm, min-oo rýe.
Hide, v. khub/bee.
Hidden mista-khub/bee.
High aálee.
Hill kôm,gébel (gebbel).
Hinder, v. hôsh.
Hire, s. kerree, ar'ruḵ, ógera; v. ek'ree.
His betá-oo; betáhtoo, fem.
Hold, v. im'sek.
Hole kherḵ.
Bored, pierced makhrooḵ.
Hollow fargh.
His home báytoo.
At home fil bayt.
Honest man rágel mazboót.
Honey assal ab'iad, assal e'nahl.
Hook (fish) sunnára.
Hooks(and eyes) khobshát.
Hooka sheésheh, narḵileh (Turk.).
Hooka snake ly, lei.
I hope, or please God Inshállah.
Horn horn; pl. ḵoróon.
Horse hossán.
Horses khayl.
Mare farras.
Colt mōẖ'r.
Horseman khý-ál, fá-res.
Hot ẖá-mee, sókhn.
Hot weather ẖar.
House bayt, men'zel, mes'kun.
Hour sāā.
How kayf.
How do you do? kaýfak, zaý - ak, kayf-el-kayf, ṯýebéen.
Human insanéëh.
Humbug, prevaricator. sheḵlebán (sheg-lebán), khab'bás.
Humidity rotóobeh, taráweh.
Humidity (dew) (neddeh).
Hundred méea, maia.
Two hundred meetáyn.
Three hundred toólte-meéa.
Hūngry gayā'n, jayán.
Hunt, v. s̱eed, is̱ṯád, ét-rood e's̱áyd.
Hunter s̱yád, ghunnás, bōárdee, with gun.
In order that you may not hurt his feelings, or disappoint him leg'leh ma teksérshee khátroo.
Husbandman fel-láẖ; pl. fellaẖéen.
Husband gôz, zōge.
Hyena dob'h, dobbh.
I ána.
Jackal ṯáleb.
Jar jar'ra, ḵiddreh.
Javelin har'beh, khisht.
Ice telg.
Identical bizátoo.
Idle tum'bal, battál.
Idol sóora, mas-khóota.
Jealousy gheéreh.
Jerusalem el Ḵotts [Cadytis.]
Jessamine yesméen.
In jest bil dehek; see Joke.
Jew Yahóodee.
Ancient Jews Béni Izraéel.
If in-kán, izakán, ízza, lo-kán, mut'tama.
Ignorant, novice gha-shéem.
Ill, a. me-show'-esh, aián, ai-yán.
Illness ta-showéesh.
I imagine, v. tekh-méenee, ana azóon.
It is impossible ma yoomkin'sh, la yoómkin ébeden.
In, within goóa; at, fee.
Incense bokhár.
Income erád.
Indeed hatta.
Indigo néeleh. [feréen.
Infidel káfer, pl. koofár, ka-
Ingratitude khusséëh, khussáseh
Ink heb'r, hebber.
Inkstand dowái, dowáieh.
Inquire, v. sāāl, es'sāāl.
Inside góoa, fee ḵulb.
Inside, s. el ḵulb.
Insolence (of toolt e' lissán, kootr language) el kalám.
For instance mus'salen.
Instead bedál.
Instrument dooláb, i.e. machine.
Instrument tools ed'deh.
Interpret, v. ter'gem (translate).
Interpreter tergimán, toorgimán.
Intestines mussaréen.
Intoxicated sakrán.
Intrigue, plot fit'neh, khábs.
Intriguer fettán, khabbás.
Joke layb, mús-khera, dayhek, mézh.
Journey saffer.
Joy ferrah.
Joyful fer'hán, mabsóot.
Iron hadéet.
Irrigate, v. is'ḵee.
Is there? there is fee.
There is not ma feésh.
Island gezéereh.
Judge ḵádee.
Its juice móietoo.
Just hakeeḵ, sedeeḵ.
Just now tow.
Keep, take care of istaẖ'rus, aẖ'fod, aẖ'fuz.
Keep, hold, v. im'sek, hōsh (stop).
Kettle buk'-rag.
Key muf-táẖ.
Kick, v. er'fus.
Kidney kaýlweh, kílweh.
Kill, v. mow'-et, mow'wet.
Killed mat, mý-it.
Kind, s. gens.
Kind, a. sáhab maróof, hinéiin.
Kindle, v. ḵeed (geed).
King mélek (mellek,) sōlṯán.
Kingdom mem'-lekeh.
Kiss bos' sa.
Kitchen mud'-bakh.
Kite, miluus hedý (hedéí).
Knee rook'-beh.
Knave ebn ha-rám.
Knife sekéen; pl. sekakéen.
Penknife mátweh.
Knot ōḵ'-deh.
Know, v. áref.
I do not know ma aráfshee, ma máish khábber.
Knowledge maý-refeh, maýrefeh.
Labour tāāb.
Ladder sil'lem.
Lady sit, sit'teh(mistress).
Lake, pond, pool beer'keh.
Lame ā'rug.
Lamp ḵandéel, mus'rag.
Lance hárbeh.
Land ard, bur (opp. to sea).
Lantern fa-nóos.
Large kebéer, aréed, wá-sa.
Lark koomba.
The last el á-kher, el akhránee.
Last, v. ō'kut ketéer, istáhmel.
It is late el wakt ráẖ.
Laugh, v. it'-hak.
Laughter déhek.
Law, justice shúrrā.
Lay, v. er'koot.
Lay, v. a. ruḵḵet.
Lazy tum'bal.
Lead, s. rossáss.
Leaf (of book) wáraḵeh, war'raḵ.
Leap, v. noot (nut).
Learn, v. itaálem, álem.
Lease (of a house) ō'gera, kérree.
Leather gild matboók (matboóg).
Leave, s. ez'n, egázeh.
Without leave min ghayr egázeh.
Leave, v. khal'lee, foot.
Leaven ḵhumméer.
Ledge soffa.
Leech áluḵ.
Leek kōrát.
Left, a. shemál, yesár.
Leg rigl.
Lemon laymoon, laymoon málẖ.
Lemon (European kind) laymoon Adália.
Lend, v. iddee-sellef, éslif.
Length tool.
Lengthen, v. n. it'-wel.
Lengthen, v. a. tow'-el.
Lentils atz, ads, addus.
Leopard nimr.
Less as'-gher, aḵúll.
Let go, or alone, v. sý-eb, khallee.
Letter harf, pl. haróof.
Letter, epistle maktóob, gow-'áb, warraḵeh.
Level mesow'wee.
Level, v. sow'wee.
Liar keddáb.
Lie kidb.
Liberate, enfranchise, v. á-tuk.
Liberated matóok.
Life om'r, hý-a.
Lift, v. sheel, er'fa, ayn.
Light, a. khaféef.
Light colour maftóoh.
Light, s. noor.
Light the candle wúlla e' shem'mā.
Give light to, v. now'-er.
Lightning berk.
As you like ala kaýfak, ala mezágak, ala ḵúrradak.
Like, a. zay, míttel, mitl, kayf.
In like manner gazálik el omr, gathálik.
I like yagébnee.
I should like fee khátree, biddee.
Lime geer.
Lime (fruit) laymoón hélw (hel'oo).
Line, or mark khot, suttr (of a book).
Linen-cloth ḵōmásh ḵettán.
Linseed bizr kettán.
Lion as'sad, sába.
Lip shiffeh.
Listen, v. sen'ned.
Listen, hear es'mā.
Listen to, take advice tow'wā.
Little, small sogheer, zwýer.
Little, not much shwōya.
Live, v. äésh, esh.
Liver kib'deh.
Lizard boorse, sahléeh.
Load hem'leh.
Load, v. ham'mel.
Loaf of bread raḵeéf esh.
Lock kaylóon.
Lock wooden dob'beh.
Padlock ḵufl.
Lock, v. éḵ-fel.
Lofty álee.
Long tow-éel.
Look, v. shoof, bōss, óndoor.
Loose, a. wása.
Loosen, v. sý-eb, hell; see Undo.
At liberty me-sý-eb, meséieb.
Lose, v. dý-aẖ.
Love hōb.
Love, v. ẖeb.
Low wátee.
Lupins tirmes, tur'mis (Copt.).
Machine dooláb.
Mad magnoón.
Madam sittee.
Magazine. ẖás̱el, shôn, shóona, mákhzen.
Maggot doot.
Magic saýher (sayhr).
Male dthúkker.
Female netý-eh, netý, oon'seh.
Make, v. aámel.
Made mamóol.
Mallet doḵmáḵ.
Man rágel; pl. regál.
Mankind insán, beni ádam (sons of Adam).
Manufactory. wer'sheh.
Many ketéer.
Marble ro-khám.
Mark, v. álem.
Mark, s. a-lám; see Line.
Market sooḵ, bazár.
Marrow môkh.
Marry, v. gow'-es, zow'-eg.
Mast sá-ree.
Master sid, seed.
Mat, s. hasséereh, (hasséera); pl. hossor.
What's the matter? khabbar áy, gerra áy.
What's with you? málaḵ.
Matters omóor.
Matters things asheeat.
Mattrass mar'taba.
Measure meezán.
Measure of length ḵeeás.
Meat lahm.
Meet, v. ḵabel.
Medicine dow'-a, dow'eh.
Memory fikr, bāl.
Merchant táger, hawágee*, mesébbub.
Mercury zaýbuḵ.
Messenger sýee, sáï.
Metals, mine má-dan.
Middle woost (Eng. waist).
Middle-sized woostánee.
Mighty, able ḵáder.
Milk lub'ben (lub'bun), haléeb.
A mill ta-ẖóon.
Press mill mā's̱arah.
Minaret madneh.
Never mind See Never and Harm.
A mine mádan; pl. maádin.
Mine, of me betáee; f. betáhtee.
Minute, s. daḵéeḵeh; pl. daḵý-iḵ.
Mirror, s. miráëh, mōrái.
Mix, v. ekh'-let.
Mixed makhlóot.
Modest mestaýhee.
Moist táree; see Humidity.
Monastery dayr.
Money floos (from obolus?).
Monkey nesnás.
Monk ráhib; pl. robbán.
Month shaẖr; pl. shōẖóor, ésh-ẖoor.
Names of the Arabic Months.
  • 1. Moẖarrem.
  • 2. Saffer.
  • 3. Rebéëh 'lówel.
  • 4. Rebéëh 'l-á-kher.
  • 5. Goómad-owel.
  • 6. Góomad-akher
  • 7. Reg'eb.
  • 8. Shábán.
  • 9. Ramadán.
  • 10. Showál.
  • 11. El Ḵádeh, or Zul-ḵádeh.
  • 12. El Hō'g-h, or Zul-Heg (Hag).
Moon ḵumr (masc.)
Moral, a. mazboót.
Morning soobẖ, sabáẖ.
Dawn feg'r (fegger).
Sunrise télāt e'shems.
Forenoon dá-ẖah.
Mid-day dōhr.
Afternoon ásser.
Sunset múgh-reb.
1 1/2 hour after sunset esh'a, ash'a.
Evening messa, ashéëh.
Good morning sabál khayr, sabákoom bel-khayr.
Morrow boókra, báker.
the day after bad boókra.
A Mortar hōne, hôn, mús-han.
Mosk gámah, músged (from séged, to bow down).
Moth (of clothes) ḵitteh.
Mother om.
Mother of pearl sudduf.
My (his) mother ommee (ommoo).
Move, v. n. haz.
Move v. a. ḵow'wum.
Mountain geb'el (gebbel), pl. gebál.
Mount, ascend, v. et'la fōke (fôk).
Mount, ride, v. érkub.
Mouth fom, hannak (han'ak).
Much keteér (see Quantity, and What).
Mud teen, waẖ-l.
Mug kooz.
Musk misk.
Musquito namóos.
Musquito net namooséëh.
You must lázem.
Mustard khar'del.
Mutton lahm dánee.
My betáee; betáhtee, fem., as, farras betáhtee, my mare.
My son ebnee.
Nail mesmár.
Nail, v. sum'mer.
* Hawagee, a Christian; Khowagee, a Moslem.
Naked arián.
Name esm.
Napkin mah'rama, vulgarly foóta.
Narrow dýik, dthéiik.
Nature, the Creator el kháluḵ.
Near ḵarý-ib (garei-ib).
Neat, elegant zeréef.
It is necessary lázem, élzem.
Neck ruḵ-abeh (rúḵḵabeh).
Needle eb'ree, pl. ō'bar.
Needle packing mesélleh, maýber.
Negro abd (“slave”), rágel as'wed.
Neighbours geerán, sing. gar.
Neither (one nor the other) wulla wáhed wulla e'tánee.
Net shébbekeh.
Never eb'eden, ebbeden.
Never mind, v. malésh, ma annóosh.
New gedéet, gedéed.
News, to tell, khabber (khabbar).
Next e'tánee (ettánee), alagemboo (at its side).
Nick-name nuḵb, laḵb.
Night layl, pl. layál.
Nitre sub'bukh.
Nitre refined baróot abiad.
No, nor la, wulla.
Noble, prince eméer, améer, pl. ómara.
North shemál, báhree.
Nose monokhéer, unf.
Not moosh.
Not so mooh kéddee, moosh kéza.
Nothing, none ma feesh há-geh.
For nothing belésh.
Now de'lwáḵt [see Day].
A great number ketéer ḵowee.
Number, v. áẖseb, edd.
The Numbers. El Eddud.
1, wáhed. 5, khámsa.
2, ethnéen. 6, sitteh, sitt.
3, theláta. 7, sábā.
4, er'bā. 8, themánieh.
9, tésā (tes'sā). 16, sittásher.
10, ásherah. 17, sabātásher.
11, hedásher. 18, themantásher.
12, ethnásher. 19, tesātásher.
13, thelatásher. 20, āsheréen.
14, erbātásher. 21, wáhed oo āsheréen, etc.
15, khamstásher.
30, thelatéen. 100, méea (see Hundred).
40, erbāéen.
50, khamséen. 101, meea oo wáhed.