United States. Dept. of the Interior and Emory, William H. (William Hemsley), 1811-1887, Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary survey, volume 2 (Washington: C. Wendell, 1859)
|INTRODUCTION.||By C. C. Parry, M. D.|
|GENERAL BOTANY.||By John Torrey, M. D.|
|CAOTACEÆ.||By George Engelmann, M. D.|
Every observing traveller must have noticed how closely the peculiarities of the scenery of a
country depend upon its vegetable productions. Not only is this true of trees and the larger
forms of plants, but even the humbler, though apparently insignificant in themselves, have
their share in producing the general effect. Hence the subject of the geographical distribution
of plants is one which may command the attention of every intelligent mind, and this department
of botany has for many an interest which the higher details of the science do not possess.
Perhaps no region of equal extent presents more marked illustrations of the relation of the
vegetation of a country to its topography and geology than those afforded by that lying along
the Mexican boundary line.
The usually difficult task of constructing a phytological map might here be performed with
comparative ease, as the observer, little perplexed by a great variety or gradual blending of
forms, involuntarily associates particular localities with the predominating and characteristic
vegetable productions. Thus one who has ever traversed the desert table lands of the Upper Rio
Grande will not fail to unite in his recollection of these tracts the dull foliage of the Creosote
bush, the long thorny wands of the Fouquieria, the palm-like Yucca, and the crimson-flowered
and spine-armed Cereus. Still less can any one, who has seen the giant cactus of the Gila in
its perfection, ever forget the wild and singular features of the country in which it grows. The
distinctness with which the botanical districts are defined gives an unpleasant sameness to the
scenery of this country. The extensive plains exhibit a monotonous succession of the same
forms, and each mountain slope and ravine presents us a collection of plants quite like those
we have so often seen in other and similar localities. Indeed, the botanist in these regions,
knowing what to expect in each different situation, soon loses his zeal, and becomes intent upon
little else than overcoming space.
We propose to give a rapid sketch of the features presented by the vegetation of the country,
especially noticing those plants which predominate in, and give character to, the several districts
into which we have divided it.
The flora of this strip of country is too well known to require an account here, had we the
necessary data for describing its characteristic botanical productions. Its position being
intermediate between the "tierra caliente" of Mexico and the gulf coast of Louisiana, gives to
its vegetation a mixed character, partaking of that of the two extremes. Thus, while upon the
To the lower belt, which has an uniform alluvial soil, and is more or less influenced by its
vicinity to salt water, succeeds rolling prairies, underlaid by cretaceous rocks, which now for
the first time appear, though more or less hidden from view by a thick layer of erratic and
alluvial deposits. This division includes, as we have already noticed, the most habitable parts
of Texas, through which run the numerous rivers which empty into the Gulf of Mexico. Here
we find rich cotton lands, and an abundance of trees, including species of oak, hickory, ash,
elm, walnut, cypress, &c., with an exceedingly rich undergrowth of vines and shrubbery. The
open prairies are densely covered with luxuriant grasses, and have a rich and varied flora,
which has been well explored by the early labors of Drummond, and later by those of Linctheimer
and Wright. Upon the southern portion of the Rio Grande, where there is a higher
temperature, united with greater aridity of the soil, a vegetation of quite a different character
appears; we have here the dense growth of "chapparral," which is so peculiar to this region.
The plants which make up the thick mass of shrubbery known by this name are different
species of mimosa and acacia, with the well known mezquit and other forms, most of which are
armed with hooked thorns, and make up a jungle which is almost impenetrable.
As the geological formation becomes more exclusively cretaceous the vegetation assumes a
peculiar character, and is made up of species which are rarely found elsewhere. The shrubbery
of this region presents a continuous succession of the same forms, among which are Berberis
trifoliolata, Rhus microphylla, Porliera angustifolia, Diospyros Texana, Roeberlinia spinosa,
Adolphia infesta, Microrhamnus ericoides, and Acanthoceltis, a new genus of Engelmann, allied
to Celtis. Along the margins of the usually dry water courses the dwarf walnut (Juglans
rupestris) and Fallugia paradoxa are constantly found.
The perennial herbaceous plants of this district are numerous. The rocky ledges produce in
their crevices various species of Laphamia and the scarlet flowered Pentstemon Grahamii, Several
examples of the large tropical family of Malpighiaceœ are found here, among them Galphimia
linifolia, Aspicarpa hyssopifolia, and Janusia gracilis. Cacti are numerous, and include among
the forms here presented opuntias, mammillarias, and numerous species of cereus. The curious
Lycopodium dendrolobium grows upon the perpendicular faces of the limestone rocks. This
plant commonly called "rock rose," is remarkable for the hygrometric qualities of its fronds,
which are usually rolled up so that the plant forms a dry ball, which expands under the
influence of moisture, and then appears fresh and vigorous. Several new species of Cheilanthes,
Pteris, Notoclœna, and other genera of ferns are found here.
Upon the rocky ledges a small species of agave grows in abundance. The low leaves, which
are pointed with sharp spines, are very troublesome to the foot traveller; they are, however,
of some use to the Mexicans, who employ the strong fibres they contain in making coarse ropes.
The plant is known to the people of the country as "Lechaguia." The table lands and valleys
are usually covered with an abundant growth of "grama grass," and among it are frequent
clumps of Dasylirium, or "bear's grass."
Among the annual plants of this district are several species of Mentzelia, Perezia, Pectis,
Hymenatherum, &c., also the pretty Eucnide lobata, which usually grows in almost inaccessible
situations upon the perpendicular faces of the limestone ledges.
The higher alluvial tracts, forming the basin plains before described, produce a number of
northern forms of plants, such as species of Œnothera, Gaura, Riddellia, Zinnia, and Polygala.
We also find here the curious Peganum Mexicanum and Peteria scoparia, the latter a pretty
plant of the family Leguminosæ. The depressions in this alluvial region are covered with a
coarse grass, which presents an uniform dead brown color throughout the greater part of the
year. In the deep recesses and shaded valleys, the vegetation has a freshness unknown to that
of the plains. In these localities we encounter the upland live oak (Quercus Emoryi, and the
nut pine, (Pinus edulis,) and growing beneath these, Vitis incisa, Clematis Pitcheri, Ungnadia
speciosa, &c. The constant presence of water in the larger valleys is marked by the growth of
cotton wood and willows.
The vegetation of the immediate valley of the Rio Grande, and that of the country immediately
adjoining it upon either side, are strikingly different, and whoever passes from the valley, and
crosses the line of mountains which bounds it to the regions beyond, cannot but remark the
difference in the landscape, due to the presence of new plants. Upon the table lands which
spread out beyond the mountain barrier, the eye falls upon a great variety of plants, none of
which are seen in the more fertile valley. Among these are Fouquieria splendens, Larrea
mexicana, Flourensia cernua, Rhus microphylla, Condalia obovata, Koeberlinia spinosa, and species
of Krameria, Ephedra, and Yucca. There the Cacti flourish in a congenial soil, and we find
representatives of the genera Opuntia, Echinocactus, Mammillaria and Cereus.
Among the numerous herbaceous and suffruticose plants of these localities we may mention
Cevallia sinuata, Greggia camporum, Eriogonum Abertii, and several species of Dalea; plants
of the family Compositae, are especially abundant, and include among others Baileya multiradiata,
Bahia absinthifolia, Porophyllum scoparium, Psathyrotes scaposa, Hymenatherum acerosum,
Townsendia strigosa, Calycoseris Wrightii, Stephanomeria minor and Rofinesquia Neo-mexicana.
A number of coarse composite plants are found in the valley, such as Texmenia encelioides,
Coreopsis cardaminefolia and Aster spinosus, the latter often forming dense matted masses of
The rocky crevices of the adjoining mountains furnish some of the most interesting plants of
this region. We here find Fendleria rupicola, Mortonia crassifolia, Glossopetalon spinescens,
Agenia parvifolia, Bouvardia hirtella, Tecoma stans, Texmenia brevifolia, &c.
The higher mountains of the Organ range have a vegetation possessing a somewhat alpine
character, and bear a scattering growth of pines and oaks, beneath which flourish a number of
shrubby and herbaceous plants, quite similar to those found upon the more lofty ranges further
to the west.
As we approach the base of the Sierra Madre, passing over the extensive basin-plain
already described, a gradual increase in the elevation is marked by a disappearance of those
plants, which were common lower down, and the presence of others wearing a more alpine
aspect. The surface is less bare than upon the plain below, and is covered with a closely matted
grass, which gives a singularly rounded outline to the undulating land around the base of the
mountain. Along the lower rocky swells grows the beautiful Carphochete Bigelovii, with
Anemone Caroliniana, Streptanthus linearifolius, Pentstemon Torreyi and Fendleri are among
the characteristic plants of these localities. There are but few shrubby plants, several species
of Ephedra being among the most conspicuous. The streams are bordered by Fraxinus velutinus
and Juglans rupestris, (the large variety,) and in moist places an old Californian acquaintance,
Anemiopsis Californica makes its appearance.
Upon the mountains oaks and pines are found, mostly Quercus Emoryi and Pinus edulis,
though in certain localities there is larger timber, consisting of Pinus Chihuahuana and Abies
Douglasii. The smaller woody growth here includes several species belonging to the Californian
mountain flora, such as Cercocarpus parvifolius and Arctostaphylos tomentosus.
Upon the summit of Ben More, further to the north, Dr. Bigelow discovered many plants
indicative of an alpine flora, among these were Frasera speciosa, Rubus Neo-mexicanus, Actinella
Richardsonii, and, perhaps, most remarkable of all, a small fern, Asplenium septentrionale, an
European species not before detected on this continent.
The country embraced in the above limits, includes that portion of Northern Sonora,
which divides the waters which flow north towards the Gila river from those whose course is
south, towards the Gulf of California. It is, as we have before stated, diversified with high
wooded mountains and upland plains, well watered valleys and dry and barren tracts. The
arborescent growth is not essentially different from that we have noticed in speaking of the
other divisions of country. Live oaks, the nut pine, cedar, ash, walnut and cotton wood are
produced either upon the mountains or in the upland valleys. Its plains are covered with an
uniform growth of upland grama-grass, or in the more arid localities by mezquit and its thorny
associates. This region furnishes a number of singular and highly interesting genera and
species, most of which are described by Dr. Gray, in the second part of "Plantae Wrightianæ,"
in the Smithsonian Contributions. A reference to this work will give a better idea of the
character and distribution of the flora of this district than our limits will allow us. As it
occupies a station between several botanical divisions, so its flora partakes of that of those
regions. The following list of some of the plants found here will be seen to embrace species
belonging to California, Texas, Mexico, and New Mexico, viz: Eschscholtzia douglasii,
Zauschneria Californica, Eulobus Californicus, Bowlesia tenera, Anemone Caroliniana, Draba
caroliniana, Corydalis aurea, Androsace occidentalis, Rutosma texana, Erodium texanum,
Layia Neo-mexicana, Cowania Mexicana.
The region defined as above constitutes a very distinct botanical district, many of its peculiar
plants not being found elsewhere. As we have mentioned in a previous sketch, the valley of the
Santa Cruz, as it leaves the mountains in its northward course towards the Gila, gradually
looses its fertile character, and finally terminates in the desert plain which forms the table land
of the Gila. The vegetation of this tract comprises many of the forms which are found on all
the barren plains of the country. Here, as in similar situations elsewhere, the mezquit and
the creosote bush are conspicuous. Cacti are abundant here, and of various types. There are
the low arborescent Opuntias, generally bearing proliferous fruit, as well as several elliptical-stemmed
species. The enormous Echinocactus wislizenii and Caespitose mammillarius and Cerei
are common, while, either standing solitary or collected in groups, the lofty Cereus giganteus
towers above all. A species of misletoe is common upon the mezquit trees of this region.
A scanty growth of annual grama grass grows beneath the ever abundant Larrea, and the
more alluvial portions of the tract are occupied by Obione canescens. In the deep cracks of the
smooth washed surface Bowlesia tenera and some species of Hosackia are found. Near the
immediate valley of the Gila we encounter species of Œnothera, Simsia, Gaillardia, and
The valley of the Gila has many features in common with that of the Rio Grande, and
among the botanical productions common to both valleys we notice Tessaria borealis and
mezquite, which latter forms dense "chaparral." The trees bordering the stream are mostly
cotton wood and willow.
The flora of the cañons of the Rio Grande differs but little from that of the mountain ravines
we have already alluded to. We find stunted shrubs rooted in the crevices of the rocks or
scattered along the broken summits. The abrupt walls, whether of limestone or of igneous
rock, afford favorable places for the growth of such plants as affect inaccessible localities. Here
we meet two species of the well characterized genus Laphamia, viz: L. dissecta and L. bisetosa;
also Perityle aglossa and L. Parryi, the pretty Eucnide lobata, Cowania ericifolia, and emoryi, a
new genus of the order Scrophulariaceœ, dedicated to Major Emory.
In the more extensive basin of Presidio del Norte the flora partakes of the character of that
of Mexico, and more tropical forms prevail. We find here Kallstroemia grandiflora, Martynia
violacea, M. arenaria, Talinopsis frutescens, Nicolettia Edwardsii, and several species of Boerhaavia.
Cereus Greggii is quite common, and the delicious fruited Cereus stramineus grows in its greatest
In the Chisos basin a remarkable shrubby plant, allied to Scutellaria, was discovered. This
Dr. Torrey has described as Salizaria, a new genus of the order Labiatœ. It has a straggling
habit, and grows along the gravelly margins of dry water courses. The Sierra Carmel, upon
the summits of which we should expect to meet with many botanical novelties, was passed, in
a necessarily hurried march, in the month of November. Under these circumstances but little
information could be obtained respecting its flora. Live oaks and the nut pine grew upon the
higher ridges, and its upland plains and valleys were covered with luxuriant grama grass. The
beautiful Santa Rosa valley is marked by the most attractive scenery. Its broad and fertile
plains, with copious streams, bordered by gigantic cypress, sycamore, and pecan trees, with a
back ground of high mountains, form a landscape upon which the traveller, wearied by the
monotony of the sterile table lands, gazes with the keenest enjoyment.
From this point, on approaching the lower course of the Rio Grande, lying to the southwest,
there is a sudden transition to the forms of vegetation before alluded to as characterizing this
arid and thorn beset district.
We have attempted to give a sketch of the external features and spontaneous vegetation of
the region of country along the United States and Mexican boundary line. It now remains to
notice its adaptation to agriculture, and our remarks regarding this may all be embraced in one
Wherever the supply of water is constant, and sufficient for the purposes of irrigation, or
wherever the regular overflow of the rivers can be relied upon to supply the amount of moisture
required for the growth of crops, independently of the rains, in those places, and in those only,
can agriculture be pursued with success.
The portions of the country best suited to cultivation are those which are capable of irrigation.
For these the supply of water is obtained, not only from the larger rivers, as the Rio Grande
and Gila, in which the head of water is increased by the construction of dams, but springs and
small water courses, these often lying in mountainous situations, are laid under tribute.
In the course of the preceding sketch we have noticed the fact that the lower portions of the
numerous valleys are of a sterile and unproductive character, for the reason that the water of
the streams is absorbed before it reaches the portions which lie farther below, where, instead of
a running stream, we only find a sandy bed, with the adjoining region unfit for the purposes of
Those places which are supplied with the necessary moisture by the overflow of the rivers
have a still more precarious dependence than those where irrigation is practiced. In these the
quantity of water cannot be regulated, and they are exposed to the two extremes of scarcity or
superabundance. One of the best examples of this system of cultivation is seen at Presidio
del Norte, where the Concho unites with the Rio Grande. As these two rivers have different
periods of high water the inhabitants are enabled to frequently secure two crops from the same
fields in one season. In order to accomplish this the first crop, depending upon the overflow of
the Rio Grande, must be sown and harvested in time to admit of the planting of the second
crop, depending upon the later rise of the Concho. All this depends upon so many contingent
circumstances that it is oftener attended by disappointment than by success, and, between the
extremes of flood and drought, the people frequently suffer for want of food.
We have already noticed that a large extent of country, though destitute of streams to supply
the water required in cultivation, receives from the atmosphere and clouds, in the form of dew
and rain, sufficient moisture to permit the growth of the richest pasturage, and we have large
districts of unequalled grazing lands, so broad and so abounding in herbage as to compensate
for their deficiencies in other respects. Here the buffalo and antelope have already given place
to wild cattle and horses, and we look for the time when these shall yield in their turn to
domesticated flocks and herds, denoting that nomadic barbarism has been supplanted by
civilization, with its ameliorating influences.
Many large tracts of this country must ever remain as deserts, being alike destitute of
vegetable and mineral resources; but even these otherwise valueless regions are the very portions
which present the fewest impediments to travelling, and, indeed, form natural highways to
otherwise inaccessible parts of the country.
The general botanical features of the region under examination next claim our attention,
and in elucidating them, we shall be guided by the great natural divisions of country already
indicated, as these furnish us plain lines of demarcation for separate botanical districts. Thus,
there is a group of plants growing in the immediate vicinity of the sea, and which characterize
the Littoral Region; above these, and confined more or less closely to the base of the mountains,
is found another group indicating the Supra-Littoral Region; next to this, in the ascending
order, is what may be termed the Lower Mountain Region, with a still different vegetation; and
lastly, the Proper Mountain Region, producing plants peculiar to elevated localities.
Among the exclusively littoral plants, some are common to the seacoast of nearly all
countries; and these, such as the common Salicornia, are found here, and it is our intention to
notice only those which are peculiar to this particular coast. We mention, first of all, two
species of Abronia, (A. arenaria and A. umbellata,) which spread their trailing branches over
the sand dunes which edge the sea-shore, and with their abundant foliage and beautiful
umbelled flowers, give relief to the barren features of the landscape.
Growing with the Abronias a species of ice-plant (Mesembryanthemum) is frequently found.
This has spreading succulent stems and triangular leaves. Its showy, though evanescent, pink
flowers appear only in bright sun-light, and are succeeded by an edible, juicy fruit. In the
same region, though less closely confined to the sea-beach, is another species of this genus,
probably identical with the well known M. crystallinum. Here it is an annual, attaining its full
size in the month of June, when it may be seen in large patches several rods in extent, presenting
a thick bed of showy flowers. The leaves and stems are beset with shining glandular
little warts, which contain a strongly saline fluid. The flowers, which are ephemeral and very
abundant, appear in regular succession from June to August. After the flowering period the
plant withers and dries up, leaving a thick mat of seed vessels, which remain closed until the
commencement of the rainy season; the hygrometric tissue of the capsule then expands, under
the influence of moisture, and the enclosed seeds escape and commence germinating. The dry
remains of the plant are frequently burned for the sake of the ashes, which, being strongly
alkaline, are used in making soap. Both the species, here mentioned are so characteristic of the
places they occupy that they would seem to be indigenous, but it is generally thought by
botanists that they are introduced.
Among other plants characteristic of this region are (Enothera viridescens, (Hook.,) Franseria
bipinnatifida, and a species of Statice, which grows near the head of San Diego bay, and seems
hardly distinct from S. Limonium.
The common Salicornia here acquires a shrubby growth, and is frequently entwined with a
species of Dodder, and accompanying it is found a new species of Batis, to which Dr. Torrey
has given the name of B. Californica. Frankenia grandifolia grows here abundantly, associated
with Layia carnosa, Aromia tenuifolia, and Tuckermannia. Among the shrubs peculiar to this
Leaving the salt water, to the influence of which the characteristics of the preceding region
are due, we come to the Supra-Littoral district, which presents a more striking variety in its
Before enumerating the plants which make up this woody growth, we would remark, that
nearly all the shrubs of this region are inclined to form a stunted and bushy growth, which is
evidently caused by exposure to dry seasons and sea breezes. There is also to be noted a leaden
color of foliage, which does not depend upon the abundant growth of Artemisiæ, most of which
possess this tint, but is common to a large proportion of the shrubs of this region. Both of
these peculiarities of the vegetation have their influence upon the character of the landscape.
One of the most striking shrubs is Eriogonum fasciculatum, a neat evergreen, with small pink
flowers, disposed in crowded umbels at the summit of prolonged stalks. Its season of flowering
is during the midsummer, and it is generally characteristic of arid and barren tracts. Isomeris
arborea (Nutt.) is frequently associated with this plant, and is distinguished by its yellow flowers
and singular bladder-shaped pods. Here is also found Rhus aromatica, (Nutt.,) which frequently
acquires quite an arborescent growth and occupies extensive tracts. It is clothed with shining
evergreen leaves, which resemble those of the holly and exhale a strong odor like that of laurel.
We also meet with Photinia arbutifolia, a handsome and often symmetrically formed shrub.
This has rich evergreen foliage and beautiful bunches of white flowers, which are succeeded by
scarlet berries. In favorable localities this sometimes attains the height of twenty feet, with a
trunk six inches in diameter at the base. Another shrub deserving especial notice is Simmondsia
californica, (Nutt.,) which has persistent leaves of a pale green color, and inclined to assume a
vertical position. The plant is dioecious; the mature fruit is about the size of a hazel nut, and
has a thin smooth three-valved husk, which separates spontaneously when ripe, disclosing a
brown triangular kernel. This fruit, though edible, can hardly be termed palatable; its taste
is somewhat intermediate between that of the filbert and acorn. It is, however, employed by
the Indians as an article of diet, and is called by them "jajoba." The range of the Simmondsia
extends to the base of the mountains, and it is found again, in similar situations, upon the
eastern side, though less abundantly, as well as in the upper valley of the Gila, where it was
detected by Major Emory, in 1846. Besides the shrubs above enumerated, the Artemisia
Californica is widely diffused over this region; this is employed by the Mexicans as a popular
remedy against cholera, under the name of "Estafiat."
On the San Diego promontory there is a dense and intricate growth of shrubbery, to which
both the people from the town and from the shipping have for a long time resorted for fuel.
The greater proportion is furnished by Eriodictyon, which is a large shrub of from eight to
twelve feet in height, with a diameter of from two to four inches. The wood is very close-grained,
but brittle, and is charged with a resinous matter, which causes it to burn readily, even
We must not omit to mention the Cactaceæ, which here present species of all the extra
tropical genera, as remarked by Dr. Engelmann in his memoir upon this family. These plants,
from their striking and singular forms, impart a characteristic feature to the region they inhabit.
A new species of pine is peculiar to the district now under consideration. It occupies an arid
tract near the ocean beach, about twelve miles north of San Diego, at the entrance to Solidad
valley. In this locality (the only one in which it has been found) it forms a small sized tree,
with rather open foliage. It is particularly distinguished by its long fascicles of leaves, which
are in fives, and its large ponderous cones. This species, the specific characters of which will be
found more fully described in the following list, I have ventured to designate, in compliment to
a distinguished American botanist, as Pinus Torreyana.
Along the borders of the streams which traverse this Supra-Littoral district are found the
common cotton-wood, (Populus angustata,) the Platanus Mexicanus, and, in the lower portion of
the San Luis Rey valley, an Alnus; these, with various species of willow, make up the proper
timber growth of this region. The undergrowth in these localities consists mainly of coarse
representatives of the order Compositæ, conspicuous among which are several shrubby species of
Baccharis. In moist places Anemiopsis Californica is frequently met with, and where the soil is
rich the surface is covered by a rank growth of wild mustard (Sinapis nigra) and mallows,
It is in the latter part of winter and during the earlier spring months that California puts on
her richest floral garb. Then the arid hills assume an aspect far different from their desert-like
summer appearance. In February the moistened ground becomes arrayed in an assemblage of
varied tints. The pale blossom of the elegant Dodecatheon integrifolium nod on every hill side,
blue Lupines and rainbow colored Gilias deck the ground, and various ferns and mosses appear.
The Ribes speciosum hangs its scarlet pendants, and the rich yellow flowers of Viola pedunculata
are abundant everywhere. Even the numerous northern genus Saxifraga is represented here
by more than one species. A large number of Hydrophyllaceæ, including species of Nemophila,
Phacelia, and Eutoca, are among the early tokens of spring, while the orange colored flowers of
Escholtzia, the pale blooms of Platystemon, and the pink ones of Meconopsis, show that the
poppy family contribute largely to make up the vernal flora. Among the twiners are a species
of Clematis that is either new or a variety of C. pauciflora and Megarrhiza Californica of Torrey;
the latter plant, which hangs its prickly burs from almost every bush, is remarkable for the
enormous size of its root. Further to the north the valleys are clothed with a luxuriant growth
of wild oats, (Avena fatua,) which is so extensively naturalized that it gives to every fertile
tract the appearance of a cultivated field. The wide plains that border the sea in the neighborhood
of Los Angeles are covered with the richest pasturage. The Erodium cicutarium,
(called here "pin grass," and furnishing a highly esteemed fodder,) with several species of wild
clover, (Trifolium and Medicago,) are mingled with a variety of other herbage, and thus serve to
give a meadow-like aspect to this teeming land. Such is the general appearance of the country
from February to April, inclusive, and then is to be seen the glory of the Californian flora.
As we begin to enter the mountain range we come upon what we have termed the Lower
Mountain Region, the intervening slope between the base of the mountain and the summit ridge.
Here the species of plants last considered disappear, and are replaced by an almost entirely different
assemblage of vegetable forms.
The Adenostoma fasciculata, which we have before alluded to, is frequently found covering
entire hills. This plant is not peculiar to this region, but grows on all exposed situations, from
the lowest to the most elevated. It has fine and thickly set dark green foliage, and forms a
conspicuous feature in the landscape. From its habit of growth it may be considered as the heath
of this country, though it belongs to a different family, that of the Rosaceæ.
As the Artemesias disappear, scrub oaks show themselves on the steeper mountain slopes;
and, as the valleys become narrower and more rocky, we find the California live-oak (Quercus
agrifolia.) This forms a large spreading tree, the holly-like evergreen foliage of which adds
to the beauty of the mountain scenery. In the more northern sections of the country this oak
is met with in the vicinity of the sea; but as far south as San Diego it grows upon the mountain
slopes only, and its presence denotes a considerable elevation. It is usually of stocky
growth and unwieldy shape. Its wood is coarse grained and liable to speedy decay; hence it is
but little esteemed for its timber. It has, however, a very thick bark, which will, no doubt, in
time, be found of great value as a tanning material.
Among the shrubs of this region which deserve notice is Arctostaphylos tomentosa. This
species is said to form quite a good sized tree at the north; but in the district at present under
consideration it occurs only as a shrub, rarely attaining the height of fifteen feet and a diameter
of from two to four inches at the base. It is a handsome evergreen bush, sending off numerous
branches close to the ground. Its bark is smooth, of a reddish color, and splits off in transverse
shreds. The wood, which is very close grained and durable, is an excellent material for
small turning work. It bears a small red berry, resembling our well known "bear berry,"
though less astringent, which possesses acid properties, and, under the name of Manzañita,
("little apple,") is in common use as an ingredient of cooling drinks.
Another plant belonging to this region is Cerasus ilicifolius ("wild plum.") This is also an
evergreen, and has thick pale green spinously serrate leaves. Its fruit, when mature, is of a
yellowish pink color, with a pulpy external portion scarcely exceeding a line in thickness.
Though the fruit has a pleasant taste, it would scarcely be considered worth eating in a country
which was not, like this, almost destitute of wild fruits.
The scrub oaks growing here are all evergreen, with rigid coriaceous repandly toothed leaves,
which are very variable in size and shape, even in the same individual. The fruit of all the
species is of about the medium size and form, and is collected in large quantities by the Indians,
who use it in preparing their favorite article of food, which they call "Atole."
Cercocarpus parvifolius is another characteristic plant of this region, and is remarkable for its
long, spirally-tailed seeds. It is quite a handsome shrub, growing in clumps, and throws up
wand-like branches to the height of five or ten feet. This is pretty exclusively confined to the
higher elevations, and even reaches to the summit ridge.
In the more southern portions of this district, and growing very abundantly in the vicinity
of the boundary line, we find the pretty Adenostoma sparsifolia, (Torr. in Emory's report.) This
grows more plentifully among the mountains than the already mentioned A. fasciculata, though
the two agree closely in habit and are frequently found side by side. It grows in clumps,
formed of numerous slender branches, and attains a height of four or eight feet. The upper
part of each branch divides near the summit into a fine spray, clothed with yellowish green
leaves, and, in the proper season, thickly set with small white flowers. The leaves and upper
stems are covered with a glandular varnish, which exhales a pleasant aroma resembling that
of Aspidium fragrans.
Other shrubs that may be noticed as characteristic of this region are the Eriodyction Californicum
and Chamæbatia foliolosa, (Benth.;) the latter recently figured by Torrey in Plantae
Frémontianae, in the Smithsonian Contributions. The shrubbery of this district is marked
by a very intricate mode of growth, especially that upon the Coast Range of mountains.
Here, so densely interwoven is the close mass of stunted bushes, that it is nearly impossible to
force one's way either up or down the mountain sides.
This region furnishes a large variety of herbaceous plants. The greater number of those
which, in the accompanying list, are referred to the "Mountains east of San Diego," have their
localities in this district. Among the crevices of rocks grow several species of ferns, of the
genera Aspidium, Gymnogramma, Cryptogramma, Adiantum, Woodwardia, &c. Mosses are
rare, and but few lichens are observed; among the latter are the singular Ramalina Menziesii,
Taylor, (R. retiformis, Menzies,) and species of Parmelia, Roccella, and Evernia.
The immediate summit ridge, which is elevated to a height of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above
the sea, bears a rather meagre fringe of pines and other trees of the same family. This imparts
a peculiar feature to the landscape, and recalls to mind the snows and wintry climate of
high latitudes. Of the genus Pinus proper we find four species, some of them being dwarfed
representatives of those forest monarchs which are so abundant and conspicuous further to the
In this region we encounter, though rarely, the majestic Pinus Lambertiana, with its enormous
drooping cones. P. Sabiniana is more abundant. This species is remarkable for its singular
fruit, each scale of which is tipped with a hard curved spine. The size and shape of this fruit
are much like that of the pine apple.
Another species, P. deflexa, (Torr.,) has a trunk of elegant columnar form, and frequently
attains to majestic proportions, even in these unfavorable situations. The fourth species is a
nut-pine, and is described by Dr. Torrey in the accompanying enumeration as Pinus Llaveana.
This species is somewhat isolated in habit, and, as far as we have ascertained, has a very
limited range near the dividing ridge and south of the boundary line. In the character of its
fruit and foliage this species is closely allied to Pinus monophylla, (Torr.,) though quite distinct.
We always find upland oaks associated with the pine growth of this region. These include
the common Quercus agrifolia and Q. densiflora, the latter species being the more common upon
the higher ridges. It is of stocky habit, and has wide-spreading branches, which form large
spherical heads. The bark of this tree appears like that of the elm, and the wood is close-grained
There is another oak, which has deciduous leaves, the two preceding being evergreens. It
seems to be closely allied to or identical with Q. tinctoria. Of this species there are two varieties
which are only distinguishable by the fruit, which in one has a large and prominent
gland, while in the other the gland is almost concealed by the cup—characters which seem to be
constant in the same individuals.
We naturally expect to find here the undergrowth which, in all countries, accompanies the
pine forest. Here, indeed, grows the woodland strawberry, (Fragaria vesca,) while liliaceous
plants are represented by Cyclobothra alba; we also meet with Viola lobata, a recently described
species of Bentham. But of Orchidaceæ, so common elsewhere in such localities, we have only
a solitary species of Platanthera. Curices are sparsely distributed, and Potentilla, so common
in northern latitudes, has a place in our catalogue. The well-watered valleys are covered with
a fine sward of native grasses, and lichens of sparkling yellow decorate the decaying pines.
The features which vegetation presents, within the limits of this section, may be best described
by noticing those which would naturally attract the attention of the traveller. The
vegetation of the summit ridge differs but little upon its eastern and western side; but as we
go further down the abrupt eastern descent a new group of plants comes into view, one which
presents a marked contrast to that occupying the corresponding Lower Mountain region of the
Pacific side. Here thorny shrubs and stiff-stalked plants of strange aspect meet the eye. The
ashen colored mountains, which in the distance seem entirely destitute of vegetation, produce in
their rocky cañons and crevices a great variety of singular forms. Cacti again appear, and,
except in one or two instances, are all different from those found on the Pacific slope. There
are several Opuntias, both those with cylindrical and those with elliptical stems. The gigantic
Echinocactus cylindraceus lifts its bristling trunk from the clefts of the rock, and the humbler
mamillaries are also met with. A new species of Cereus (C. Engelmannii) grows in these localities,
and bears a deliciously palatable fruit.
On the upland plains, near the edge of the desert, we find a beautiful shrub with willow-like
foliage and trumpet-shaped flowers. This showy plant is Chilopsis linearis. Here we also
encounter a species of Krameria, having long and spiny branches and deep purple flowers, and
The well-known mezquite, (Algarobia glandulosa,) which we shall notice more particularly
hereafter, now becomes a common shrub; and near the base of the mountains a species of palmetto
is seen growing in the clefts of the rocks. Its appearance in these localities invariably
indicates the presence of water, though this is frequently found to be too saline for use.
As we advance upon the desert plain a very distinct character of vegetation presents itself. On
all the gravelly ridges near the mountains we find the stiff stalks of Fouquieria. In the furrowed
rain-water courses there is usually a growth of shrubbery larger than in other portions
of the desert. In such situations a small tree of graceful outline occurs—the Dalea spinescens,
(Gray, Pl. Thurb.) The finely divided branches of this plant are all terminated by sharp
points, and are covered with a silvery pubescence. It bears a few abortive leaves, and an abundance
of bright blue flowers. Further on in the desert the vegetation is chiefly composed of
Larrea mexicana and Obione canescens. Near the borders of the lakes and gullies which mark
the position of "New river" we find a greater variety among the plants. A very rank growth
of a species of Amaranthus borders the lakes in wet seasons, and on the upper clay borders of
"New river." The annual "Gramma grass" yields, after the rains or the overflows of the
rivers, a rapid growth of evanescent but highly nutritious fodder. We find in these situations
a species of Boerhavia and one of Kallstroemia. The mezquite trees near these places attain
a considerable size, and frequently bear upon their branches a vigorous growth of a peculiar
As we descend from the table land of the desert, by the steep bluff which bounds the alluvial
bottoms of the Colorado river, the vegetation consists almost entirely of dense thickets of mezquite,
but it assumes a more varied character when we reach the alluvial tracts. On all places
liable to overflow the cotton-wood and willow abound, the latter forming a thicket along the immediate
margin of the river. The higher grounds near the river seem especially favorable for the
mezquite, and we find it growing with greater luxuriance than we have seen it elsewhere. In
some situations it forms thorny and impervious thickets, but it is usually sufficiently scattered
to permit an easy passage for man or beast. The irregular growth of this tree renders it unfit
for most of the uses for which timber is needed. As an article of fuel it is scarcely inferior to
hickory, and the wood is very durable. The fruit of the mezquite is of the greatest value to the
traveller in these regions. It is a long bean-shaped pod, which is greedily devoured by cattle
and is found to be highly nutritious. A gum exudes from this tree which closely resembles
gum arabic in its chemical characters. The production of the gum is evidently increased by
The principal undergrowth consists of Tessaria borealis, a shrubby composita, which grows
upon light dry soil in thick masses. Its straight branches are from four to eight feet high; the
younger portions of which, as well as the leaves, are covered with a silvery pubescence. In low
saline places we find several chenopodiaceous plants; Salicornia, among others, which here
becomes a stout shrub of two or three feet in height. These localities also furnish the singular
Dicoris, a notice of which appears in Dr. Torrey's Appendix to Emory's Report.
A kind of soft cane grass (Arundo Phragmites) grows along the river's margin, and is the
principal reliance for fodder in this region. Two other kinds of grasses are met with in similar
situations, the seeds of which are collected for food by the Indians living near the river. One
of these is a Panicum, the seeds resembling millet. The other has digitate spikes, resembling
Eleusine. The flour made from the seeds of these wild grasses is husky, but quite palatable;
and it may be remarked, that species of the genera from which it is derived are in common
cultivation in the eastern hemisphere.
Many ravines occur on the eastern edge of the desert, by means of which its drainage reaches
the valley of the Colorado; these furnish some of the most interesting plants in the district.
Here we again encounter the silvery chapparal tree, before noticed, (Dalea spinescens;) also,
another of the same natural family, Olneya Tesota, (Gray, Pl. Thurb.) This is a good sized
tree, having much the habit of the common locust. Its fruit consists of short irregular pods,
which contain two large orbicular seeds. The flowers were not seen. We also find here the
tree frequently referred to in Major Emory's Report as the "green-barked acacia" of the
valley of the Gila. This is Cercidium floridanum; and in these localities it is quite a large
tree, resembling the weeping willow in habit. Its long drooping branches bear an abundance
Much yet remains to be learned respecting the vegetation of this singular region, especially
that of the eastern base of the mountain range. Only enough is known at present to prompt
the desire of a thorough botanical exploration of its floral riches.
On taking leave of this branch of our subject, we briefly notice a few general facts connected
with the vegetation of the country under consideration. One of the most striking botanical
characteristics of this region, and one which attracts the attention of the most casual observer,
is the great preponderance of evergreen shrubs. This is not only true of the seacoast and
desert, but also of the higher mountain ranges. This fact has an important bearing upon the
aspect of the scenery, which would otherwise be desolate indeed in a country exposed to an
uninterrupted drought of seven months duration in each year. Though the verdure has not the
vivid freshness of spring, but is even inclined to a leaden hue, yet the relief to the eye will be
readily appreciated when contrasted with those complete deserts, whose universal barrenness
seems increased rather than relieved by the repulsive spine-clad cacti or bristling yuccas.
The effect of the peculiarities of the climate upon the vegetation of this region may be noticed
here. The singular alternations of wet and dryness, heat and cold, produce a confused blending
of seasons. Upon the immediate coast most of the annuals and those perennial plants having a
succulent nature make their growth during the winter months, that being the season of rain.
In this latitude vegetable growth meets with but very little impediment from cold, as in these
months the temperature rarely falls below the freezing point. When the November rains commence
falling vegetation puts on its spring aspect, every barren hill is soon clothed in green, and
by midwinter flowers are blooming in profusion everywhere, and many have even passed their
brief season and have gone to seed. At this time the larger trees and deciduous shrubs drop
their leaves, and only resume them at the close of the rainy season. This seeming exception to
the general activity of vegetable life during the winter months is accounted for by the fact that
the class of plants alluded to is almost exclusively confined to the margins of streams, hence
their growth depends less upon moisture from the atmosphere. As dryness advances, during
the months of May and June, all the evanescent forms are swept away, and the profusion of
spring flowers gives place to the scanty products of the arid summer. Finally, these two yield
to a still more sparse autumnal growth, which is mainly confined to the courses of streams.
On the mountains, however, we find the alternation of seasons more like that of temperate
climates. Here there is a winter sufficiently cold to prevent and a summer sufficiently moist to
favor vegetable growth, which continues throughout the latter season. The scanty vegetation
upon the eastern side of the mountains and along the Colorado is but partially watered by the
uncertain showers of summer, and depends mainly upon the regular overflowing of the river.
As the waters recede, the inundated places are speedily covered by a very rapid growth.
We will conclude this general sketch by briefly considering the agricultural capacities of the
country, as indicated by its general geological features, its climate, and the natural botanical
Commencing at the coast, we notice a prominent wall of high tertiary stuff abutting on the
sea. This portion, which is thinly clad with verdure at any season, presents an uninviting
aspect. Hence it happens that to the traveller who views it from the sea it is forbidding in
the extreme. At a variable distance inland, however, where we find the line of settlements,
the rounded hills are covered with a deep rich loam, which in the spring produces a luxuriant
crop of wild oats. The river margins of this section are also of the same fertile character, and
As we approach the junction of the tertiary and the granitic exposures barrenness again
prevails. The thin soil, which is here confined to the crevices of the rocks, produces a growth
of shrubbery, the stunted character of which indicates its unproductive nature. Proceeding
further inland, we find among the basin-shaped mountain valleys large trees and rich pasture
grasses, denoting that a fertile soil again appears. This character, more or less varied by local
causes, extends to the summit level.
Occasionally terraces are found upon the higher mountain slopes which possess a productive
clay soil, well adapted to the growth of winter grains. In general, however, these localities
are rugged and barren. From these facts it would appear that this country possesses a large
share of fertile soil, but in estimating its agricultural capacities we must also take into consideration
the peculiarities of the climate if we would arrive at correct conclusions. It is owing to
the fact that this latter is not taken into account that such discrepancies occur in the statements
of travellers, who, according to the season at which they view the country, pronounce it sometimes
a desert and at others a garden. Let any one follow up the coast in the month of March,
and pass over the verdant plains that stretch towards the sea; let him see every valley and hill
clothed in the rich green of the wild oats, and every snow-fed stream running with clear water,
and he will exclaim, "This is Arcadian land, the realization of the poet's song." But let him
pass over the same region in the month of August or September, when nearly every green thing
has disappeared, when, instead of soft breezes wafting over refreshing verdure, the heated air
rises with a wavy tremor from the parching ground; let him visit the land when nothing
remains of the streams but the dry beds, and the herds of cattle, which before were roaming at
large in the enjoyment of the rich pasturage, are gathered in herds around the margins of the
stagnant marshes, and the same traveller will pronounce the country to be a desert unfitted for
the abode of man or beast.
The true mode, then, of estimating how far this region is adapted to agriculture is to follow
up the courses of the various streams which run towards the sea, and note the point at which
the supply of water is constant, the width of the valley, and the nature of the soil at these
places, and also whether the character of the surface will admit of irrigation. We then have
the data for forming a just opinion as to the value of the land for husbandry. If the observations
are made further inland, among the mountains, then the increase of elevation must be
taken into account. The winter here brings snow, and the summer is shorter than it is near
the sea level. Hence the length of the growing season is diminished, but while it continues
growth is extremely vigorous, especially in the month of June. The abundant supply of water,
wood, and the bracing mountain air, compensate for a frequently inclement winter, the difficulty
of transportation, and a short summer season.
The founders of the early mission establishments in this region seem to have had a clear
appreciation of these facts, and their locations were wisely selected, so as to embrace the widest
extent of cultivable land, and the best situations for farms are still found to be in their vicinity.
These missions occupy the valleys of the main water-courses, generally at that point where the
supply of water can be depended upon in all seasons. Their aqueducts, bringing water from
In regard to the eastern slope of the mountain but little additional need be said. In the
immediate vicinity of the summit ridge arable land is found, but the more precipitous slope
renders this too limited in extent to claim much attention. Desert valleys and pent up cañons
succeed between this and the great plain. As far as all agricultural purposes are concerned
this is truly a desert, though it is not, as is generally supposed, a mere waste of shifting sands,
and destitute of every kind of vegetation.
The borders of "New River" being subject to frequent if not regular overflow, would seem
to present some opportunities for the limited cultivation of maize, beans, pumpkins, and melons,
such as is practiced by the Indians on the Colorado, and the existence of "gramma grass" on
the higher adjoining ground would seem to indicate that quickly maturing cereals might be
The supply of water might, moreover, be rendered more constant and equable by the construction
of artificial reservoirs and ditches. Still we must admit that any system of cultivation
must be very precarious in a location where its success depends upon such variable causes.
The remarks respecting "New River" apply in a great measure to the Colorado. Here the
cultivation is, of necessity, confined to those portions of the valley that are subject to overflow and
the consequent deposition of fertilizing sediment. The higher adjoining lands, being without
the reach of these influences, are, from their extreme aridity and the light porous nature of
their soil, quite unfit for any cultivation.
All the Indian settlements upon the Colorado with which we are acquainted are located with
reference to an overflowed portion of the river margin. Near the junction of the Gila with this
river one Indian village occupies an old river bed, which, when the river is high, is completely
covered by the stream. Another settlement is situated upon a low alluvial delta lying between
the two rivers, and a third is built in a slough. These are also flooded at high water. The
articles cultivated by these Indians are principally maize, beans, and pumpkins. No doubt
that cotton, sugar, and many of the sub-tropical fruits would succeed here, but our present
knowledge respecting the extent of arable soil, of the vicissitudes of the climate, and of the
character of the different seasons, is too vague to warrant any but the merest conjecture in regard
to its future agricultural importance.
UNITED STATES AND MEXICAN
UNDER THE ORDER OF
LIEUT. COL. W. H. EMORY,
MAJOR FIRST CAVALRY, AND UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER.
CLEMATIS LASIANTHA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, l. c. (TAB. I.) In various places, California, Parry.
C. pauciflora, Nutt., of which I have a specimen in fruit, kindly sent to me by that excellent
botanist, appears to be a form of this species with smaller leaves and flowers than usual. Dr.
Parry also found it at San Diego, but with male flowers only. Seemann refers C. lasiantha to
C. Peruviana, DC.
DELPHINIUM CARDINALE, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 485. D. coccineum, Torr. in Bot. Whipp. Rep.
l. c. p. 62. (TAB. II.) Mountains east of San Diego, California; Parry. This may prove to be a
variety of the last species, but the lobes of the leaves are much longer, and taper to a narrow point.
It is a splendid plant, with large scarlet flowers. Dr. Parry collected it in the year 1850, and
I have distributed specimens of it under the MS. name quoted above. Our plate was engraved
before the figure in the Botanical Magazine was published.
AQUILEGIA LEPTOCERA, var. FLAVA, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 9. Organ mountains, near Doña Ana,
New Mexico, and on hills at the Copper Mines; April—July; Parry, Bigelow. Banks of
rivers, Sonora; Thurber, & Capt. E. K. Smith.
BERBERIS TRIFOLIATA, Moric. Pl. Nouv. Amer. p. 113, t. 69; Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 142.
Western Texas, and on hills near the Copper Mines, New Mexico; Bigelow. Westward to
Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, etc.; Gregg, Thurber. The bright red acid berries are used for tarts,
and are less acute than those of B. vulgaris.
MECONOPSIS HETEROPHYLLA, Benth. in Lond. Hort. Trans. (ser. 2) 1, p. 407; Hook. Ic. t. 733.
Near the sea beach at San Diego, and at Santa Barbara, California; February; Parry. Our
specimens are certainly annual.
PLATYSTEMON CALIFORNICUM, Benth. l. c.; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1679; Torr. & Gray, Fl 1, p.
65. Grassy places in various parts of California; Parry, Thurber. Most of the specimens
belong to the variety leiocarpum. "Flowers ochroleucous, turning yellow in drying."
ROMNEYA COULTERI, Harv. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 4, p. 4, 74, t. 3. Borders of dry streams
south of San Diego, California; Parry. A showy plant, with large white flowers, which, in
some of the specimens, are 4½ inches in diameter. The mature capsules and seeds are not yet
DICENTRA? CHRYSANTHA, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech, p. 320, t. 73; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 665.
San Felipe, California; Parry. Between San Diego and the Rio Colorado; Schott. Monterey;
Mr. Andrews. A tall branching plant, (3—4 feet high,) with showy golden yellow blossoms in
panicles. It differs from Dicentra in the filaments of the two phalanges being united nearly to
the summit, where alone they are distinct; in the dull verrucose horse-shoe-form seeds, which
are thick on the margin, and destitute of a strophiole or crest; and, lastly, in a peculiar habit.
The pollen is spherical, as in Dicentra. It may be considered as the type of a genus or subgenus,
to which the name of Chrysocapnos would not be inappropriate.
CHEIRANTHUS ASPER, Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea, 1, p. 14, excl. syn. C. capitatus, Dougl. in
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1, p. 38. Erysimum grandiflorum, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 96.
Sandy hills near Monterey, California; May; Parry. The specimens are in flower and fruit.
The siliques are an inch and three-quarters long, nearly two lines broad, and much compressed.
Seeds narrowly winged, and sometimes partly in two rows. Cotyledons distinctly accumbent,
although the radicle is, in some cases, slightly oblique. An original specimen of Nuttall's
plant agrees exactly with ours, but it has only very young fruit. The ripe fruit and seeds have
probably not been seen before.
NASTURTIUM OBTUSUM, Nutt. l. c. Wet sandy places on the Rio Grande, from New Mexico to
Eagle Pass; Bigelow, Thurber. Specimens from the lower Rio Grande have the pods nearly
three-fourths of an inch long.
THELYPODIUM WRIGHTII, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 3. Plains and low grassy places, Leon
Springs, and along the Rio Grande, from forty miles below San Elceario to Eagle Pass; April—
Sept.; Bigelow, Schott.
ERYSIMUM ASPERUM, DC.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 95; Torr. Bot. Whipple, Rep. p. 66. Western
Texas, Chihuahua, Sonora, and California. An extremely variable plant, which may be referred
to several nominal species.
VESICARIA PURPUREA, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 14. Hueco mountains, in rocky places, El Paso
and Cook's Springs; March—April; Bigelow, Thurber. Guadaloupe Pass, &c., Sonora; March;
Parry. The petals are only slightly purple, often almost white, and yellowish toward the
DITHYRÆA WISLIZENI, Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. N. Mex. p. 11; Tort, in Sitgr. Rep. p. 280,
t. 11. Prairies and sandy banks, El Paso to the Copper Mines; Bigelow, Thurber. Overflowed
banks of the Gila; March; Parry.
THLASPI. FENDLERI, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 15. Organ mountains and Copper Mines, New
Mexico; April—May; Bigelow, Thurber. Guadaloupe Pass and Tubac, Sonora; February—March;
Parry. The radical and lower cauline leaves are often denticulate.
SYNTHLIPSIS GREGGII, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 116, in not. Hill-sides on the lower Rio Grande;
common near Eagle Pass; March—September; Schott.1
LEPIDIUM ALYSSOIDES, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 10. Chihuahua and on the Pecos; Thurber. Low
grounds near El Paso, and on the Organ mountains; May—October; Bigelow. Valley of the
Gila; Schott. Santa Cruz valley, Sonora; Thurber. The late secondary leaves on specimens
from the Organ mountains are deeply pinnatifid, and the segments toothed.
THYSANOCARPUS ELEGANS, Fisch, & Mey. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. (1835) p. 50; Torr. & Gray,
Fl. 1, p. 118, (var. γ) Dana's Ranch, California; Parry. Napa, March; Thurber. Tucson,
Sonora; Parry. The last is the most eastern station known of a species of this genus.
POLANISIA UNIGLANDULOSA, DC. Prodr. 1, p. 242; Gray, Pl. Wright, p. 10. Sandy places on
the Rio Grande; also on Cibolo creek and near the Copper Mines; April—July. Variable in
the size of the flowers. Seeds smooth and rough, often in the same specimen.
VIOLA ADUNCA, Smith in Rees Cyclop; Torr. Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 68. V. longipes, Nutt.
in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 140. Near Monterey, California; April; Parry. Plains near the
seacoast, San Francisco; Thurber. A form resembling Hartweg's No. 1660.
VIOLA LOBATA, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 298; Torr. Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 68. Summit of the
mountains east of San Diego, June; Parry. The leaves vary greatly. On the same specimen
some of them are but slightly lobed, others are cut nearly to the base.
IONIDIUM LINEARE, Torr.; Gray, Gen. Ill. 1, p. 189, t. 82. New Mexico and western Texas;
west to Chihuahua and Sonora. It varies with the leaves broadly and narrowly linear, and
from entire to acutely denticulate.
FRANKENIA GRANDIFOLIA, Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea 1, p. 35; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 168.
Salt marshes and along the seashore near San Diego, California; June; Parry. Alluvions of
the Rio Gila, Sonora; Schott. In Mr. Schott's specimens the leaves are much narrower than
in those from the sea-coast.
ALSINE TENELLA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 179. A. tenuifolia, B. americana, Fenzl. in
Ann. Wien. Mus. Monterey, California, May; Parry. Differs from A. tenuifolia in the less
pointed sepals and in the seeds, which are 4 to 5 times larger, as well as more compressed, and
marked with minute radiating rugæ.
PARONYCHIA RAMOSISSIMA, DC. Mem. Paronych. p. 12, t. 4; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 72. San
Luis Rey, San Diego, &c.; Parry, Thurber. The large, imbricated, scarious stipules give
this plant a silvery appearance. There are commonly 5 stamens, with as many intermediate
oblong scales which are about the length of the filaments.
TALINUM AURANTIACUM, Englm. in PL Lindh. 2, p. 154 & β. ANGUSTISSIMUM, in Gray, Pl.
Wright, 1, p. 14. Gravelly hills near Rock creek and Van Horn's Wells, Texas; Bigelow.
Sandy Places, Sonora; Schott, Thurber.
SIDALCEA MALVÆFLORA, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 16. Sida malvæflora, Mog. & Sesse. DC.
Prodr. 1, p. 194. Marshes of the Limpia and hills at the Copper Mines; July; Bigelow. Ojo
de Gavilan and Rio Mimbres; Thurber. El Podrero, Sonora; June; Schott. It sometimes
occurs with white flowers.
SIDA PHYSOCALYX, Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 163. Hills between Van Horn's Wells and Muerte;
May—July; Bigelow. Near Laredo; Schott. Fronteras, Sonora, and near the city of Parras,
State of Coahuila; Thurber.
ABUTILON CRISPUM, Don.; Gray, Gen. Ill. 2, t. 126. Bogenhardia crispa, "Reichenb. Repert.
Herb. 200, No. 7636." Rocky hills and ravines along the Rio Grande and its tributaries.
Bachimba, Chihuahua, and Magdalena, Sonora; Thurber. Specimens from the latter station
have remarkably villous stems.
WISSADULA MUCRONULATA, Gray, Pl. Berland. ined. On the Rio Grande, below Reynosa,
October; Schott. Leaves cordate, entire, green, and smoothish above, paler and somewhat
velvety underneath. Peduncles paniculately several-flowered, the flowers very small, with
obovate petals. Carpels obovate, smoothish, with 2 short horns, 4—5 seeded.
SPHÆRALCEA ANGUSTIFOLIA, Spach; Gray. Pl. Wright, 1, p. 21. S. stellata, Torr. & Gray, Fl.
1, p.228. Moist, alluvial soils. Western Texas; June. On the Fronteras, Sonora; June—
November; Thurber, A broad-leaved form was found by Schott at Eagle Pass.
SPHÆRALCEA INCANA, Torr. in Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 23; Pl. Wright, 1, p. 21. El Paso;
Parry; and Laguna los Putos, Chihuahua; Thurber. San Elceario, &c.; Bigelow. Var. DISSECTA,
Gray, l. c. p. 21. Chihuahua; Schott, Thurber.
KOSTELETZKYA (ORTHOPETALUM) PANICULATA, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 285. Mountain pass near
Cocospera river; September; Schott. Corolla, deep rose color. Bentham regards this
plant as the type of a distinct section or, perhaps, genus, differing from Kosteletzkya in the erect
THURBERIA THESPESIOIDES, Gray, Pl. Thurber, p. 308. (TAB. VI.) Cañon near Cocospera and
Ymuris, Sonora; October—November; Schott. Mr. Schott informs me that this Plant is called
Algodoncello by the Sonorians.
OXALIS BERLANDIERI (n. sp.): caulescens, pilosa; foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis oblongis v. obovato-oblongis
plerumque emarginatis terminali valde petiolulato; pedunculis axillaribus subterminalibusque
3—5-floris folium subæquantibus erectis; petalis flavis. Sandy places in the
prairies between Laredo and Ringgold Barracks, June; Schott. Rio Nueces, Berlandier, No.
1094 and 2524. Stems arising from a slender subterranean rhizoma, erect, 4—6 inches high,
branching towards the base. Lateral leaflets 3—4 lines, terminal 5—6 lines long. Filaments
unequal, 5 of them hairy, twice as long as the alternate smooth ones. Cells of the ovary about
4-ovuled. Capsule subglobose-ovate, scarcely as long as the sepals, strongly 5-angled; the cells
one-seeded. Seeds strongly tuberculose-ribbed. Allied to O. psoraleoides. The only species of
this section hitherto found within the limits of our Flora.
OXALIS VIOLACEA, Linn.; Torr. & Gray, Pl. 1, p. 211. Between the Pecos and Devil's river and
the Rio Grande; Copper Mines, New Mexico; Bigelow, Parry. Usually taller than the eastern
plant, but with smaller and more numerous flowers.
ERODIUM MACROPHYLLUM, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, p. 327. California, (station not recorded,)
Parry. The leaves in our specimens are much smaller than they are described by Hooker &
Arnott, being scarcely more than an inch long.
KOEBERLINIA SPINOSA, Zucc.; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 30, & 2, p. 26. Rich soils in various
places along the Rio Grande and in the Mexican States westward, May—August. "In
favorable situations this shrub sometimes attains the height of 8 or 10 feet." Thurber.
THAMNOSMA TEXANUM. Rutosma Texanum, Gray, Gen. Ill. 2, p. 114, t. 155. Hills between
the Pecos and Devil's river and the Rio Grande; also along the latter river from El Paso downward,
and in western New Mexico, Sonora, etc., flowering throughout the season.
ASTROPHYLLUM DUMOSUM, Torr. in Bot. Pope's Report, p. 161. Mountains about thirty-five
miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, July (in fruit); Bigelow. Borders of the Rio Mimbres, Dr.
Henry, United States army. Western slope of the Sierra del Pajarito, Sonora, July, (just past
flowering,) Schott, (not on the Rio Grande, as erroneously stated in the Botany of Captain Pope's
Report.) Since the description quoted above was written, other specimens of this remarkable
plant have been received, but none of them with perfect flowers. In one or two instances
withered, imperfect flowers were found, and we can now give a nearly complete character of the
genus, which rather belongs to the Diosmeæ than to the true Rutaceæ.
A shrub 3 to 6 feet high, with numerous pubescent, crowded, opposite branches. Leaves
opposite, (rarely sub-opposite), pubescent, exstipulate; petioles, 6—10 lines long; leaflets mostly
longer than the petioles, marked (as are also the petioles and younger branches) with prominent
conspicuous glands. In all the specimens from the Rio Grande there are 6 to 10 leaflets, which
are narrowly linear (scarcely a line wide), and sub-coriaceous; in those from Sonora there are 5,
which are twice as broad, and thinner. These glands, on the leaflets, are somewhat distant and
marginal. Flowers perfect. Pedicels 8—10 lines long, mostly near the extremity of the
branches, either solitary or 2 to 4, and somewhat umbellate. Sepals 4—5, short and semiovate,
ciliate on the margin. Petals inserted at the base of the shorter stamens, 3—4 times as long as
the calyx, obovate, narrowed at the base. Stamens mostly 8; filaments naked, the alternate
ones longer, compressed; anthers ovate, fixed by the base, opening longitudinally. Disk
produced into 8—10, nearly equal glaudular lobes, which are without pores. Ovary hairy,
4—5-lobed, 4—5-celled; the cells produced above into a short obtuse beak, exterior to the
style; each cell containing 2 collateral hemitropous ovules. Styles short, at first combined,
but afterwards (and especially in the unfructified ovaries) distinct below; stigma of 4—5
capitate lobes. Fruit capsular; only two of the carpels usually ripening; these are broadly
ovate, compressed, dotted with brown impressed glands, mucronate with the base of the style;
the beak, which in the ovary was at the summit of the carpel, becoming, in the mature fruit, a
dorsal tooth. At maturity the carpels open nearly the whole length of the dorsal suture, and
down the back as far as the tooth. The endocarp also separates almost entirely from the epicarp.
Seeds mostly solitary in each cell, globose-ovate, black and shining. Embryo nearly straight in
the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons roundish-ovate, flat, with a very short radicle. A very
PITAVIA (GASTROSTYLA) DUMOSA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 215. San Diego and San
Pasqual, California, Febr.; Parry, Thurber. A shrub 2—3 feet high. Leaves pungent when
chewed. Cymes 3-flowered, terminal, and on short lateral spurs. Calyx 4-parted; the segments
ovate, acute, coriaceous. Petals white, equal, oblong, sparsely dotted. Stamens 8; filaments
subulate; anthers somewhat reniform, innate, retrorse. Ovary solitary, seated on a fleshy
sub-globose slightly lobed disk. Stigma capitate. Fruit 1—2-seeded, testa thick and coriaceous.
Embryo curved, in rather thin fleshy albumen. This plant (as was remarked in the Flora of
N. America) is hardly a congener of Pitavia. It may form a sub-genus, distinguished by its
hermaphrodite flowers, solitary ovary, lateral style, and curved embryo.
ZANTHOXYLUM CAROLINIANUM, Lam.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 24. Var. foliis brevioribus
ovatis, &c.; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 30. Head waters of the Nueces; also ravines on Devil's
river and near Eagle Pass, Texas, March (in flower)—September (in fruit); Bigelow.
AMOREUXIA WRIGHTII, Gray, l. c. A. Scheidiana, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 29, t. 3. B. excl. syn.
In rich soil, Eagle Pass, June; Schott. Hills and plains near the mouth of the Pecos, October
RHUS TRILOBATA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 219; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 31. Northern
New Mexico and the Valley of the Rio Grande; also in Sonora and California. A form with
the leaves velvety-pubescent occurs at the Copper Mines and on the Organ mountains, New
STYPHONIA INTEGRIFOLIA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. l. c. & Sylv. 3, p. 4, t. 82; Torr. in Pacif.
R. Road Expl. 7, Bot. p. 8, t. 2. Santa Barbara and San Diego, California; Parry, Thurber.
Leaves very variable in size and outline, especially upon the young shoots. S. serrata (Nutt.) is
SCHINUS MOLLE, Linn. Sp. p. 1467. Lower California, near the boundary line; Parry; and
at the Mission of San Luis Rey; Thurber. It is common also in all the Mexican States, but is
probably not indigenous. Mr. Thurber informs me that in California it is called Pepper Tree
by the residents, the berries having precisely the taste of the common black pepper.
HOLACANTHA EMORYI, Gray, Pl. Thurber. p. 310. (TAB. VIII.) Near Sonoita, Sonora, August
(with fine fruit); Schott. The description of this remarkable plant, by Dr. Gray, is so complete
and so accurate that I have nothing to add but a good figure by Sprague.
CEANOTHUS SOREDIACUS, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, p. 329; Torr, Gray, l. c. On the
conglomerate and sandstone hills above San Diego; Parry. C. Lobbianus, Hook. Bot. Mag. t.
4811, seems to be hardly distinct from our plant.
CEANOTHUS THYRSIFLORUS, Eschsch. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 1826; Torr, & Gray, Fl. L. c.
Common in the neighborhood of Monterey and San Diego, as well as in many other parts of California,
where it is known by the name of California lilac.
CEANOTHUS SPINOSUS, Nutt. l. c. Near Santa Barbara, California; March; Parry, Flowers
white, with a tinge of blue. Leaves sometimes distinctly toothed at the apex. The branches
are not thorny in our specimens.
CEANOTHUS CUNEATUS, Nutt. L. c. C. macrocarpus, Nutt. l. c. Near San Luis Obispo and Santa
Barbara, California, April; Parry. There can be no doubt of the propriety of uniting the
two species here quoted. We have specimens collected from numerous localities, which show a
transition from the one to the other.
CEANOTHUS RIGIDUS, Nutt. l. c.; Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 302; Lindl. & Paxt. Fl. Gard. 1, p. 74,
t. 51. (TABLE IX.) On dry hills, Monterey, California, April; Parry. An evergreen shrub
about 5 feet high, with rigid branches. The leaves vary greatly in form, being sometimes
broadly obovate and often deeply emarginate.
CEANOTHUS DENTATUS, Torr. & Gray, Fl. l. c.; Lindl. & Paxt. Fl. Gard. 1, p. 17, t. 4.
(TABLE X.) Sandy soils around Monterey, California; Parry. A low bush. Our specimens
correspond with Douglas's plant, except that in the latter the flowers are said to be white,
whereas they are blue in the former. They had, no doubt, faded in the specimens from which
the original description was drawn.
CEANOTHUS CRASSIFOLIUS, (n. sp.): fruticosus, erectus; ramulis teretibus albo-tomentosis foliis
ovatis obtusiusculis integerrimis crassis penninerviis subtus dense albo-tomentosis glabris minute
papillaris opacis; thyrsis subsessilibus brevibus subumbelliformibus densifloris. (TABLE XI.)
Mountains south of Los Angelos, February; Parry. A shrub 4 to 5 feet high, much branched.
Leaves 1—1¼ inch long, remarkably thick and coriaceous, revolute on the margin when dry,
pale dull green above and appearing rough like shagreen under a lens; petiole 2—3 lines long,
thick. Clusters of flowers terminal, and in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx and corolla
white. Ovary marked with 3 minute protuberances. Fruit not known.
FRANGULA CALIFORNICA, Gray, l. c., & Pl. Wright. 2, p. 28. Mountain ravines near Camp
Bache, Western Texas; Bigelow. Sonora; Schott, Capt. E. K. Smith. Monterey and San
Diego, California; Parry. Variable in the form and pubescence of the leaves. We quite agree
with Dr. Gray, that this species includes Rhamnus Californicus, Esch., R. oleifolius, Hook., R.
laurifolius, Nutt. R. leucodermis, Nutt., and R. tomentellus, Benth.
RHAMNUS CROCEUS, Nutt. in Torr, & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 261. Around Monterey and San Diego,
also on the mountains of southern California; Parry. The leaves vary from ½ to 1½ inch in
length, and from obovate-oblong to broadly ovate. The under surface is always yellowish.
The fruit in Dr. Parry's specimens is all 2-seeded.
ZIZYPHUS PARRYI, (n. sp.): glabra; ramis spinosis; foliis obovatis integerrimis sub-coriaceis
penninerviis; pedunculis unifloris, fructiferis recurvis; drupa sub-exsucca ovata apiculata 3-loculare;
nuce crassissima ossea 3-loculari 3-sperma. Gravelly ravines near San Felipe, California,
June (in fruit); Parry. It was afterwards found at the same place by Mr. Thurber. A shrub
4—6 feet high, much branched; the branches smooth, flexuous, and armed with numerous
slender leafy spines. Leaves 8—12 lines long, obtuse or sometimes retuse, abruptly tapering at
the base into a short petiole; stipules minute, subulate, deciduous. Only a solitary flower was
found. This was minute and pentamerous, the very small concave petals partly embracing the
stamens. Peduncles solitary, or sometimes 2—3 together, arising from short branches or spurs;
those of the fruit about half an inch long and recurved. Drupes 6—8 lines long, with a short
abrupt point, lemon yellow, the pulp very thin. Nutshell extremely thick and hard. Seeds
narrowly oblong. Albumen very thin. Embryo linear, oblong, green. This must be a very
rare plant, as it has been found but twice, and in both cases near the same spot. In its nearly
dry 3-celled fruit and extremely thick shell it resembles Z. xylopyra of India.
ZIZYPHUS LYCIOIDES, Gray, l. c. Near Elceario, on the Rio Grande, June (in fruit); Parry.
Valley of the Gila; Thurber. Dr. Gregg found it between Matamoras and Mapini. The fruit
is black and somewhat astringent, but edible.
COLUBRINIA TEXENSIS, Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 169; Pl. Wright. 1, p. 33. Plains between the
Pecos and the Rio Grande. The leaves on the young shoots are sometimes 4 inches long and 3
inches wide, but on the older branches they are much shorter.
MAYTENUS PHYLLANTHOIDES, Benth. Bot. Sulph. p. 54. Lower Rio Grande (in fruit); Schott.
A native also of the bay of Magdalena, California, and of Key West, Florida. Cotyledons
thick, and albumen very thin in this species.
SERJANIA INCISA, (n. sp.) foliis impari-bipinnatis; pinnis bijugis trifoliatis; foliolis ovato-rhomboideis
serrato-incisis trinque pubescentibus, petiolis subalatis; carpellorum alis semi-oblongis.
Mountains of Santa Rosa, Cohahuila; Bigelow. A vine 3—8 feet long. Leaflets
1—1½ inch long, acute at each end, with 2—3 coarse teeth on each side; the petiole more or
less distinctly winged. Peduncles about two-thirds the length of the leaves. Panicle an inch
or more long, racemiform, usually with 2 or 3 tendrils at the base. Sepals oblong. Petals
strongly appendiculate on the inside. Fruit 1½ inch long, at first pubescent, but nearly smooth
when old; seed-bearing portion reticulately veined; wings 3—5 lines wide, rather obtuse at
URVILLEA MEXICANA, Gray, l. c. (adnot.) Rich soil, among rocks. Monterey, Neuvo Leon,
Thurber. It was found some years before, in the same place, by Dr. Gregg, Dr. Edwards, and
Major Eaton. Taumilapas; Berlandier, No. 2269.
ÆSCULUS CALIFORNIA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 251, & Sylva, 2, p. 69, t. 74. Newberry,
Bot. Williamson in Pacif. R Road Expl. 6, p. 21, fig. 1. Near Monterey and San Luis Obispo,
California, May; Parry.
MALPIGHIA GLABRA, Linn.; DC. Prodr. 1, p. 578. On the lower Rio Grande. September—
October (flowers and fruit); Schott. Dr. Edwards found it near Monterey, Neuvo Leon. It is
a shrub 1—4 feet high, growing in densely bushy places.
HIRÆA SEPTENTRIONALIS, Ad. Juss. Monog. Malpigh. p. 309. Var. foliis minoribussæ pissime
oblongo-lanceolatis, Gray, Pl. p. 303 (adnot.) Between Reyon and Ures, Sonora;
Thurber. Dr. Edwards collected it near Monterey, Neuvo Leon. It is a shrub 6—8 feet high.
POLYGALA NUTKANA, Moc. & Sessé; DC. Prodr. 1, p. 331. P. cucullata, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p.
229. P. Californica, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 671. (TAB. XII ) Near Monterey, May;
Parry. We have seen specimens of this plant with radical flowers, so that no doubt Nuttall's
P. Californica is the same as P. Nutkana.
KRAMERIA LANCEOLATA, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2, p. 168; Gray, Gen. Ill. 2, t. 185.
Hill-sides along the Rio Grande, from El Paso to Laredo, April—July. Cañon of Guadaloupe,
Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith.
KRAMERIA PARVIFOLIA, Benth. Bot. Sulph. p. 6, t. 1; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 42. Ravines and
hills, western Texas, particularly along the upper Rio Grande and at Guadaloupe cañon,
Sonora; Capt. E. Smith; also on the border of the California desert, near San Felipe, June;
Parry. Var. RAMOSISSIMA, Gray, l. c. Devil's river, Leon Springs, and Presidio del Norte.
LATHYRUS MARITIMUS, Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2, p. 268; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 273. Near San
Diego, March; Parry. Peduncles, petioles, and calyx pubescent. Leaflets 8—12, mostly
alternate, varying from ovate to elliptical-oblong, glabrous, scarcely half as large as in the
eastern plant. Stipules broadly cordate-hastate, nearly as long as the leaflets. Peduncles 6—
PHASEOLUS WRIGHTII, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 43. Mountains and rocky places along the
middle Rio Grande, and at the Copper Mines, July—August. Dr. Bigelow found at Eagle
Pass what seems to be a variety of this species, in which the leaflets of the lower leaves are
PHASEOLUS ATROPURPUREUS (n. sp.:) caulibus volubilibus retrorsim pubescentibus; stipulisminutis
subulatis; foliolis lanceolatis basi dilatatis utrinque pubescentibus lateralibus ad basim unilobatis,
terminati trilobo; pedunculis folio multoties longioribus paucifloris; calycibus subsessilibus,
laciniis inferioribus lanceolato-subulatis, superioribus triangulari-lanceolatis, alis corollæ late
ovatis (atropurpureis) vexillo duplo longioribus; leguminibus deflexis lineari-falcatis 7—9-spermis.
Rocks on the Rio Cibolo of the Rio Grande, and ravines, Bufitillo; Bigelow. Presidio
del Norte, July—August; Parry. Leaflets 1½—2½ inches long, tapering to a long narrow
point; the lateral ones with large acute lobe on the outer side at the base; the terminal leaf
more or less dilated at the base, and usually 3-lobed, but sometimes (especially in the lower
leaves) only obscurely lobed. Peduncle 8—12 inches long, and still more elongated in fruit.
Flowers 6—10, at first approximated toward the extremity of the peduncle, but afterwards
distant. Pods about 3 inches long and 2 lines wide. Seeds oblong, compressed, about 2½ lines
long, and 1½ wide; smooth, greyish, speckled with dark purple. This seems to be quite distinct
from any Phaseolus hitherto described. Mr. Schott found on the sea beach at Brazos Santiago,
Texas, a plant allied to this, but much more downy, and the leaflets half as large, ovate
obtuse, with very short lobes. The specimens are not sufficiently complete for a more minute
VIGNA VILLOSA, Savi.? DC. Prodr. l. 2, p. 40. Thickets on the Rio Grande, between Ringgold
Barracks and Laredo; Schott. If, as is probable, this and V. glabra are not specifically distinct,
it ought to be called V. luteola, the genus Vigna having been founded on Dolichos luteolus,
ERYTHRINA CORALLOIDES, Moc. & Sesse in DC. Prodr. 2, p. 413? Gray, Pl. Thurb. p. 301.
Bachuachi and Gaudaloupe cañon, June (in flower) and August (in fruit); Thurber. Summit
of mountains north of Imores; Capt. E. Smith; and Sierra del Pajarito, in the same State;
Schott. I have followed Dr. Gray in naming this plant, but it does not well accord with the
description of De Candolle. The leaves are broader than long, and the petioles in our specimens
are more or less prickly. Indeed, it scarcely differs from E. herbacea, of the southern States,
for that species becomes shrubby in Florida, and the stem, as well as the petioles, prickly.
DAUBENTONIA LONGIFOLIA, DC. Mem. Leg. & Prodr. 2, p. 267; Torr. & Gray, Fl. p. 283.
Banks of the Rio Grande from Laredo down to the coast; Schott. Rio Coleto, Texas; Thurber.
A large shrub, with showy racemes of bright yellow flowers. The seeds are used as a substitute
PSORALEA ORBICULARIS, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1971; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 304. Near San Luis
Obispo and other parts of California, April; Parry. Peduncles often more than a foot long,
and the petioles of nearly the same length. The spike is at first short and capitate, but in full
flower is sometimes 6 inches long.
PSORALEA PSYCODES, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 136. In moist places near Monterey,
California, May; Parry. Our specimens accord exactly with Douglas' Californian plant, and
therefore belong to the var. β. Hook. l. c.
DALEA FORMOSA, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2, p. 178; & in Emory Rep. t. 1. Gravelly and
rocky hills and prairies along the Rio Grande, from Frontera down to Eagle Pass, also in Cohahuila,
April—July. A highly ornamental little shrub, bearing a profusion of bright rose-colored
DALEA SPINOSA, Gray, Pl. Thurb. p. 315; Torr. Bot. Parke, in Pacif. R. Road Expl. 7, p. 9,
t, 3. On the lower Rio Gila; Thurber. Dry beds of rivers in the Californian desert; Schott.
The leaves of young shoots and seedlings are obovate-oblong, toothed and dotted with glands.
DALEA SCHOTTII (n. sp.): fruticosa; ramis flexuosis glaberrimis, ramulis in spinas subpungentes
abuentibus; foliis simplicissimus sparsis anguste linearibus; pedunculis 2–3–floris;
calycis dentibus late ovatis tubo glabro eglanduloso duplo brevioribus; corolla violacea. Diluvial
banks of the Colorado, February; Schott. Branches zigzag, smooth, yellow. Leaves 8–10
lines long, scarcely a line wide, hoary-pubescent above, green, and marked with row of impressed
dots on each side underneath. Flowers produced at the extremity of short branches, usually two
together, on short pedicels; the bracts resembling the leaves, only smaller. Calyx without
glands, somewhat turbinate, smooth, the broad teeth pubescent on the margin. Corolla deep
violet. Pods not seen.
PETALOSTEMON CANDIDUM, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 49, t. 37, f. 1. Near the Copper Mines, and low
places between Van Horn's Wells and Muerte, July; Bigelow. Rio de Sta. Cruz and Prodrero,
Sonora, June; Schott. Our plant resembles Fendler's specimens named P. gracile by Dr.
Gray, but it is erect.
AMORPHA LAEVIGATA, Nutt. var. PUBESCENS, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 49. Hills at the Copper
Mines, and on the Rio Grande below the mouth of Escondido creek, March; Bigelow, Schott.
Hardly distinct from the next.
AMORPHA FRUTICOSA, Linn.; Torr, & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 305. A. Californica, Nutt. l. c.Mountains
east of San Diego, California; Parry. Mabibi, Sonora, June; Thurber. I can find no
reliable characters for distinguishing the two species here united. Mr. Nuttall's plant was
described from specimens in which the flowers were scarcely unfolded, and the fruit of which
was not collected.
GLYCYRRHIZA LEPIDOTA, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 106; Bot. Mag. t. 2150; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p.50.
G. glutinosa, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 298. Valley of the Rio Grande below San
Elceario, June; Thurber. Ojo de Vaca, Chihuahua; Thurber. San Felipe, California; Parry.
MEDICAGO SATIVA, Linn.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 321. Banks of the acequia, near El Paso,
May; Bigelow. This is no doubt an introduced plant. It seems to be naturalized in many
parts of the Mexican States.
MEDICAGO DENTICULATA, Willd.; Torr. & Gray, l. c. Naturalized in western Texas, New
Mexico and the Mexican States west of the Rio Grande; also throughout California, wherever
the Spanish missions were established.
TRIFOLIUM FIMBRIATUM, Lindi. Bot. Reg. t. 1070; Torr, & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 317. Near San
Diego, California, May; Parry. Napa and San Isabel in the same State; Thurber. All our
specimens of this plant are clothed with a minute glandular pubescence. The leaflets are
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, and conspicuously fringed with narrow spinulose serratures.
Teeth of the calyx always entire, and broadly lanceolate at the base. Legumes 2-seeded. The
Indians of California collect the seeds for food.
TRIFOLIUM HETERODON, β. Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 318. Monterey, California, May; Parry.
Differs from the preceding in being glabrous, with oblong or obovate leaflets; the stipules much
less cut; the calyx-teeth subulate from a narrow base; the two upper ones 2—3-and in
the legumes 4—5-seeded.
TRIFOLIUM SPINULOSUM, β. Torr. & Gray, l. c. Near Monterey, California, May; Parry.
Near the last, but distinguished by the entire teeth of the calyx, more laciniate stipules and 2-seeded
legumes. From T. fimbriatum it differs in being glabrous, and in the much longer and
TRIFOLIUM FUCATUM, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1883; Torr. & Gray, l. c. T. physopetalum, Fisch.
& Mey. Ind. Sem. St. Petersb. 1837, p. 18. Santa Barbara, and on the beach San Juan
Capristano, California, March—May; Parry. San Isabel; Thurber. As tout species, easily
distinguished by its very large head, and broadly lanceolate entire segments of the involucre.
HOSACKIA OBLONGIFOLIA, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 305. Mountains east of San Diego, California,
June; Parry. Resembles H. bicolor, but differs in being pubescent, and in the narrowly
oblong acute leaflets, as well as in other characters. The legume is straight, about an inch
and a quarter long, and scarcely two lines wide. I have never seen H. bicolor with bracts, but
in this species there is always a unifoliate bract to each head of flowers.
HOSACKIA GRACILIS, Benth. in Linn. Trans. 17, p. 365; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 323. (TAB.
XV.) Monterey, California, May. A rare species which we have received only from the
vicinity of Monterey. It has much the appearance of a depauperate state of H. bicolor. The
petiolate trifoliate bract is always present.
H. PUBERULA, var. NANA, etc., Gray, l. c. Organ mountains, New Mexico, Bigelow. Ojo de
Vaca, Chihuahua; Thurber.—H. Wrightii, Gray seems to pass into this species. A variety
with obovate leaflets was found by Schott, in the valley of the Gila, and by Captain E. K.
Smith, in Sonora.
HOSACKIA PURSHIANA, Benth.; Torr. & Gray, l. c. Between Tucson and the Rio Gila, Sonora,
March—September; Parry, Thurber. Monterey, California; Parry. Varies with the upper
and sometimes all the leaves unifoliolate, when it is the H. unifoliolata, Hook. Fl. Bor.–Am.
1, p. 135. This synonym was inadvertently overlooked in the Flora of North America, as it
was also by Hooker in noticing the same form in Pl. Geyer.—(See Lond. Jour. Bot. 7. p. 210.)
ASTRAGALUS BIGELOVII, Gray, l. c. p. 42. Between the Rio San Pedro and the Rio Grande,
western Texas; also at the base of the Organ mountains and near the Copper Mines, New
Mexico; west to the Santa Cruz valley, Sonora; March—May.
ASTRAGALUS DIDYMOCARPUS, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, p. 334, t. 81; Torr. & Gray, l. c.
High beach near San Juan Capristano, and at Santa Barbara, California, March; Parry. The
leaflets in most of our specimens are narrowly cuneate-oblong, and notched at the summit.
ASTRAGALUS NUTTALLIANUS, DC; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 334; Gray, l. c. p. 52. Valleys
of the Rio Grande and its tributaries in western Texas, New Mexico, Cohahuila and Chihuahua;
also in Sonora; March—June. Variable in size, foliage, and other characters.
ASTRAGALUS (PHACA) LEUCOPSIS, Torr, & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 694. Phaca canescens, Nutt. in Torr.
& Gray, l. c. p. 344, non Hook. & Arn. (TAB. XVI.) San Diego, California; Parry, Schott.
The pods are about an inch and a quarter long, excluding the stipe, which is 4 lines long.
CHÆTOCALYX SCHOTTII (n. sp.:) prostratus fere glaber; foliolis 5 ovatis acutis valde mucronatis
concoloribus; dentibus calycis lineari-subulatis nudis tubo sub duplo-longioribus; carina alæ
subæquantibus; staminibus superne æqualiter diadelphis. (TAB. XVIII.) Sierra Verde, Aroyo
de los Samotas, Sonora, August; Schott. Stem branching from a somewhat woody base,
slender, 2—3 feet long, twining towards the extremity. Leaflets 6—8 lines long, thin, those
of the lowest leaves obtuse, the others acute and pointed with a conspicuous mucro. Flowers
about six in axillary fascicles or short racemes. Pedicels rather shorter than the flowers.
Calyx broadly campanulate, entirely destitute of glands. Corolla yellow. Vexillum ovateoblong,
emarginate, slightly pubescent. Wings and keel-petals oblong, acute. Stamens monadelphous
below, diadelphous above, five on each side of the pistil. Ovary, mostly three-ovuled.
Mature pod not known, but the young ones are 2—3-jointed; the terminal joint foliaceous and
dilated. Differs from Wislizeni in the narrow acute leaves, and the long teeth of the calyx.
DESMODIUM NEO-MEXICANUM, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 53. Copper Mines, New Mexico, and
Santa Cruz, Sonora, September; Thurber. A variety with broader and more strongly reticulated
leaves than usual was found by Schott on the mountains of San Estaban, in Sonora.
LUPINUS PUSILLUS, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 468. Gravelly plains near the Organ Mountains, and hills
at the Copper Mines, New Mexico; also near Frontera, March—April. Tucson, Sonora, and
valley of the Santa Cruz, Sonora; Parry, Capt. E. K. Smith.
THERMOPSIS FABACEA, DC. Prodr 2, p. 99. T. montana, Nutt, in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 388.
Napa county, California, March; Thurber. Near the summit of the mountains east of San
Diego, California, June; Parry.
OLNEYA TESOTA, Gray, Pl. Thurb. p. 328; Torr, in Pacif. Railroad Expl. 7, p. 10, t. 5.
Ravines in the table lands on the lower Gila, often in company with Cercidium floridum; Parry,
Thurber. Hills near Fort Yuma, California, January; Schott.
CERCIS OCCIDENTALIS, Torr, in Gray, Pl. Lindheim. 2, p. 177. Valley of the Devil's river,
western Texas; Bigelow. Also in California. Mr. Blake informs me that the camels, lately
imported into the United States, are very fond of the leaves of this plant.
HOFFMANSEGGIA CAUDATA, Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 179; Pl. Wright. 1, p. 54. On the lower
Rio Grande, April; Schott. In our specimens there are from 2—4 pinnæ. The leaflets vary
from 4 to 7 pairs in the lateral pinnæ, and from 9—15 (rarely only 7) in the terminal one. Sometimes
they are scarcely a line in length.
HOFFMANSEGGIA MICROPHYLLA (n. sp.:) puberula; ramis elongatis virgatis; pinnis unijugis
cum impari, lateralibus 10—12-foliolatis, terminali 14—20-foliolata, foliolis minutis oblongis
eglandulosis; bracteis stipulisque caducis; racemo laxifloro elongato; legumine subfalcato
acuto glandulis subsessilibus asperato. Sandy desert of the Colorado, California; Schott. Plant
apparently two feet or more in height. Stem and branches green, minutely velvetty, pubescent.
Lateral pinnæ 3—4 lines long, the terminal one nearly twice as long. Leaflets scarcely a line
in length, pubescent. Calyx softly pubescent. Corolla yellow; the claws of all, and the back
of the vexillum, somewhat glandular. Ovary thickly covered with pale disciform glands. Pods
sessile, about ¾ of an inch long and nearly 3 lines wide, nearly straight on the upper suture,
HOFFMANSEGGIA MELANOSTICTA, Gray, l. c. p. 54, (adnot.) Pomaria melanosticta, Schauer. On
the Rio Grande below the cañon of San Carlos, October, (in flower and fruit;) Parry. Rinconada,
and Monterey, Neuvo Leon; Dr. Edwards. Our plant differs somewhat from the
CASPARIA, n. sp.? Rocky hills near Santa Rosa, Chihuahua; Parry. An erect shrub, 2–3
feet high. Branches slender, flexuous, smooth. Leaflets distinct to the base, semiovate, very
obtuse. 3-nerved, very smooth. Pods (old and imperfect) about 2 inches long and one-third
of an inch wide
CERCIDIUM FLORIDUM, Benth. in Gray, l. c. (adnot.); Torr. in Pacif. M. Road Expl. 6, p. 360, t.
3. On the Lower Gila and Colorado rivers; Emory, Schott. This is the Palo Verde of the
Mexicans, and the Green-bark Acacia of American travellers.
CASSIA BAUHINIOIDES, Gray, Pl. Lindh. l. c. & Pl. Wright. 1, p. 59. Sandy plains and rocky
situations, Leon springs and. along the Rio Grande from El Paso down to Eagle Pass; also in
Chihuahua, Durango, and Sonora, April—August. Leaflets but a single pair in all our specimens.
Near Presidio San Vincente Dr. Parry found a variety with the leaflets broadly ovate.
The same form is in Mr. Wright's collection.
CASSIA WISLIZENI, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 60, & 2, p. 50. Hills and rocky places. Cañon of
Bossecillos, on the Rio Grande; August. Parry, Bigelow. San Bernardino, Sonora; June.
Thurber. Leaflets sometimes 4 pairs, larger than in Wright's specimens. A neat and showy
plant, well deserving of cultivation.
CASSIA NICTITANS, Linn.; Torr & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 396. Comanche springs and Leon springs;
Bigelow. Differs from the eastern plant in its narrower and more numerous seeded pods, and
in the stipitate glands of the petioles; but it does not appear to be a distinct species.
PARKINSONIA ACULEATA, Linn.; DC. Prodr. 2, p. 486. Alluvions and prairies of the Lower
Rio Grande, and hills of the Colorado, near Fort Yuma, California; Schott. Fort Duncan,
Texas; Dr. Edwards. Between Reynosa and Matamoras, Mexico; Dr. Gregg. An ornamental
prickly shrub, now cultivated or naturalized in most of the warmer parts of the world, but probably,
as Alph. De Candolle thinks, of American origin. According to Mr. Schott it is valued
by the Mexican Indians as a febrifuge and sudorific, and also as a remedy in epilepsy.
ALGAROBIA GLANDULOSA, Torr. & Gray, l. c. p. 399; Gray, Pl Wright. 1, p. 60. Sandy soils
along the Rio Grande and its tributaries and in the Mexican States. Common on the bottom
lands of the Gila. This is the celebrated mesquite, so often noticed in the reports of western
exploration. Dr. Gray (l. c.) suspects that it may be united (together with P. dulcis and P.
Siliquastrum) to P. juliflora. It affords a gum nearly equal to gum arabic, of which it stated
that large quantities have lately been sent to San Francisco from Mexico.
STROMBOCARPA PUBESCENS, Gray, Pl. Wright, p. 60; Torr. Pacif. R. Road Expl. 6, p. 360, t. 4.
Valley of the Rio Grande from New Mexico, 20 miles below San Elceario; Bigelow. Bottom
lands of the Rio Gila and R. Colorado. The Screw-bean or Screw-mesonite of American travellers
and Tornillo of the Sonorians.
STROMBOCARPA CINERASCENS, Gray, l. c. p. 61, adnot. Boggy places, Fort McIntosh, and other
places on the Lower Rio Grande, May, November; Schott. The thorns are variable in length,
being sometimes longer, sometimes much shorter than the leaves. Pods like those of S. pubescens,
except that they are a little thicker.
NEPTUNIA LUTEA, Benth. in Hook. Torr. Bot. 4, t. 356. Painted Caves, and near Eagle Pass,
western Texas, June; Bigelow, Schott. In our specimens the fruit is sessile, while it is stipitate
in the Florida plant.
DESMANTHUS JAMESII, Torr. & Gray, Fl 1, p. 402; Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 63. Gravelly hills
along Rock Creek; and rocky places at the Copper Mines. July, (in flower,) August, (in fruit);
MIMOSA BERLANDIERI (Gray, MSS. Habbasiæ Rubicaulium): "fruticosa erecta; ramis et
interdum petiolis aculeis sparsis brevibus rectis armatis, junioribus puberulis setis brevioribus
parce strigosis; stipulis ovato-subulatis; pinnis 4—6-jugis, costis subtus strigosis; foliolis 20—
40-jugis linearibus acutiusculis glabellis obsolete 3—4-nervatis; capitulis pedunculatis racemoso-subpaniculatis;
floribus tetrameris; calyce minimo truncato; legumine breviter stipitato
oblongo-lineari nudo hirtello 8—10-articulato." Banks of the Lower Rio Grande, towards its
mouth, November; Schott. Environs of Matamoras; Berlandier, (No. 3146.)
CALLIANDRA (PORTORICENSIS, Benth. var.): glabriuscula, inermis; ramulis gracilibus; pinnis
bijugis, foliolis 4—5-jugis oblongis obtusissimis sub remotis membranaceis basi inferiore
subauriculatis ciliolatis, petiolis elongatis; stipulis lanceolatis striatis rigidis; pedunculis
petiolo longioribus; calyce profunde 5-fido globoso corolla glabra dimidio breviore. Arroyo
de los Samotas, Sierra Verde, Sonora, August; Schott. Peduncles 1½—2½ inches long.
Flowers pale rose color. Filaments half an inch long. Pods not seen.
ACACIA RIGIDULA, Benth. in Lond. Jour. Bot. 1, p. 504. Rocky hills, Leona. Also found by
Dr. Edwards and Major Eaton near Monterey, Neuvo Leon. The slender spines are sometimes
more than an inch long.
ACACIA CUSPIDATA, Schlecht. in Linnæa, 12, p. 513; Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 66. A. hirta,
Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 404. A. Texensis, Torr. & Gray, l. c. Plains and dry places
along the Rio Grande, and in New Mexico; also in Sonora; June—October. After a careful
comparison of numerous specimens of the first and last species here quoted with an original
specimen of A. Texensis, I unite the whole without hesitation.
ACACIA CONSTRICTA, Benth. in Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 64. Hills along the Rio Grande, from
El Paso to the Presidio del Norte; also near Tascata, and in Sonora; May—July. Sometimes
the leaves have only 1 or 2 pairs of pinnæ; but such occur chiefly on very short branches or
spurs. The leaves and young branches are strongly pubescent in specimens collected near the
Presidio del Norte by Dr. Parry.
ACACIA SCHOTTII (n. sp.:) glabra; spinis stipularibus subulatis reetis; foliis fasciculatis
unijugis; foliolis 3—5-jugis filiformi-linearibus alternis; legumine lineari complanato toruloso
curvato, valvulis coriaceis. Near the Cañon of San Carlos, at the Comanche Crossing of the
Rio Grande, September, (in fruit); Parry. Branches flexuous terete. Petiole below the fork
one-third of an inch long. Pinnæ an inch in length. Leaflets 2 lines long, and scarcely ⅓ of a
line wide, thick. Spines 2—3 lines long. Peduncles slightly bracteate in the middle. Stamens
very numerous. Legume 2—3 inches long, and ¼ of an inch wide, elevated on a short stipe,
6—9-seeded, curved into a semi-circle, or even a nearly complete circle. This is a very distinct
species, but seems to be allied to A. constricta.
"ACACIA TORTUOSA, Willd. Sp. 4, p. 1083, Benth. Mimos. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 1, p. 392.
A. albida. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1317. Vachellia Lindheimeri seu minor. Engelm. MS. in
herb. Gray. Plains near Eagle Pass on the Rio Grande, and on hill sides, Santa Rosa, Chihuahua;
Bigelow. Tamaulipas; Berlandier. In flower this species is readily mistaken for A.
Farnesiana; but Dr. Engelmann had distinguished it even in that state. Flowering specimens
have been confounded with A. Cavenia, which is only A. Farnesiana. The present species is
well distinguished by its pod, which is elongated-linear, 3 to 5 inches long, narrow, nearly
terete, moniliform, fleshy, and minutely tomentose; seeds uniserial, compressed, black. The
corolla is longer than in A. Farnesiana. The heads and peduncles are nearly glabrous in our
PRUNUS ILICIFOLIA, Nutt. l. c. (sub Ceraso,) & N. Amer. Sylv. 2, p. 16, t. 47; Hook. & Arn.
Bot. Beechey, p. 340, t. 83. Near San Diego, and in other parts of California, May; Parry,
Thurber. This ornamental species seldom attains a greater height than 8 or 10 feet. The
pulp of the fruit is flesh color and rather thin, but palatable.
PRUNUS SUBCORDATA, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 308. Eastern slope of the Cordilleras of California,
and near San Felipe. A straggling bush 4 to 5 feet high. Fruit sub-globose, half an inch in
diameter, the pulp thin and disposed to separate into two valves.
NUTTALLIA CERASIFORMIS, Torr. & Gray, in Bot. Beechey, p. 336, t. 82, & Fl. 1, p. 412
Napa county, California, March—April; Thurber. San Luis Obispo, in the same State; the
most southern station of this plant that has come to our knowledge.
CERCOCARPUS PARVIFOLIUS, Nutt. l. c. p. 427; Hook. Ic. t. 323. C. betulifolius, Nutt. l. c.
Valley of the Upper Rio Grande, and westward to California. Flowers in May and June, fruit
matures in September. The limb of the calyx early breaks away from the tube, and is carried
up, with the petals and stamens, on the elongated style, and sometimes remains there until the
fruit is considerably grown.
COWANIA MEXICANA, D. Don in Linn. Trans. 14, p. 574, t. 22. C. Stansburyana, Torr. in
Stansb. Rep. p. 386, t. 3. In various parts of Sonora and western New Mexico, April—June.
My extensive series of specimens show that the two species here brought together are connected
by intermediate forms.
ADENOSTOMA FASCICULATA, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, p. 139 & 338; t. 30. Dry sandy hills
and along the base of mountains, San Diego and Monterey, May; Parry, Thurber. A thickset
straggling bush, 7—8 feet high.
ADENOSTOMA SPARSIFOLIA, Torr. in Emory's Report, p. 140. (TAB. XX.) Western slope of
the Cordilleras of California, July; Parry. This species was first discovered by Major Emory
on the same mountains, near Warner's Pass. Dr. Parry states, in his notes, that it is a shrub
from 4 to 8 feet high; but Major Emory found some of it 30 feet high. The bark is reddish,
and peels off in shreds. The leaves are solitary and alternate, narrowly linear (nearly half an
inch long and half a line wide) sparsely dotted (as are the branchlets) with minute roundish
glands. Flowers in rather loose terminal panicles. Pedicels very short. Calyx turbinate-campanulate,
FALLUGIA PARADOXA, Torr. in Emory, Rep. p. 139, t. 2; Gray Pl. Fendl. p. 41, & Pl. Wright.
1, p. 68. Sieversia paradoxa, D. Don. Ravines and rocky places along the Upper Rio Grande,
and near the Copper Mines, New Mexico, April—June; the fruit ripe in August.
POTENTILLA PARADOXA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 437; Lehm. Revis. Potent. in Nov.
Act. Leopold-Cæs. 23, (suppl.) p. 194, t. 62. Wet places on the Rio Grande, between El
Paso and San Elceario, June, (flowers and fruit;) Bigelow.
RUBUS NEO-MEXICANUS, Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 55. Sides of Ben Moore, near the Copper
Mines, June, in flower and fruit; Bigelow. The peduncles are sometimes 3-flowered. Allied
to R. trilobus, Moc. & Ses.
VAUQUELINIA CORYMBOSA, Corr. in Humb. & Bonpl. Pl. Æquin. 1, p. 140, t. 40. Spiræa
Californica, Torr. in Emory, Rep. p. 140. Sierra Verde, Sonora, July, in flower, Schott.
High mountains near the Gila, November, in fruit; Maj. Emory. Dr. Parry's specimens
accord with the description and figure of Humb. & Bonpl., except that the leaves are smaller
and less deeply toothed. In the plant collected by Maj. Emory, the leaves are ovate-lanceolate
EPILOBIUM COLORATUM, Muhl. in Willd. Enum. 1, p. 411. Between the Limpio and the Rio
Grande; also at the Copper Mines, June to July; Bigelow. Valley of the Mimbres; Thurber.
Cañon of Guadaloupe, Sonora, April; Capt. E. K. Smith.
MENTZELIA ALBICAULIS, Dougl.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 534. Rocky hills on the upper Rio
Grande and its tributaries, also in Sonora, March to September. Mountains east of San Diego,
California; Parry. The oily seeds are pounded and used by the Indians as an ingredient of
their Piñolé mantica, a kind of cake.
PASSIFLORA FŒTIDA, Linn. Amæn. 1, p. 228, t. 19; Sp. p. 1359. Thickets, Eagle Pass, June;
Schott. A variety which seems to be intermediate between P. fætida, Cavan. and P. hibiscifolia,
Lam., having the leaves of the former and the pubescence of the latter. Mr. Schott found on
the Sierra del Pozo Verde, in Sonora, a form with velvety pubescence, and almost 3–parted
leaves, with the divisions more or less lobed and toothed.
PASSIFLORA MEXICANA, JUSS. Ann. Mus. p. 108; t. 38, DC. Prodr. 3, p. 324. Tubac, Sonora;
Thurber. Leaves glaucous, 2–lobed below the middle, the lobes moderately diverging, 1 to 1½
inch long from the bifurcation, marked near the base with a few round brownish glands.
Flowers three-fourths of an inch in diameter, pale purple.
SICYDIUM LINDHEIMERI, Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 194, & Pl. Wright. 1, p. 75. Presidio del Norte,
July; Parry. Arroyos of the Limpia, Bigelow. Lower Rio Grande; Schott. Var. TENUISECTUM,
Gray, l. c. Between the Leone and the Rio Grande; Bigelow. Mountains of Sonora; Schott.
CUCURBITA PERENNIS, Gray, Pl. Lindh. 2, p. 193. Plains between the Rio Grande and the
Pecos, June—July; also at the Copper mines; Bigelow. Bottom lands of Devil's river, April
to October; Schott. Grows in large patches; fruit the size and shape of a small orange.
ELATERIUM? COULTERI, Gray, l. c. Hills near the Copper Mines, August, (in flower and fruit.)
We fear not sufficiently distinct from the last. We have specimens which are almost equal in
resemblance to both species.
RIBES AUREUM, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 164. Var. TENUIFLORUM. R. tenuiflorum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t.
1274. Upper Rio Grande, and at the Copper Mines; also in Chihuahua and Sonora; March to
April, Salinas river, California; Parry.
RIBES SPECIOSUM, Pursh, l. c.; Lindi. Bot. Reg. t. 1557; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 545. In
ravines, from Monterey to San Diego, California, May; Parry. The most showy species of
this genus. Its height is commonly from 6 to 8 feet.
RIBES MALVACEUM, Smith in Rees Cyclop.; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 552. Common along the
coast of California, particularly at Monterey and Santa Barbara, April; Parry, Thurber. A
shrub with spreading branches, sometimes ten feet high. Flowers pale rose color; or in shady
places, nearly white.
SAXIFRAGA PARRYI (n. sp.): caudice subterraneo tuberoso ovato; foliis radicalibus suborbiculato-cordatis
inciso-lobatis, lobis dentatis; venis subtus petiolisque pubescentibus; scapis nudis
gracilibus; floribus paucis laxe paniculatis; calycibus campanulatis liberis, dentibus brevibus;
petalis lanceolatis brevi unguiculatis, stylis ovario subæqualibus in fructu divergentibus. (TAB.
XXV.) Dry hills near San Diego and San Luis Rey, California, November—December; Parry.
Tuber about the size of a hazel-nut, fleshy. Leaves all radical, and withering away soon after
the flowers appear, about an inch in diameter, slightly pubescent above; petiole nearly as long
as the lamina. Scapes 4–8 inches high, commonly 2–4 from each tuber, a little pubescent.
Flowers 4–7 in a loose panicle or cyme. Calyx marked with 10 strong dark brown nerves, the
teeth triangular, rather obtuse, and about half the length of the tube. Petals white, nearly
twice the length of the calyx teeth. Stamens 10; filaments subulate, the alternate ones
rather shorter than the others. Carpels united below, rostrate and diverging above, pointed with
the slender styles, which are as long as the beaks. Seeds dull, angularly 4-ribbed. A remarkable
species, with the calyx and habit of a small Heuchera, but it is decandrous and the ovary
is wholly free as well as 2-celled.
LEPTOCAULIS ECHINATUS, Nutt. in DC. Prodr. 4, p. 107; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 609. Plains
between Fort Fillmore and the Organ mountains, and mountains near Lake Santa Maria,
Chihuahua, April; Bigelow. On the lower Rio Grande; Schott. Sonora; Parry.
PEUCEDANUM DASYCARPUM, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 628. Southern California: the particular
station not recorded; Parry. The fruit is nearly twice as large as in Douglas' original
specimen, but in other respects his plant resembles ours.
PEUCEDANUM PARVIFOLIUM, Torr. & Gray, l. c. Pine woods near Monterey, California, April
(in flower, and with nearly mature fruit); Parry. Specimens from the same place, collected
by Major Wm. Rich, have ripe fruit, which is nearly orbicular, from the unusual breadth of
the winged margins.
PEUCEDANUM FŒNICULACEUM, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, l. c.? San Luis Rey, California; Parry.
We cannot be certain of the species, for want of the fruit. The divisions of the leaves are
broader than in the ordinary forms of this species.
CORNUS PUBESCENS, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1, p. 652 (sub var. C. sericea,) & Sylv. 3, p.
54. Torr. in Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 95. San Luis Obispo and San Luis Rey, California; Parry.
A shrub 10 to 12 feet high.
LONICERA DUMOSA, Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 66. Hills at the Copper Mines, New Mexico;
June, (in flower); and on the Limpio, July, (in fruit); Bigelow. Hills near the Mimbres,
May; Thurber. Santa Cruz mountains; Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith. "A luxuriant vine."
Corolla pale greenish yellow, ringent, about three-fourths of an inch long, the tube slender,
not gibbous. Filaments smooth, except at the base. Style hairy. Except in the pubescence
I see little to distinguish this from L. albiflora.
LONICERA INVOLUCRATA, Banks; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 9. Monterey and other parts of
California, April; Parry, Thurber. Stem 6 to 8 feet long, usually reclining on other plants.
Leaves somewhat persistent. Flowers red and orange. Berries black.
LONICERA SUBSPICATA, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey, p. 349; Torr. & Gray, l. c. (TAB. XXIX.)
Bushy places on the mountains east of San Diego, California, June; Parry. Plant 3 to 4
feet high. Flowers yellowish.
SYMPHORICARPUS ROTUNDIFOLIUS, Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 66. Organ mountains, New Mexico;
Parry. Hills at the Copper Mines, August, (flowers and fruit); Bigelow. A form with perfectly
smooth and glaucous leaves was found near the Mimbres by Dr. Bigelow.
SAMBUCUS GLAUCA, Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 13. Var. foliis anguste lanceolatis, Gray,
Pl. Wright. l. c. Sides of Ben Moore, near the Copper Mines, June; Bigelow. Not very distinct
from the next.
SAMBUCUS MEXICANA, Presl; DC. Prodr. 4, p. 323; Gray, Pl. Wright. l. c. Banks of the Rio
Grande, near El Paso, where it becomes a low tree, 12 inches in diameter at the base; Bigelow.
Near Monterey, California, sometimes 25 feet high, August; Parry. Mabibi, Sonora; Thurber.
GALIUM WRIGHTII, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 80. Burro mountains, and Mountains of Muerte;
also on the Rio Grande, 70 miles below El Paso. The upper leaves, and sometimes the lower
also, are merely scabrous, and not hairy.
PECTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA, Torr. in Ann. Lyc.; Gray, Pl. Wright, l. c., etc. Pectidopsis angustifolia,
DC. Dry hills, western Texas to the Copper Mines, New Mexico, etc., and south to the Rio
Grande. According to Mr. Thurber, the fresh plant exhales the odor of lemon balm.
PECTIS IMBERBIS, Gray, l. c. Besides Wright's specimens, gathered on the Sonoita, Sonora,
from which this remarkable species was characterized, it was also found at Janos, Chihuahua,
and elsewhere by Schott.
PECTIS TENELLA, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 99. Rio Coleto, Texas, Thurber. It was gathered by
Berlandier at Laredo, and between the Rio Grande and the Nueces, and is No. 599, 985, 2009,
and 2415 of the American distribution.*
ISOCARPHA OPPOSITIFOLIA, R. Br.; DC. Prodr. 5, p. 107. On the lower Rio Grande; Schott,
etc. A congener of Dunantia, DC., as Mr. Bentham has shown, (in Bot. Voy. Sulphur.) He
has indicated the practical difficulties in the nomenclature of the two genera.
STEVIA MICRANTHA, Lag. Nov. Gen. & Sp. p. 27. S. macella, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 70. Cobre
(Copper Mines,) New Mexico; Wright. This being the same as a plant collected by Schaffner
on Chepultepec, and kindly communicated to me by Dr. Schultz, the distinguished investigator
of Compositæ, under the name of S. micrantha, I do not hesitate to restore that name, although
the specimens do not altogether accord with Lagasca's brief character.†
Capitulum pluri-(10–16)-florum. Involucrum circiter 12–phyllum, disco brevius, laxum;
phyllis vix biseriatis lineari-subulatis, inferne carinato-concavis margine tenuiter scariosis,
superne foliiformibus. Receptaculum planum nudum. Corollæ longe cylindricæ, fauce non
ampliatæ, 5–dentatæ, dentibus ovatis patentibus. Styli rami lineares, plano-convexi, obtusissimi,
prorsus minutim glandulosi. Achenia haud matura subturbinata, teretia, hirsutissima. Pappus
capillaris, setis rigidulis pluriserialibus valde inaequalibus denticulatis, longioribus corollam
subaequantibus. Fruticulus ramosus, glanduloso-viscidulus; ramis monocephalis usque ad
apicem foliosis; foliis acerosis punctatis alternis; floribus lutescentibus.
PEUCEPHYLLUM SCHOTTII.—Diluvial banks of the Colorado, in Sonora; February; Schott.
Stems a span high, loosely branched. Leaves crowded, an inch or less in length, filiform,
obtuse, glabrous, but glandular when young and more or less glutinous, strongly glandular-punctate.
Head cylindraceous, half an inch long. Scales of the involucre obscurely one-nerved,
the alternate and exterior ones rather smaller than the others. Corolla glandular at the summit.
I know of no published genus to which this manifestly Eupatoriaceous plant is particularly
allied. The name alludes to the acerose, fir-like foliage.
BRICKELLIA VERONICÆFOLIA, Gray, l. c. Sonora; Schott; the habitat not recorded. This is an
abundant species in Northern Mexico. It is distributed under eight different numbers in Berlandier's
BRICKELLIA LACINIATA, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 87. Bachimba; Thurber. Organ mountains;
Bigelow. On the Rio Grande; Parry. Dr. Schultz, in Seemann's Botany of the Herald, p.
301, has applied to this species the name of B. dentata, Schultz, mss., supposing it to be De Candolle's
Clavigera dentata, having overlooked my statement, in Pl. Wright, 1, p. 83, that the
plant of De Candolle is B. Riddellii, and that the present species was not described in De Candolle's
Prodomus. It is 1365 and 1783 of Berlandier's collection.
BRICKELLIA SIMPLEX, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2 p. 73. Babocomori to Santa Cruz, Sonora. At
Bufotillo Ranch, Dr. Bigelow gathered specimens of a Brickellia with the foliage of B. simplex,
and with a similar involucre, but the heads are small and more numerous.
EUPATORIUM PARRYI (sp. nov): glanduloso-hirsutum, ramosum; foliis alternis nunc opposites
cordatis acutis grosse inciso-crenatis membranaceis subtriplinerviis venosio; petiolo elongato
marginato; corymbis circiter 5-cephalis; pedunculis gracilibus; capitulis circiter 20-floris cylindraceis,
squamis imbricatis triseriatis lanceolatis striatis aristato-acuminatis extus pubescentibus;
acheniis ad angulos hirtellis.—Sierra de Carmel, near the Rio Grande, Chihuahua;
October; Parry. Branches of an herbaceous species, apparently of a diffuse habit, which has
the involucre and habit of a Brickellia (but the achenia are pentangular without intermediate
striæ,) or of an Ooclinium, but the receptacle is flat. Leaves about an inch in length and
breadth, deltoid-cordate, beset with a sparse and short pubescense or glabrate. Petioles 6 to 8
lines long, with narrow decurrent margins, hirsute with glandular or viscid hairs, like the
stem, peduncles, etc. Peduncles minutely bracteolate. Heads half an inch long. Scales of
the involucre green, lucid, appressed, strongly striate, tapering, especially the inner ones, into
a slender short awn. Flowers apparently ochroleucous. Achenia 2 lines long, with a conspicuous
basilar callus, slender. Pappus white, scabrous.
EUPATORIUM BIGELOVII (sp. nov): cinereo-pubescens, ramosum; foliis oppositis ovatolanceolatis
acutis integerrimis breviter petiolatis a basi rotundata tri-quinquenervatis supra
glabratis subtus tomentosis; capitulis ternis quinisve ad apicem ramulosum brevi-pedicellatis
20–30-floris; involucro turbinato cinereo-tomentoso; squamis pluriseriatim imbricatis striatis,
acutis, exterioribus ovatis oblongisve, interioribus lanceolatis seu linearibus purpurascentibus;
acheniis secus angulos scabridis.—On the Gila, Sonora; Parry. Apparently an upright herbaceous
plant, also with much the aspect of a Brickellia, but with the characters of Eupatorium.
Leaves 2 or 3 inches long, thin, the larger an inch or more in width near the base, thence
tapering to an acute point. Petioles 3 lines long. Heads half an inch long. Scales of the
turbinate and tomentose involucre rather loosely imbricated in 5 or 6 series, the exterior
successively shorter and broader. Flowers purplish. Pappus tinged with purple or brownish.
Achenia a line and a half long.*
EUPATORIUM SCHIEDEANUM, Schrad.; DC. Prodr. 5, p. 159. (E. multinerve, Benth. E.
Schiedeanoides, Schultz, Bip.:) var. GROSSE-DENTATUM. E. Sonorae, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 74.
Mountain ravine near Santa Cruz, Sonora; Wright. Lower Rio Grande, Texas, near Ringgold's
Barracks, etc.; Schott. The latter is a more diffuse and loosely flowered form, approaching E.
paniculatum, Schrad., in the inflorescence, but not in the leaves. The form with dense corymbs
which comes from southern Mexico, Costa Rica, etc., Dr. Schultz has ascertained to be Lessing's
E. pycnocephalum, a name not very appropriate for our forms nor for the specimens of Berlandier.
The plant of the Rio Grande is said by Mr. Schott to exhale a moschate odor.
EUPATORIUM BERLANDIERI, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 167. E. ageratifolium β? Mexicanum, DC.
l. c. p. 173. E. ageratifolium, var. Texense and var. herbaceum, Gray Pl. Lindh. & Pl.
Wright. Various forms from southern Texas to the mountains near Santa Cruz, Sonora, (the
nearly herbaceous state.) In Berlandier's reliquiæ distributed by me, this occurs under the
numbers 762 and 2182, (between Victoria and Tula,) and 756, 2176, (between Tula and
Tampico;) also from San Carlos, Tamaulipas, 3164. These all belong to one species, and the
difference in the length of the pappus remarked by De Candolle is inconstant. The name of E.
Berlandieri had best be retained for the species, at least until it is identified with the Cuban
EUPATORIUM CONYZOIDES, Vahl. Symb. 3, p. 96. Lower Rio Grande; Schott. Rocky ravines,
near Santa Rosa; Bigelow. Mr. Trecul gathered this at the mouths of the Mississippi. De
Candolle's Mexican stations are from Berlandier's collections, in which it occurs under numbers
1384, 2210, 2355, etc. The original colored drawing (in my possession) for the plate in Schrank's
Pl. Rar. Hort. Monac., t. 85, represents the flowers as white or whitish.*
CONOCLINIUM BETONICUM, DC. l. c. Lower Rio Grande, Schott. A nearly glabrous form, with
hastate-oblong and very obtuse leaves. Also a remarkable and doubtful form, with thin, glabrous,
and entire ovate leaves from near the mouth of the Pecos. Perhaps the species, which
seems to be polymorphous, likewise includes C. Hartwegi, Walp., the Eupatorium Hartwegi,
Benth. Pl. Hartw.
ERIGERON (CŒNOTUS) SUBDECURRENS? Conyza subdecurrens, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 78, & Pl. Wrigh,
1, p. 172. W. Texas (on the Pecos) to the Gila and Sonora; Thurber. San Luis Rey, California;
Parry. It is very doubtful if this be De Candolle's plant, of which I found no specimens
in the reliquiæ of Berlandier's collection.
ERIGERON BIGELOVII (sp. nov.): cinero-hispidum; caulibus (6–8-pollicaribus) e basi lignescente
ramosis adscendentibus, ramulis monocephalis; foliis linearibus spathulato-lanceolatis acutatis,
inferioribus spathulatis integerrimis in petiolum attenuatis; involucro subtriseriali, squamis
lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis margine scariosis dorso subglandulosis parcissime hispidis, exterioribus
brevioribus; ligulis 40–50 uniserialibus purpureis; acheniis hispidis; pappo e setis
hispidulis 15–16 corollam disci subæquantibus et totidem squamellato-setaceis subtriplo brevioribus.
Near Fronteras, New Mexico, March, April; Bigelow. Also collected by Mr. Wright,
but in too few specimens for distribution. The species should rank next to E. modestum; but
its heads are nearly twice as large; the rays (3 lines long) purple, more imbricated; the involucre
scarcely hispid, and the pappus less fragile; the exterior series longer. It is one of the species
intermediate between Erigeron (Pseuderigeron) and Diplopappus.
DISTASIS MODESTA, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 279. High plateaus on the Rio Grande, Pecos, etc. On
Mt. Carmel Dr. Parry gathered a glabrate autumnal form, with longer and rigid branches,
which is somewhat peculiar.
TOWNSENDIA (MEGALASTRUM) WRIGHTII: suffrutescens, viscoso-puberula; ramis adscendentibus
(subpedalibus) apice nudis; foliis spathulatis integerrimis setigero-apiculatis inferne in petiolum
marginatum attenuatis; involucri biserialis squamis ovato-lanceolatis longe caudato-acuminatis
submarginatis extus glanduloso-puberulis; ligulis magnis; pappo in radio et disco conformi
multisetoso.—Aster? (Megalastrum) Wrightii, Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 75. Stony hills on
the Rio Grande, 60 or 70 miles below El Paso; Wright. Mouth of the great cañon of the
Rio Grande; Bigelow. This striking plant is clearly only an extreme form of Townsendia,
with the pappus more copious and finer than usual.
EREMIASTRUM BELLIOIDES, Torr. & Gray, Pl. Thurber, p. 320; & in Pacif. R. Road Expl. 6, p.
361, t. 6. On the desert of the Colorado of the West; Thurber. Fort Yuma, etc.; Schott.
The specimens all too young.
GUTIERREZIA EUTHAMIÆ, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 123. Common in New Mexico, on the Rio
Grande below El Paso, and in the northern parts of Chihuahua and Sonora. G. divaricata is
only a loosely flowered variety of this, to which many of our specimens would be referred.
SOLIDAGO NEMORALIS, Ait.; var. MOLLIS. S. mollis, Bartling; Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 79. S.
incana, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 221. New Mexico and western Texas, in various places; Thurber,
Bigelow, Wright, Parry. The plant runs into S. nemoralis, and must be appended to that
widely distributed species.
LINOSYRIS ARBORESCENS, (sp. nov.): glabra, viscidula; caule 10-pedali lignosa; ramis apice
corymboso-polycephalis; foliis anguste linearibus acutis, ramulorum subulatis; involucro
pauciseriali disco breviore 20–25-floro, squamis lanceolatis acutis carinatis margine scariosociliolatis;
appendicibus styli lanceolato-subulatis portionem stigmatiferum æquantibus;
acheniis brevibus turgidis pubescentibus.—California; Rev. Mr. Fitch. The flowering branchlets
in Mr. Fitch's collection are stated to belong to "a tree 10 feet high." They are slender
and very leafy; the leaves are one or two inches in length, about a line wide, much like those
of L. vulgaris, only a little viscid. Corymb crowded. Heads three lines long; the flowers
all tubular, but occasionally a marginal one shows a tendency to become irregular, and to have
its anthers abortive. Receptacle alveolate and toothed. Achenia all fertile, short-oblong,
LINOSYRIS (CHRYSOTHAMNUS) VISCIDIFLORA, Torr. & Gray; var. PANICULATA. California; Schott.
The locality not recorded. This, with a Californian specimen gathered on the Sacramento in
Wilkes' Exploring Expedition, perhaps belongs to an undescribed species; but the distinctions
between it and L. viscidiflora, (a bad name,) on the one hand, and Ericameria resinosa, Nutt.,
on the other, are not clear. Better specimens of these plants are needed for illustration.
LINOSYRIS (APLODISCUS) MEXICANA, Schleccht. Hort. Hal. p. 7, t. 4. Aplopappus (Aplodiscus)
discoideus, DC. Lower Rio Grande? Schott, who also gathered a var. TOMENTOSA: pube laxa
decidua lanata. The particular locality not recorded.
LINOSYRIS (APLODISCUS) MENZIESII, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 97. Aplopappus Menziesii, Torr.
& Gray. San Luis Rey, San Diego, Carisso creek, &c.; Parry, Schott, &c. Common in dry
places, growing in bunches. Dr. Hulse gathered in the valley of the Sacramento a scabrous
variety of this, with the lower leaves large and obovate.
APLOPAPPUS PHYLLOCEPHALUS, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 347. A. rubiginosus, Torr. & Gray, l. c.
Lower Rio Grande; Schott. The species was founded on Berlandier's No. 2278, which is a
state of the species named A. rubiginosus in the Flora of North America, but just beginning
to blossom, and with nearly sessile heads.
XANTHISMA TEXANUM, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 94; var. BERLANDIERI, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 98.
On the lower Rio Grande; Schott. This is the form, with very obtuse involucral scales, on
which the genus was founded, viz: Berlandier's No. 2039, misprinted 2639, gathered near
GRINDELIA INULOIDES, Willd.; var. MICROCEPHALA. G. microcephala, DC. Prodr. Southern
and western Texas; Schott, Parry. This is the same as Berlandier's plant, (No. 2057,) on
which De Candolle founded his G. microcephala. The achenia are of the same shape as in G.
inuloides; but their thick walls are generally smooth and even, yet some of them show traces
of the corky-rugose character of those of genuine G. inuloides.
PENTACHAETA AUREA, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 7, p. 336; Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 249.
Var. β capitulis majoribus multiradiatis.—San Luis Rey; February. Var. γ capitulis multo
minoribus; involucri squamis plerumque obtusis; ligulis 7–10.—Cordilleras, near San Felipe,
California, on the eastern slope; June. The first variety is a strong vernal form, with larger
heads than in my specimens from Nuttall, yet agreeing very well with his description. The
second is a later, much branched state, I believe, of the same species, although the heads are
only one-third as large, the rays and the involucral scales proportionally fewer, and the latter
either obtuse or retuse, or merely mucronate. The pappus of this occasionally consists of 6 or
8 bristles. The comparison of both forms with Nuttall's original specimens shows that they all
belong to one species.
HETEROTHECA FLORIBUNDA, Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 24. San Luis Rey, California; October;
Parry. This is certainly Bentham's H. floribunda, and is the same as No. 275 of Coulter's
California collection, although the heads are somewhat larger. I fear it passes into H. grandiflora,
LAPHAMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA? var. LACINIATA: canlibus elongatis diffusis; foliis oblongis subcuneatis
laciniato-lobatis.—Crevices of rocks along the Rio Grande, Texas; October; Bigelow, Schott.
This is doubtless an autumnal state either of L. angustifolia or of L. halimifolia, with weak
stems prolonged to the length of a foot. From the foliage it might as well be judged to be a
state of the latter, but the rayless heads and flowers are those of the former. It seems to indicate
that the two species may not really be distinct.
LAPHAMIA (PAPPOTHRIX) CINEREA (sp. nov.): nana, lanoso-tomentulosa; caulibus subdiffusis
usque ad apicem foliosis; foliis oppositis rotundis subintegerrimis parvis, adultis subglabratis;
pedunculis folia paullo superantibus; acheniis sæpius 3–4-nervatis; pappo rigidio tubo
corollæ vix longiore.—On rocks near Escondido creek; September; Bigelow. This differs from
the last, possibly not specifically, in its somewhat floccose woolly pubescence, which renders all
the young parts canescent, its entire or very obscurely toothed leaves, its rather longer peduncles,
the longer proper tube to the corolla, its proportionally shorter pappus of stouter and more rigid
bristles; and some of the achenia have four salient and unequally disposed ribs or nerves, but
the greater number three, of which two are usually approximate at one margin. The leaves
are from three to six lines in diameter, orbicular or broadly ovate, sometimes obscurely cordate,
entire, or obsoletely repand-toothed.
PERITYLE EMORYI, (Torr. in Emory, Rep. N. Mex. 1848, p. 142): ligulis ovalibus; pappo
uniaristato, arista setiformi corolla breviore inferne nuda vul scabra, versus apicem parce retrorsum
vel patentissime barbellata-hispida.—On the desert of the Colorado of the West; Emory,
Schott, etc. Fort Yuma; Major Thomas. This plant so closely resembles P. nuda in foliage,
(although the leaves are not always so much cut,) pubescence, in the size of the heads and
broad scales of the involucre, in every respect, indeed, except in the awn to the pappus, (the
squamellae of which are, perhaps, less united,) that it is far most probable the two are forms of
one species. In this case the name of P. Emoryi, which was indicated and published in 1848,
would, on all accounts, take precedence, and P. nuda be held as a variety of it. P. plumigera
is distinguished by the smaller heads, narrower involucral scales, and longer upwardly barbellate
awn of the pappus.
BACCHARIS CŒRULESCENS, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 402. var. foliis angustioribus. B. Pingræa,
Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 7, p. 337, non DC. San Luis Rey, California; Parry. The
specimen accords with No. 305 of Wright's N. Mexican collection, and is, I doubt not, merely
a narrow form of B. coerulescens, DC. But it is Nuttall's B. Pingræa, which is wrongly adduced
as a synonym of B. Douglasii in Torr & Gray, Fl. N. Am. 2, p. 259, the real B.
Douglasii (═ No. 1776 Pl. Hartw.) not being then known to the authors.
BACCHARIS EMORYI (sp. nov.): suffruticosa, glabra, paniculato-ramosissima; ramulis angulato-striatis;
foliis subspathulato-linearibus obtusis uninerviis integerrimis (subpollicaribus)
deciduis vel raris, ramulinis minimis; capitulis solitaris geminisve in ramulos breves vel pedun-culos
paniculatos; involucro fæmineo obovato majusculo multiseriali pappo dimidio breviore;
squamis glabris appressis coriaceis obtusis, exterioribus ovatis, intimis linearibus; acheniis glaberrimis.
—Very common on the Gila; Emory, coll. in 1846, etc. Fort Yuma, E. California;
Major Thomas. Sterile plant not seen. Involucre of fertile flowers 3 or 4 lines long; the thick
scales closely appressed, and all the outer ones very obtuse, their very slight scarious margin
not ciliate. Pappus half an inch long, whitish.
BACCHARIS SERGILOIDES (sp. nov.): suffruticosa, glabra, confertim ramosissima; ramis ramulisque
angulatis rigidis articulatis sæpissime aphyllis; foliis dum adsunt raris parvis spathulatis
uninerviis, ramulorum ad bracteas minimas reductis; capitulis parvis in ramulos confertis
subsessilibus, masculis magis glomeratis; involucro obovato, squamis multiseriatis appressis
glabris oblongis, vel interioribus lanceolatis; fæm. acutis; masc. omnino obtusis; receptaculo
conico subpaleaceo; acheniis glabris; pappo brevi.—Along the Gila or Colorado; Emory, 1846.
Dry arroyos, 50 miles west of the Colorado; Bigelow. Southern part of California; Dr. J. Le
Conte. Apparently two or three feet high, and very bushy and broomlike; the numerous heads only
two, or, at most, three lines in diameter.
BACCHARIS PTARMICÆFOLIA, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 419; Schultz, in Bot. Herald, p. 303. Hill sides
between Babocomori and Santa Cruz, Sonora; Wright (1201). This is the same as Seemann's
plant from the Sierra Madre, and, except in the smaller leaves and heads, accords very well
with a specimen from the valley of Mexico, collected by Schaffner, and named B. ptarmicæfolia
by Dr. Schultz. It accords still better, perhaps, with the character of B. thesioides, to which
De Candolle's species and all these specimens are probably to be referred.
BACCHARIS BIGELOVII (sp. nov.): herbacea, glabra; ramulis striato-angulatis; foliis subviscosis
oblongis lanceolatisve basi in petiolum angustatis grosse argute serratis, majoribus subincisis
vel duplicato-serratis uninerviis obsolete venosis; capitulis masculis et fæmineis laxe paniculato-corymbosis
parvis (lineas 2 longis) breviter pedicellatis 15–18-floris; involucri squamis 3–4-seriatis
oblongo-lanceolatis sub-acutis margine scarioso eroso superne ciliatis; pappi setis fl.
masc. subclavellatis.—B. ptarmicæfolia? Gray, Pl. Wright, 2, p. 83. Mountain ravine, Santa
Cruz, Sonora; Wright (1200, male). Puerto de Paysano; Bigelow (both sexes). Oak woods
between Babocomori and Santa Cruz; Thurber. The additional specimens, of both sexes, show
this to be clearly different from the preceding, and probably an unpublished species.
The leaves in Dr. Bigelow's specimens, from which the character is principally taken, are much
broader than in Wright's or Thurber's, more irregularly toothed or incised, and all obtuse,
while those of Wright's are lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, and often acute.
BACCHARIS RAMULOSA, Gray, Pl. Thurb. p. 301. Aplopappus (Aplodiscus) ramulosa, DC.
Prodr. 5, p. 350. Linosyris (Aplodiscus) ramulosa, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 97, & 2, p. 80.
Organ mountains, Cobre, etc., New Mexico; Wright, Bigelow. Guadalupe cañon; Parry.
Mr. Wright and Dr. Gregg collected only the male plant, apparently the same with that published
by De Candolle from Keerl's Mexican collection. The fertile plant now being known,
the plant is found to be a genuine Baccharis. Berlandier likewise collected specimens in the
mountains of San Luis Potosi (No. 1352.)
TESSARIA (PHALACROCLINE) BOREALIS, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 75, & Pl. Wright, l. c. River
bottoms from the Rio Grande, New Mexico, to the Colorado of the West; gathered by all the
collectors. Shrubby, 4–8 feet high, called Arrow-wood; forming dense thickets.
FILAGINOPSIS MULTICAULIS, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 263, & in Pope R. R. Survey, t. 3. Eastern
Texas to El Paso and Chihuahua. Evidently F. Drummondii, Torr. & Gray, is not a distinct
species. It is distributed among Berlandier's reliquiæ, under the Nos. 568, 1011, 1067, 1958,
2109, 2241, 2497.
ENGELMANNIA PINNATIFIDA, Torr. & Gray. l. c. Rock creek, Texas; Bigelow. On the Rio
Grande, at Cleto creek; Schott. A marked variety of this, with single and larger heads,
smaller pappus, and less lobed leaves, was gathered by Thurber at Ojo Caliente, Chihuahua.
MELAMPODIUM CINEREUM, DC.; Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 103, & 2, p. 85, & var. RAMOSISSIMUM
(M. ramosissimum, DC.) Common in Texas and New Mexico. Very various forms occur in
Berlandier's collection, under Nos. 833, 2242, from San Fernando, Coahuila; 1492, 1881, from
Bexar; and 607, 2017, from Laredo and the Nueces.
MELAMPODIUM LONGICORNU, (Gray, Pl. Thurber, p. 321): annuum, hispidulum, diffuse ramosum;
foliis lanceolatis subintegerrimis; pedunculis alaribus filiformibus (⅔–2 unc. longis)
monocephalis; involucri squamis internis fructiferis 7–10 nervoso-striatis dorso vix muricatis
apice in cornu longissimum extus sericeo-puberulum circinnatum productis; ligulis aureis
oblongis.—Near Santa Cruz, Sonora; Thurber. Santa Magdalena, Sonora; Schott. The published
character of this curious species is here somewhat amended, since Mr. Schott's specimens
(which are in good flower, while those of Mr. Thurber were in fruit) show conspicuous rays much
longer than the disk; but they have the same long and silky horns. The leaves are not always
perfectly entire, nor all obtuse.
Capitulum pauciflorum; floribus exterioribus 3–4 fæmineis subradiatis, ligula minima 2–3-loba,
stylo breviore; disci totidem sterilibus, tubo corollæ cylindrico, limbo cyathiformi 5-fido.
Involucrum 1–2-bracteolatum (bracteolis linearibus parvis), 3–4-phyllum: squamæ oblongæ,
obtusæ, membranaceæ, erectæ, subplanæ, demum deciduæ. Receptaculum planum: paleæ
lineares parvæ inter flores. Antheræ oblongæ, ecaudatæ. Stylus fl. masc. inclusus, indivisus,
apice clavato-pubescens; fl. fæm. bifidus, ramis inappendiculatis. Ovaria disci inania, epapposa.
Achenia (radii) difformis, nempe 1–2 linearia vel subulata, subteretia, lævia, persistentia,
aristis 2 validis lævissimis divergentibus seu recurvis persistentibus cornuta; cætera
breviora et crassiora, intus sæpe tuberculato-rugosa, aristis brevioribus vel obsoletis.—Herba
annua, gracilis, fere glabra, Heterospermi facie, microcephala; foliis oppositis 3–5-sectis, summisve
integris, filiformibus; capitulis solitariis pedunculatis; floribus flavis.
DICRANOCARPUS PARVIFLORUS, Gray, Pl. Thurber, p. 322, adn. Heterospermum dicranocarpum,
Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 109. Plains below San Carlos, Tamaulipas; Parry. Only
mature achenia of this plant were known, from Wright's first collection, persisting on the
receptacle from which everything else had fallen. The flowers, etc., furnished by Dr. Parry,
enable us to complete the characters; these show that the plant is by no means a Heterospermum,
(although allied to that genus,) but a new generic type which, according to the classification
adopted, must be referred to the rather incongruous subtribe Melampodineæ. The
flowering heads are only a line and a half in length, and the scarcely explanate ray-corollas are
PARTHENIUM INCANUM, H. B. K.; Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 103, & 2, p. 85. P. ramosissimum,
DC. Prodr. 5, p. 532. From the Pecos to Cobre, etc.; Bigelow, Wright, Schott. On the Rio
Grande, below Mount Carmel; Parry.
PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM (sp. nov.): fruticosum, pube brevi appressima sericeo-incanum;
foliis spathulato-lanceolatis oblongisve in petiolum longe attenuatis parce dentatis seu laciniatis
sub-triplinerviis; ramulis floridis elongatis nudis oligocephalis; involucri squamis obtusissimis;
acheniis sericeis; pappo e paleis 2 membranaceis lanceolatis.—Near Escondido Creek, Texas, in
rocky places, Sept. 1852; Dr. Bigelow.—A well marked species, connecting the sections Argyrochæta
and Parthenichgæta; the leaves and branches whitened with a very fine and close silky-silvery
pubescence, which appears to be wholly or nearly persistent. Leaves one to two inches
long, including the tapering base and petiole, 2 to 5 lines wide, mostly acute, scarcely veined,
beset on each margin with from one to three salient teeth, or sharp lobes. Flowering branchlets
slender, 4 to 8 inches long, nearly leafless and peduncle-like, bearing 3 to 7 sub-sessile heads
(as large as those of P. incanum) in a cluster. Exterior scales of the involucre short, orbicular-ovate;
the inner orbicular, scarious-membranaceous. Paleæ of the pappus lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate,
rather narrower and less obtuse than in P. Hysterophorus, puberulent, the inner
edge more or less adnate to the base of the broadly obovate and cucullate emarginate ligule.
Capitulum monoicum; floribus fœmineis 2 in ambitu, masculis 8–12 in disco. Involucrum
patulum, duplex, exterius e phyllis 5 ovalibus herbaceis uniseriatis, interius e squamis 2 orbiculatis
tenuiter scariosis planis mox accrescentibus, utraque florem fœmineum fulcrante. Receptaculum
parvum, planum, paleis angustis lineari-spathulatis inter flores. Fl. Foem. Corolla
nulla: stylus alte bifidus, ramis linearibus glabris. Fl. masc. Corolla obconica, 5-dentata.
Antheræ vix coalitæ, sed filamentis monadelphis. Stylus abortivus in synemate apice 5-dentato
D. CANESCENS. In the sandy desert of the Gila and of the Colorado; Emory. A small specimen
of this curious plant was brought home by Col. Emory from his reconnaissance of the Gila,
etc., in 1846; but it has not again been met with. The base of the plant is unknown. Leaves,
at least the upper ones, alternate, oval, obtusely dentate, on slender petioles, scabrous or hispid,
and when young canescently villous on both sides; those of the flowering branches gradually
reduced to small and spatulate bracts. Heads short-pedicelled, arranged in loose and nearly
leafless spikes or racemes, which are panicled at the summit of the stem in anthesis, only one
and a half lines long; but in fruit the whitish and somewhat glandular and erose pair of inner
involucral scales become three or four lines long and almost as broad; they are loosely appressed
to the achenia which they subtend, and appear to be deciduous with them at maturity. The
mature achenia are about 3 lines long, and 2 lines wide, including the strong laciniate-toothed
and incised wing, both faces slightly hispid, and carinately one-nerved in the middle; near the
summit of the nerve of the inner, and sometimes of the outer face also, a small crest often appears
like the rudiments of an anterior and posterior wing. Although the full-grown achenia commonly
appear destitute of a pappus, yet in the flowering state there is always a rather conspicuous
ring of short bristles surrounding the base of the naked style, and traces of it are
generally discernible at maturity. The bristles are united at the base into a ring, and appear
to form a true pappus. They consist, however, of single rows of cells, exactly like the short
and fine bristly hairs which fringe the margin of the inner involucral scales. It will be seen
that the genus belongs to the division Iveæ of De Candolle. The name (from δισ, two, and
κορισ, a bug,) alludes to the two achenia appearing like bugs, or like the achenia of some species
AMBROISA PSILOSTACHYA, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 526; Gray, Pl. Wright, l. c. A. coronopifolia, Torr.
& Gray. Common, from Texas to Sonora. It occurs both with unarmed and tuberculate fruit.*
FRANSERIA TENUIFOLIA, var. TRIPINNATIFIDA, Gray, l. c. Common from Texas to Sonora. This
is both Ambrosia fruticosa (excl. var. β) and A. confertiflora of De Candolle; but none of the
forms in Berlandier's collection are at all shrubby.
ENCELIA CONSPERSA, Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 26. Diluvial banks of the Colorado; February;
Schott. This must be Bentham's E conspersa; but the involucre is more pubescent than he
describes, the rays glabrous, and the foliage retains much of the close cinereous pubescence.
The heads, also, are quite small. It is probably the same as No. 308, of Coulter's Californian
ENCELIA NIVEA, Benth. l. c. E. farinosa, Gray, in Emory Rep. p. 143. On the Gila;
Emory, Parry, etc., and the Colorado of the West; Bigelow. This is the same as Coulter's
No. 327, and must be Bentham's E. nivea, from Lower California, although the characters do
not wholly accord.
SIMSIA (GERÆ) CANESCENS, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 85. Sand hills near Fort Yuma, California,
January; Schott. A striking species, with a remarkably white-woolly involucre and large
showy rays. A less hairy form with laciniate leaves was gathered on the Gila by Dr. Parry.
SIMSIA (GERÆ, sed eradiata) FRUTESCENS, (sp. nov.): hispidulo-scaberrima, ramosissima; foliis
parvis (½–¾-pollicaribus) oblongis seu ellipticis utrinque obtusis integerrimis, petiolo nudo;
capitulis longiuscule pedunculatis ramulos terminantibus discoideis; involucri squamis exterioribus
lanceolatis ovatisve acuminatis subsquarrosis albo-hirtis, interioribus obovatis obtusis;
acheniis margine cum aristis brevibus (interdum fere obsoletis) longissime villosissimis. Agua
Caliente, on the Gila; Colonel Emory, November 28, 1846. Sierra Prieta, near Fort Yuma,
E. California, December, 1854; Schott. Also gathered (with rather large heads) by Colonel
Frémont, in 1849, somewhere in the interior country of California. Fragments of this plant,
too poor to characterize, have been known for some years in a small collection made by Colonel
Emory in his earliest exploration of the Gila country. There are now good materials at hand.
It appears that the plant must be associated with another from the same region, upon which I
formerly proposed to found a genus under the name of Gercœa, but afterwards (Pl. Fendl. l. c.)
concluded to append to Simsia. The present species is remarkably distinguished, however, by
its woody or suffruticose, slender stems, (apparently belonging to a low and much branched
bushy plant,) and by the total absence of the rays, which are remarkably large in its congener.
Very likely the genus Geræa (placed between Simsia and Encelia) should be re-established for
these two species; but for the present they may be appended to Simsia, although new discoveries
may more probably approximate them to Encelia. The heads vary from a quarter to
half an inch in diameter. The awns of the pappus are often as long as the much elongated
and dense fringe of soft white hairs which surround the otherwise glabrous achenium, but always
covered with similar long hairs. Sometimes they are almost obsolete, or reduced to a slender
base for the insertion of the tuft of hairs.
VIGUIERA LACINIATA, (sp. nov.): frutescens, hispidulo-scabra; foliis plerisque alternis subconfertis
petiolatis hastato-lanceolatis incisis seu laciniato-pinnatifidis subtus grosse reticulatis
rigidis, summis parvis bracteiformibus; capitulis geminis ternisve breviter pedunculatis; involucri
2–3-serialis squamis ovato-oblongis vix appendiculatis; receptaculo planiusculo; ligulis
integerrimis; acheniis subciliatis aristis paleæformibus 2 et squamellis latis apice eroso-dentatis
6—8 coronatis.—Rancho Gamacha, east of San Diego, California, September, 1855; Schott. A
remarkable species, apparently a low and more or less shrubby plant, with slender branches.
Leaves about 1½ inch long, including the petiole, thin but rigid, very scabrous, the coarse
teeth, or lobes, ovate or triangular, blunt. Heads nearly half an inch long; rays nearly of the
same length. Squamellæ of the pappus thick. Paleæ of the receptacle acutish.
HELIANTHUS (HARPALIUM) TEPHRODES, (sp. nov.): humilis, pube appressissima canescens;
foliis plerumque alternis ovatis petiolatis subserratis basi trinerviis, junioribus cano-argenteis;
pedunculo gracili monocephalo; involucri squamis ovato-lanceolatis mucronato-acutatis; pappo
e squamellis paleisve plurimis, majoribus 1—2 sæpius aristiformibus deciduis.—Mirasol del
Monte, in the Californian desert of the Colorado, in sandy places by the road-side, October, 1855;
Schott. The specimen is incomplete, and hardly sufficient for proper determination; the base
of the stem and the root unknown. The stems or branches collected are scarcely a foot long,
and slender. Leaves about an inch long. Scales of the involucre merely biserial. Rays about
12, yellow; disk-corollas tipped with purple. The chaffy awns of the pappus are sometimes
elongated, but often one or both of them reduced to strong squamellæ, like the rest.
COREOPSIS (AGARISTA) CALLIOPSIDEA. Agarista calliopsidea, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 569. Moist
and grassy plains between Monterey and Santa Barbara, California. An unpublished Peruvian
species connects Agarista with Coreopsis, of which it can form only a section.
BIDENS BIPINNATA, L. Chihuahua and Sonora; Thurber. Mountains near San Esteban,
Bigelow. Cobre creek, Wright. The awns are only two, but in all other respects the same as
B. bipinnata. Wright's No. 345 has the achenia mostly two-awned.
BIDENS BIGELOVII (sp. nov.): annua, fere glabra; caule ramoso gracile suberecto; foliis
trisectis, segmentis 3–5-partitis, lobis oblongis cuneatisve paucius pinnatifido-incisis; capitulis
subsolitariis longe pedunculatis; involucro glabriusculo; ligulis albidis? discum haud superantibus
sæpiusve nullis; acheniis heteromorphis, exterioribus brevibus lineari-cuneatis truncatis
papilloso-hispidulis scaberrimis, pappo nunc breviter 2–3-aristatis nunc brevissime bicorni vel
obsoleto, cæteris angustissime linearibus lævibus (semipollicaribus) breviter 2-(raoro 3)-aristatis.
Banks of the Rio Limpia; Bigelow. Cibolo valley, Texas, Parry, etc. Mountain arroyo, Rock
creek and Puerto de Paysanos; Bigelow, (var. with the awns mostly 3 and longer.) In foliage
and aspect this plant is somewhat intermediate between B. bipinnata and B. tenuisecta; in
fructification it is much more like B. heterosperma, Pl. Wright, but the heads are twice or thrice
the size. The outer achenia are truncate and rough in all the specimens. Awns of the disk-achenia
1 to 1½ line long. To this belongs No. 346 of Wright's first collection referred to, B.
tenuisecta in Pl. Wright. 1, p. 109.
TUCKERMANIA MARITIMA, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 7, p 363; Torr. & Gray, l. c. San
Diego, California; common near the beach all around the bay, March; Parry. It has been
introduced into the gardens from seeds gathered by Dr. Parry, and is a very showy plant.
VERBESINA PODOCEPHALA, Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 92. Sonora, near Santa Cruz, Wright.
Sierra west of Santa Cruz and Tucson; Schott. This is nearly related to V. pedunculosa,
Schultz, Bip. (Actinomeris pedunculosa, DC., Verbesina capitaneja. Nees); but that has the
leaves decurrent on the stem.
ZEXMENIA TEXANA, Gray, Pl. Wright. 1, p. 112. Wirtgenia Texana, Schultz, Bip. in Seem.
Bot. Herald, p. 304. On the San Antonio, Pecos, San Pedro, and the Rio Grande; Bigelow,
Parry, etc. Dr. Schultz, apparently with reason, has separated this from Zexmenia, and has
referred it to his African genus Wirtgenia, on account of a semilunar or roundish squamula
appressed to the base of the achenium on each side, and indeed adherent to it. Here it is of
soft fleshy texture when in good condition, but it dries up at length, leaving only a vestige.
Dr. Schultz has overlooked the fact that the plant (varying greatly as to the wings of the achenium
and the awns of the pappus) is pretty clearly Wedelia hispida, H. B. K., which specific
name may claim to be restored. A specimen from Schultz, gathered by Schaffner, in Mexico,
near Tacubaya, is the same as a plant cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes in the year 1815.
LEBETINA CANCELLATA, Cass.; DC. Prodr. 5, p. 639. Prairies near Chihuahua; Thurber. Sonora,
east of the Sierra Madre; Schott. The genus is probably to be reduced to Adenophyllum, as I
have elsewhere suggested.
HYMENATHERUM GNAPHALIOPSIS, Gray, l. c. Plains, from the lower Rio Grande to New Leon.
In the distribution of Berlandier's collection this occurs under the Nos. 962, 1404, 1407, 1861,
2392. (No. 14076 in DC. Prodr. is a typographical error for 1407.) "Called Lepiana by the
Mexicans, and used by them and the Indians as a remedy for catarrh." Schott.
TAGETES MICRANTHA, Cav.; Gray, l. c., 2, p. 93 Cobre, New Mexico; Wright, Bigelow.*
POROPHYLLUM GREGGII, Gray, Pl. Wright, 1, p. 120. Dry hills, etc., southern part of New
Mexico and adjacent districts in Chihuahua; Wright, Bigelow, Captain Smith. On the Colorado
of the West; Schott.
CHÆNACTIS CARPHOCLINIA (sp. nov.): annua? lanuloso-pubescens, mox glabrata, subviscosa;
caule ramosissimo; foliis 1–2-pinnatipartitis, segmentis parvis linearibus (1–3 lin. longis);
capitulis subcorymbosis; involucro viscoso; corollis albidis? radii limbo ampliato sed regulari
discum haud superantibus, pappi paleis 4 ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis; receptaculo paleis
nonnullis setaceis involucrum aequantibus inter flores onusto.—Gila and Colorado desert; Schott.
Fort Yuma, E. California; Major Thomas. Plant 4 to 9 inches high, resembling slender forms
of C. stevioides. Heads corymbose-panicled, half an inch long, on short and slender peduncles,
12—25-flowered. Involucre either glandular-viscid or hirsute with viscid hairs. The remarkable
peculiarity of the species consists in a set of filiform or setaceous persistent paleæ on the
receptacle, 5 to 10 in number, subtending as many disk-flowers; but in every other respect the
plant is a true Chænactis.
ACARPHÆA ARTEMISIAEFOLIA, Harv. & Gray, in Pl. Fendl, p. 98, in not. (TAB. XXXII.)
Cordilleras east of San Diego, California, June; Parry. This rare plant was known only from
a specimen in Coulter's Californian collection, No. 313, which presented no mature fruit. Dr.
Parry's specimen is also a single one, (more suo,) but with well-formed fruit. The only points
to be added to the original account of the plant are that the viscid-glandular leaves are scarcely,
if at all, hoary; the corollas appear as if they were flesh-color rather than pale yellow, and
the marginal ones are hardly ampliate; the mature achenia, all fertile and similar, are slightly
incurved, compressed, and not manifestly striate. The compression of the achenia tends to
confirm the genus as distinct from Chænactis, although the numerous analogous cases in this
subtribe warn us to beware of genera resting solely on the absence of pappus. Vide, Plantae
Wrightiance, 1, p. 123.
BAHIA RUBELLA (sp. nov.): annua, pumila, floccoso-lanuginosa, ramosa; pedunculis subcorymbosis
monocephalis; foliis alternis spathulatis apice sæpius tridentatis; involucro campanulato
8-phyllo lanuginoso, squamis erectis discum adæquantibus; ligulis 8 roseis ovalibus
3—4-dentatis; appendicibus styli fl. disci cono acutissimo superatis; receptáculo conico; acheniis
hirsutulis; pappi paleis 8 enerviis obtusissimis.—Interior of California, in a dry valley, near
San Felipe, (between San Diego and the Rio Colorado;) June; Parry. Plant 4 inches high; the
leaves half on inch long. Peduncles from half an inch to an inch in length. Involucre 3 lines
long. Disk-flowers 14–20, yellow. Ligules oval, deeply notched or 3–4-toothed at the
apex. Pappus about one-quarter the length of the prismatic achenium; the paleae of equal
length, four of them obovate-oblong, the alternate ones narrower and more spatulate, entire.
With the style of true Bahia, but the appendages tipped with a longer and sharper cone, this
little plant has the involucre of the section Eriophyllum, and a still more elevated (even
conical) receptacle; and so tends to combine the two. In the rays, which are said to be pale
purple and white, it accords with the obscure B. trolliifolia, of which it is probably a true
BAHIA (ACHYROPAPPUS) BIGELOVII (sp. nov.): annua, striguloso-puberula; caulibus gracilibus
diffuse ramosis; foliis oppositis tripartitis, segmentis integerrimis vel inferiorum 2–3-fidis
lineari-filiformibus; pedunculis filiformibus monocephalis; involucri laxi squamis 8–9 oblongo-ovatis
obtuse acuminatis glanduloso-pubescentibus; ligulis totidem oblongis; acheniis basi
hirsutulis; pappi paleis 8 obovatis obtusissimis enerviis tubo corollæ disci viscoso-hispido fere
dimidio brevioribus. Valley of the Limpio, W. Texas, July, 1852; Bigelow. Stems
branched from the base a foot or more in height. Leaves short-petioled; their divisions 6 to 12
lines long. Peduncles solitary, 3 or 4 inches long. Involucre scarcely 3 lines in length, a
little shorter than the disk. Flowers yellow; those of the disk as many as 30; their corolla a
line and a half long; the slender and glandular-hispid tube abruptly dilated into the cyathiform
5-lobed limb. Style as in B. ambrosioides. Achenia linear-clavate, obtusely tetragonal, nearly
a line and a half long. This is nearly related to the Schkuhria? Neo-Mexicana, Gray, Pl.
Fendl, p. 96; which, however, is rayless and has disk-corollas scarcely longer than the pappus.
While on the one hand it is plainly a congener of Achyropappus schkuhrioides, Link & Otto.,
(which in specimens from De Candolle and others, contrary to the generic character, taken from A.
anthemoides, has a pappus very much shorter than the corolla,) on the other it is equally inseparable
from true Bahia (B. ambrosioides, B. absinthifolia, etc.) I am unable to say exactly how
the various species are to be divided between Bahia and Schkuhria; but apparently all the
many flowered ones must be excluded from the latter.
AMBLYOPAPPUS PUSILLUS, Hook. & Arn. in Hook. Jour. Bot. 3, p. 321, (vide Gray, Pl. Wright,
1, p. 123, in adn. & Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 106.) Infantea Chilensis, Remy, in Gay, Fl. Chil.
Aromia tenuifolia, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1, p. 395. Monterey, California, near the
seaside, forming dense clumps; Parry.
BURRIELIA GRACILIS, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 664. California, near Monterey, etc.; May; so abundant
as to give a yellow appearance to the hills; Parry. Mostly rather large forms. In one specimen
a slight disposition to have lobes to the leaves appears.
BURRIELIA CHRYSOSTOMA, Torr. & Gray. Fl. 2, p. 379. Hill sides, common from Monterey to
San Diego, California. The specimens occur mixed with the preceding, from the larger forms
of which they are externally undistinguishable. Unless the more obtuse receptacle affords a
character, it will probably come to be regarded as only an epappose state of B. gracilis.
BURRIELIA PLATYCARPHA (sp. nov.): erecta, spithamæa, subramosa, laxe pubescens; foliis sæpissime
trifidis segmentisque filiformi-linearibus; pedunculis sursum incrassatis; involucri
multiflori squamis ovatis trinerviis ligulisque oblongo-linearibus sæpius 7; corolla imberbi;
pappo conformi e paleis 7–8 oblongo-ovatis aristatis achenio æquilongis; receptaculo acute
conico.—Valley of the upper Sacramento; Dr. Stillman. This is a genuine Burrielia, having the
paleæ of the pappus all alike and awned. The scales of the involucre (fully 4 lines long) and
the ligules are considerably larger than those of the largest states of B. gracilis and B. (Bäeria)
chrysostoma, although fewer. It is related on the one hand to B. gracilis, from which it is a
once distinguished by its lobed leaves, stouter peduncles, more upright habit, fewer rays and
involucral scales, the latter much broader as well as larger, 3-nerved and more pointed, and by
the equally larger and broader as well as more numerous paleæ of the pappus; on the other to
B. (Dichæta) Fremontii, which has much smaller heads, a dimorphous pappus of much smaller
Capitulum homogamum multiflorum; floribus hermaphroditis tubulosis. Involucrum circiter
10-phyllum, biseriale; squamis æqualibus membranaceis, interioribus glandula apiculatis.
Receptaculum nudum, scrobiculatum. Corolla cylindrica; tubo proprio brevi angusto, dentibus
5 patentibus ovatis. Antheræ ecaudatæ. Styli rami compressi, glaberrimi, apice tantum capitellato-truncato
brevissime hirtelli. Achenia immatura oblonga, basi angustata, hirsutissima.
Pappus corolla brevior, e paleis 5 hyalinis enerviis oblongo-lanceolatis in setas plurimas rigidas
profunde fissis. Herba nana, hyemo-annua vel biennis, dicliotoma, humifusa, floccoso-lanata,
subglandulosa; foliis alternis cuneato-oblongis argute inciso-dentatis lobatisve, dentibus cuspidato-acuminatis;
pedunculis terminalibus et alaribus filiformibus monocephalis; corollis ochroleucis?
Capitulum multiflorum, radiatum; floribus radii ligulatis fæmineis, disci tubulosis. Involucrum
hemisphæricum; squamis subtriseriatis membranaceis laxis, extimis paullo brevioribus.
Receptaculum planum, epaleaceum, alveolato-dentatum, dentibus brevibus corneis. Ligulæ
20–30, lineares. Corollæ fl. herm. tubo gracili viscoso-glanduloso, fauce cylindraceæ, limbo
5-dentato, dentibus triangulari-ovatis fere glabris. Antheræ ecaudatæ. Styli rami obtusi,
longitrorsum puberuli, exappendiculati. Achenia conformia, linearia, subtetragono-compressa,
deorsum attenuata, villosa præsertim ad margines. Pappus (villis achenii vix longior) e paleis
4 tenuibus hyalinis enerviis latis obtusissimis erosis vel fimbriatis. Herbæ perennes, viscosopubescentes,
macrocephalæ, alternifoliæ; caule fiorifero sub-aphyllo; floribus flavis.
H. CALIFORNICA (Torr. & Gray): elata; caule vel pedunculo 3–7-cephalo; involucri squamis
linearibus apice attenuatis; floribus aureis; ligulis sæpe filamentis sterilibus instructis; pappi
paleis cuneato-rotundis apice truncato eroso-denticulatis.—Mountains east of San Diego, California,
in bushy places, June; Parry. A portion of the inflorescence was alone gathered of this
interesting plant, apparently a branch of a tall herb, with the alternate leaves reduced to ovatelanceolate
and sessile bracts, of about half an inch in length. The paniculate or subcorymbose
heads are about as large as those of Arnica montana. Ligules half an inch long. Disk-flowers
perhaps 100. Achenia 3 lines long, blackish, minutely striate on each face, also villous (but
much more so on the margins) with long and thick hairs. Pappus of four nearly equal, thin,
and hyaline paleæ, of less than a line in length, much shorter than the tube of the corolla.
Foliage, etc., unknown. The genus is dedicated to G. W. Hulse, M. D., of Louisiana, late a
surgeon of the United States army, and a zealous cultivator of botany, to whom we are indebted
for many interesting plants of Florida, California, etc. Since its establishment upon a single
and incomplete specimen, a second species has been detected by Dr. Newberry (H. nana, Gray in
Pacific R. R. Report, 6, p. 76, t. 13,) confirming the genus. The broad and flat receptacle and
the elongated compressed achenia are remarkable in the Helenieæ, subdiv. Euhelenieæ, to
which the genus is to be referred.
TRIDAX BICOLOR, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 104. Bachimba, Chihuahua; Thurber. Plant taller
than the specimens of Wislizenus, a foot or two high; the upper leaves alternate and on pretty
long petioles; head larger than in T. procumbens; rays rose purple; pappus not tinged with
HEMIZONIA FASCICULATA, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 397. Hartmannia fasciculata, DC. Prodr.
5, p. 693. Dry plains, San Diego, California; Parry, Schott, Thurber. Covers large tracts, and
exhales a strong balsamic odor.
HEMIZONIA RAMOSISSIMA, Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 30. Santa Barbara and San Diego, California;
Schott, Fitch. This appears to be a common Californian plant, of somewhat variable
mode of growth. Mr. Fitch's specimen is the same as Frémont's, marked R and S in his coll.
of 1846; as No. 361 of Coulter's Californian collection; and as the H. fasciculata of Nuttall, in
herb. Hook; (of Gambell's collection, a stricter and smoother form); I believe it is also Bentham's
H. ramosissima. The sessile or stipitate glands are sometimes abundant, but not rarely wanting
or nearly so. I may remark that to H. angustifolia, DC., (which has no pappus at all, at least
in Douglas's specimens,) belongs the H. multicaulis, Hook. & Arn Bot. Beech. Voy. Suppl., p.
355; the No. 305 of Coulter's Californian collection; H. decumbens, Nutt. Pl. Gamb. p. 175; and
apparently the same as specimens gathered near Monterey by Mr. Barclay, although their disk-flowers
show a minute pappus. But No. 1797 of Hartweg's collection, referred by Mr. Bentham
to H. angustifolia, is exactly H. corymbosa (Hartmannia corymbosa, DC.) H. macrocephala,
Nutt. Pl. Gamb. l. c., appears to be the same species. H. congesta, DC., is to be distinguished
from Madaria chiefly by the shape of the fertile achenia; as noted in the Botany of Whipple's
CALYCADENIA (OSMADENIA) TENELLA, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 402. Osmadenia tenella, Nutt.
Dry places near San Diego, California; Parry, etc.; June. Subjoined are the characters of
two new species, from Frémont's Californian collection of 1846.† They belong to Nuttall's
Osmadenia, but have the glands of Calycadenia on the floral and young fascicled leaves, and
LAGOPHYLLA DICHOTOMA, Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 317. On the Sacramento, California; Rev. Mr.
Fitch. Branchlets only; rays evidently yellow. The genus is distinguished from Hemizonia by
the obcompressed fertile achenia, completely enclosed by the involucral scales, and by the cuneiform,
deeply trifid rays. The habit also is peculiar. Yet, perhaps, it may be found to pass
into Hemizonia; though it is more distinct than Calycadenia.
LAGOPHYLLA FILIPES, Gray in Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 109, adn. Hemizonia filipes, Hook. & Arn.
Bot. Beech. Voy. Suppl. p. 356. On the Sacramento, California; Rev. Mr. Fitch. The specimens
are merely in flower. I suspect that in the achenia, no less than in other characters, as well as
in habit, the plant will accord with Lagophylla, and thus raise that genus to three known
species. The receptacle is not chaffy in the centre. The small rays are three-parted nearly to
HARPÆCARPUS EXIGUUS: tenellus, diffusus; pedunculis filiformibus; paleis receptaculi 3 in
cupulam florem hermaphroditum includentem coalitis; acheniis haud rostratris.—Sclerocarpus
exiguus, Smith in Rees Cycl.; Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech, Voy. p. 355, adn. California, (probably
Mariposa county,) Rev. Mr. Fitch. Plant 2 to 4 inches high, including the fruit-bearing peduncles
(which are an inch or more long); the branches diffuse. Root annual. Leaves from a quarter
to half an inch long. Heads little over a line long, with 4 to 7 ray-flowers, and a single
hermaphrodite one, which is inclosed in a cup formed of only three paleæ. Besides this character,
and the diminutive size and diffuse habit of this plant, it differs from H. madarioides, Nutt., of
Oregon, in the less falcate ray-achenia, of barely a line in length (only half the size of those of
the other species), the apex of which is obtusely apiculate, but not at all rostrate. H. madarioides
has, when young, a simple and strict stem, leaves of one or two inches in length, and, according
to Nuttall, sometimes attains the height of 2 feet.
COINOGYNE CARNOSA, Less.; DC. Prodr. 6, p. 42. Salt places and seashore near San Diego
California; Parry. The genus should stand next to Jaumea, in the Helenieæ, from which it
differs principally in the want of the pappus.
BAILEYA PAUCIRADIATA, Harv. & Gray, in Pl. Fendl. p. 105. Diluvial banks of the Colorado,
Sonora; February, 1855; Schott. These are the only specimens of this plant I have seen,
excepting the original ones in Coulter's collection. They possess the lower cauline and radical
leaves, which are pinnatifid, with few and unequal linear lobes, some of them 1–2-toothed or
lobed. The root is that of a biennial or winter annual.
PSATHYROTES ANNUA, Gray, Pl. Wright. 2 p. 100, & Pl. Thurber, p. 323. Bulbostylis
(Psathyrotes) annua, Nutt. Pl. Gambell. Tetradymia (Polydymia) ramosissima, Torr. in Emory,
Rep. p. 145. Colorado desert, California; Schott. Big-horn mountain, on the Gila; Thurber.
"Flowers bright yellow. Foliage aromatic."
SENECIO PARRYI (sp. nov.): herbaceus, viscoso-pubescens; caule striato; ramis oligocephalis;
foliis argute inæqualiter dentatis, caulinis spathulatis inferne longe attenuatis basi dilatata
auriculato-amplexantibus, ramealibus summis lanceolatis; bracteis setaceo-subulatis; capitulis
breviter pedunculatis; involucri (semipollicari) paucibracteolati squamis acuminatis; ligulis
12—15; acheniis sericeo-cinereis.—In live-oak groves, 150 miles above the mouth of the Pecos,
on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, November; Parry. Root not seen. Stem, etc., slightly
floccose when young. Cauline leaves 2 inches or more in length. Ligules oblong, yellow, half
an inch long.
PEREZIA THURBERI, Gray, Pl. Thurber, p. 324. Rocky hills, near Santa Cruz, Sonora; Thurber.
Dr. Schultz has recently referred Perezia to Trixis, perhaps with reason, as it is difficult to
draw a limit between them.
PEREZIA NANA, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 111, & Pl. Wright. l. c. Gavelly or rocky hills, from the
Rio Grande, Texas, to the San Pedro, Sonora. The name is not always appropriate, as the
plant is sometimes a foot high.
PEREZIA RUNCINATA, Gray, l. c. From the lower Rio Grande to Chihuahua. The fascicled
roots become tuberous-thickened below, like those of a Peony or Dahlia.*
CALAIS LINEARIFOLIA, DC. Prodr. 7, p. 85; Gray, Pl. Wright. 2, p. 102. Near San Diego,
California; Parry. New Mexico on the Rio Grande, Organ mountains, and Lake Gusman;
Wright, Bigelow. Guadalupe cañon, Sonora; Capt. Smith.
CALAIS PARRYI, (Gray, in Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 112, adn.): scaposa, fere glabra; foliis
lineari-lanceolatis sæpius pinnatifldo-laciniatis; involucri squamis triseriatis ovatis oblongisve
subobtusis, exterioribus gradatim brevioribus; ovariis lævibus; pappi paleis oblongis apice
bifidis arista e sinu exserente barbellato-scabra dimidio brevioribus.—Near San Diego, California;
March; Parry. The specimens are too young to give the complete characters. The plant
belongs to the section Calocalais, and in the pappus most resembles C. macrochæta, Gray, Pl.
Fendl.; but the scales of the involucre are much broader and blunt, and the awn of the pappus
is shorter and more denticulate; the leaves also are shorter and mostly obtuse. In C. macrochæta,
the scales of the involucre are lanceolate and gradually very taper-pointed; and the
slender awn is scarcely scabrous.
CALAIS PLATYCARPHA (Gray, in Bot., Whippl. Rep. p. 113 & 114,): scaposa; foliis pinnati-partitis
(vel integris?) glabris; involucro calyculato; acheniis immaturis brevibus truncatis,
paucis extimis villosis; pappi paleis orbiculatis seu latissime ovalibus integerrimis apice subito
brevi-aristatis.—On clay hills, San Luis Rey, California; Parry. The specimen, although too
young, affords characters which well distinguish this from the cognate C. Douglasii. The leaves
are cut into numerous short and crowded lobes, and are as long as the young scapes. Involucre
only 4 lines long, consisting of 8 or 10 oblong and rather obtuse scales of equal length, and of
a few short calyculate scales. The young achenia are oblong, rather clavate, and largest at the
truncate apex; it is not likely that they become rostrate or even tapering at the apex. Some of
the exterior ones are hairy, more so than in C. Douglasii; the others are glabrous, except a
minute papillose pubescence on the ribs. Paleæ of the pappus 5, nearly 3 lines long, fully 2
lines wide, entire, the midrib abruptly exserted into a scabrous awn of only one-third the length
of the scale itself.
Capitula et habitus Stephanorneriæ. Achenia angulata, utrinque truncata, costata, costis
5—10 tuberculatis. Pappus 5–15-paleatus; paleis lineari-lanceolatis vel setiformibus inferne
nudis, apicem versus breviter plumosis.—Herbræ graciles, annuæ vel biennes, glabræ, paniculato-ramosissimæ;
ramis fere aphyllis; floribus roseis? Species 2, nempe:
HEMPITILIUM SCHOTTII (sp. nov.): capitulis parvis 5-floris; acheniis 5–6-angulatis pluricostatis,
costis tuberculoso-scabris; pappi paleis 5–6 rigidis lineari-lanceolatis obtusiusculis
achenio haud longioribus infra medium nudis marginibus leviter scariosis.—Camp Miller, valley
of the Gila; May, 1855; Schott. Only branchlets or branches were collected; these bear
merely small subulate bracts in place of leaves, and racemose-panicled small heads. Involucre
only 3 lines long. Branches of the style clavate, glabrous. Color of the flowers not recorded.
Achenia 1½ line long: pappus of rigid paleæ, persistent or nearly so; the plumose hairs borne
at the upper part not much longer than the breadth of the palea. The plant resembles Stephanomeria
paniculata in aspect.
HEMIPTILIUM BIGELOVII (sp. nov.): caule paniculato-ramosissimo e radice annua seu bienni;
foliis radicalibus linearibus subpinnatifidis, rameis vix ullis; capitulis 6–9-floris; acheniis
5-costatis, costis validis rugoso-tuberculatis; pappo achenio duplo longiore e setis fragilibus
12–15 basi dilatatis rariter denticulatis vel setulosis medio gracillimis nudis versus apicem
barbellato-plumosis.—Frontera, New Mexico; Bigelow. Plant with the aspect of Stephanomeria
minor, (with which it has probably been confounded,) but perhaps more upright. Involucre
4 or 5 lines long; the ligules exserted to about the same length, apparently white or rose-color.
Achenia with thick corky ribs, or strong angles. Pappus white, fragile, at the summit
appearing like that of a Stephanomeria, although rather less plumose, but naked below, and
paleaceous at the base.
RAFINESQUIA CALIFORNICA, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc 7, p 429. (TAB. XXXIV.) Oak
groves, Monterey, California; Parry. Found also by Frémont on the Mohave river and in other
parts of California. Some of the mature achenia (usually the exterior ones) have a mottled appearance,
as represented in one of the figures.
CALYCOSERIS PARRYI (sp. nov.): involucro polyphyllo subimbricato; floribus flavis; acheniis
longe rostratis, costis lævibus acute trinervatis.—Mountains east of Monterey, California;
June; Parry. Only a single specimen was gathered, and that consists merely of the upper
part of the plant, with reduced foliage. It is most interesting, however, as adding a second
species to the genus Calycoseris, being a strict congener of the New Mexican C. Wrightii. It
is distinguished by its yellow flowers, rather larger heads, more numerous scales to the involucre,
of which there are likewise a few external and shorter scales, effecting a transition into
the smaller calyculate ones, which are more pointed and mostly squarrose-recurved; the
scales, as well as the peduncles and branchlets, are more conspicuously beset with similar setose-pedicellate
glands, which here are blackish. More important characters are afforded by the
achenia; these are more slender and rather longer; the strong ribs are not so thick, and are
smooth or even, (while in C. Wrightii they are tuberculate-roughened, a character by no means
sufficiently represented in the plate,) each with a sharp and salient dorsal nerve or keel, and
with a less conspicuous lateral one on each side; and the slender beak is as long as the body of
CALYCOSERIS WRIGHTII, Gray, Pl. Wright 2, p 104, t. 14. Low hills and alluvial banks of
the Rio Grande, and elsewhere in New Mexico; gathered by all the collectors. Guadalupe
cañon, Sonora; Capt. Smith.
MALICOTHRIX TENUIFOLIA, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n. ser. 1, p. 435, ex char. Valley
of the Gila, at Camp Miller; May, 1855; Schott. The same as Coulter's No 246, and apparently
Nuttall's plant. But it is herbaceous, except perhaps the very base, and the nascent
shoots and young involucral scales are canescent with a stellate tomentum, which is soon deciduous.
From three to five of the bristles of the pappus are more persistent and naked.
MACRORHYNCHUS HETEROPHYLLUS, Nutt.; Gray in Whippl. Rep. p. 115. M. Californicus, Torr.
& Gray. (Cryptopleura Californica, Nutt.) M. Chilensis, Hook. & Arn. Monterey and elsewhere
in California; Parry, etc.
MACRORHYNCHUS LESSINGII, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech, p. 361. Sea-beach at Monterey, California;
April; Parry. The specimen is in too early a state for proper investigation, but it has
a thick root, and very obtuse or rounded exterior scales of the involucre. Perhaps M. grandiflorus,
Nutt. (which is known only in fruit) is a fully developed state of it.
LOBELIA PECTINATA, Engelm. in Wisliz. Rep. p. 108. L. fenestralis, Cav.? Sonora, September;
Thurber, Schott. (No. 420 and 1430, Wright.) The plant of Cavanilles is said to be
perennial, while ours is certainly annual.
LOBELIA BERLANDIERI, Alph. DC. Prodr. 7, p. 367. On the lower Rio Grande, Chihuahua,
Neuvo Leon, etc. (No. 419 and 1429, Wright. No. 3177, Berlandier, Matamoras.) Annual,
smooth. Stem erect, or sometimes apparently prostrate, more or less branching, mostly naked
above. Lowest leaves broadly ovate or obovate, tapering at the base into a petiole; upper ones
sessile, ovate and oblong-lanceolate, irregularly and acutely toothed. Flowers in lax racemes
terminating the branches; the pedicels 2–4 lines long and twice the length of the linear bracts.
Calyx about two thirds as long as the tube of the corolla, the segments subulate and denticulate.
Corolla blue, 3–4 lines long; upper segments oblong-lanceolate; lower ones much narrower;
the tube about as long as the stamina. Wright's 419 and 1429, differ in being more leafy above,
and in the shorter pedicels. We suspect they are all forms of L. Cliffortiana.
LOBELIA LAXIFLORA, H. B. K. 3. p. 311. L. fissa, Roem. & Schultes. Mabibi, Sonora;
June; Thurber. About a foot and a half high. Leaves 3–5 inches long, lanceolate, acute at
each end; the lower ones remotely and obscurely denticulate; the upper minutely and sharply
serrulate. Raceme few-flowered. Pedicels an inch or more in length. Flowers nearly as
large as in L. cardinalis. Segments of the calyx triangular-lanceolate, scarcely longer than
the hemispherical tube. Corolla dull red; the tube three times as long as the calyx. Stamineal
column considerably exserted.
LOBELIA CARDINALIS, L. Sp. p. 1320. L. Texensis, Raf. Leon Spring, Devil's river, and
Head of the Nueces, western Texas; also on the Mimbres, Neuvo Mexico; Bigelow. The
flowers are sometimes smaller than in the northern plant; in which state it seems to be hardly
distinct from L. Texensis, Raf., except in the narrower flowers, and usually shorter sepals.
NEMACLADUS RAMOSISSIMUS, Nutt. in Trans. Amer, Phil. Soc. n. ser. 8. p. 254. (Tab. XLV.)
Hill sides, Frontera, on the upper Rio Grande; also in Chihuahua, and near the Pimos
villages, on the Gila; Parry. (No. 1428 and 1431, Wright.) We have specimens from
California, collected by Dr. Andrews and Rev. Mr. Fitch. Mr. Nuttall considers this remarkable
plant as the type of a distinct natural order which ought to be placed between Lobeliaceæ and
Goodenoviaceæ; but we think it should certainly be referred to the former, notwithstanding the
non-cohering anthers. The stigma is destitute of an indusium, and even of a hairy fringe.
CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA, Linn. Sp. p. 239. Rocks on the Rio Grande, 150 miles above the
mouth of the Pecos; November; Parry. The radical leaves are ovate and acute, but there can
be little doubt of the plant being a form of C. rotundifolia.
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS PUNGENS, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3, p. 278; Torr. in Emory, Rep. t. 7,
& in Bot. Whipp. Rep., p. 116. Dry pine woods, near Monterey, in the same State; Parry.
Mountain sides and dry ravines, San Luis, etc., Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith; Schott, Thurber.
Mexico; Berlandier, No. 1318. Sometimes procumbent. Flowers rose-color.
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS TOMENTOSA, Dougl.; DC. Prodr. 7, p. 585; Torr. l. c. San Luis Obispo, California;
April; Parry. Also in Napa county; Thurber. It is called Mansinita, (little apple,)
by the Mexicans of California. The red berries are used by the Spanish natives to make a
cooling sub-acid drink.
ARBUTUS MENZIESII, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 282. Mountains at the head of Rock creek; Bigelow.
(No. 1433, Wright.) Only 12–15 feet high, and with smaller leaves than in the Oregon and
California plant. In California, where it is common, it is a most beautiful tree, often 40 feet or
more in height, and is known by the name of Madronia. The wood is used for making the
heavy wooden stirrups of the Mexicans.
DIOSPYROS TEXANA, Scheele in Linnœa. 22, p. 145. Hill sides, Fort Inge to Escondido
creek, and near Eagle Pass, western Texas; Schott, Parry. Flowers in March. Fruit ripe in
August, about an inch in diameter.
BUMELIA RECLINATA, Vent. Ch. Pl. t. 22, fide Alph. DC. Prodr. 8, p. 190: var. fructibus
majoribus; floribus fasciculis numerosioribus. On the Rio Grande, from Laredo to the mouth
of the river; Schott. Hills and plains near Live Oak creek; Bigelow. No. 1434, Wright.
Matamoras; Berlandier, Nos. 1513, 3012 and 3048. A tree 25–30 feet high. It seems to
differ from the plant of the Southern Atlantic States chiefly in the larger and more fleshy fruit.
This is oblong, nearly three-fourths of an inch in length, sweet and edible. Testa smooth and
shining, mottled with brown. Cotyledons united, thick and fleshy. Albumen wholly wanting.
PLANTAGO PATAGONICA, var. GNAPHALIOIDES, Gray in Torr. Bot. Whipp. Rep. p. 117, & Man.
Bot. ed. 2, p. 269. P. gnaphalioides, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 100. Western Texas, New Mexico,
Sonora and California. Var. spicis oblongis vel capitatis. Dry hills, Sonora; Schott. San
Diego, California; Parry. (No. 1438, Wright.)
SAMOLUS VALERANDI, Linn., var. AMERICANUS, Gray Man. ed. 2, p. 274. S. floribundus, H. B.
K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2, p. 224. Low places, borders of the Limpio; July, Bigelow. Banks
of streams, Sonora, May; Capt. E. K. Smith. California; Parry.
DODECATHEON MEADIA, Linn. Sp. p. 207; Torr. in Bot. Whippl. Rep., p. 118. Grassy places
near Monterey and other places in California; March to April; Parry. This includes D. integrifolium,
Michx., and even D. frigidum, Cham.
CHILOPSIS LINEARIS, DC. l. c. p. 227. C. glutinosa, Engelm. in Wilz. North. Mex., p. 94.
Hills and ravines along the Rio Grande, Santa Cruz river, etc., Sonora; Schott and Capt. E. K.
Smith. San Felipe, California; Parry (No. 1447, Wright.) A shrub usually 4—6 feet high,
but Capt. Smith saw it in Sonora 25 feet high. I can distinguish but one species in the collections.
MARTYNIA ARENARIA, Engelm. l. c. p. 100. Sandy places, from El Paso and near the Limpio
(Bigelow) to the Presidio del Norte; July; Parry. Sonora; September; Thurber. "Plant
viscid; corolla reddish-yellow externally, yellow inside; the throat mottled and veined with
APHYLLON FASCICULATUM, Torr. & Gr. l. c. Orobanche fasciculata, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 59; Hook.
Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 93, t. 170. Tributaries of the Rio Yaqui, Sonora; June; Thurber. Mountains
east of San Diego; June; Parry. Our numerous specimens show that the divisions of the
calyx are variable in length and shape, so that the species is chiefly distinguished by its scaly
stem and shorter peduncles.
PHELIPÆA COMOSA. Anoplanthus comosus, Walp. Rep. 3, p. 480, & Reut. l. c. Orobanche
comosa, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 92, t. 169. California, probably on the lower Sacramento;
Shelton. The specimens were parasitic on the roots of a species of Grindelia; apparently G.
arguta. The calyx is deeply 5-parted, with nearly equal lanceolate-subulate segments. Bracteoles
very remote from the flower, alternate on the pedicel, resembling the segments of the
calyx. Lobes of the corolla all acute and entire; those of the upper lip ovate-lanceolate; of the
MAURANDIA (EPIXIPHIUM) WISLIZENI (sp. nov. Engelm.): scandens, glabra; foliis hastatis;
pedicellis axillaribus petiolo sæpiusque calyce brevioribus; corolla "pallide cærula," fauce
pervia nuda; calyce fructifero demum subcoriaceo valde aucto et reticulato basi 5-angulato seu
5-carinato, lobis triangulari-lanceolatis sensim acuminatis; capsula ovoidea coriacea calyce inclusa
stylo ensiformi rigido persistente cornuta, loculis juxta apicem rima transversali dehiscentibus;
seminibus compressis ovalibus alatis disco paleaceo-rugosis.—Along the Rio Grande below
Doña Ana, etc. This was first received in the collection of Dr. Wislizenus, and afterwards in that
of Wright and most others from the northern borders of Mexico. Dr. Engelmann proposed it
long ago, in MSS., as a new genus, under the name of Epixiphium maurandioides, which is here,
with his permission, changed to Wislizeni, since I incline to view the plant as the type of a mere
subgenus of Maurandia, freely admitting, however, that its characters are as well marked as
those of Lophospermum. The remarkable fructiferous calyx is 8 or 9 lines broad at the base,
strongly 5-angled and keeled, and an inch or an inch and a half long; the sword-shaped persistent
style nearly equals the calyx-lobes, and the dehiscence is by a clean transverse chink on
each side, which inclines to extend downwards so as to become valvular. Seeds blackish, distinctly
winged, 1½ to 2 lines long.
ANTIRRHINUM NUTTALLIANUM, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 592. San Diego, California;
May—June; Parry. On the Great Colorado; Schott. Leaves of the branches mostly roundishcordate.
Segments of the calyx ovate, a little unequal. Persistent base of the style oblique.
ANTIRRHINUM COULTERIANUM, Benth. l. c. Near San Pasqual, California, May; Thurber.
Mountains east of San Diego, June; Parry. Root annual. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, supporting
itself on other plants by its twining slender branches. Raceme nearly a foot long: persistent
base of the style oblique. This species is near A. majus.
SCROPHULARIA COCCINEA (sp. nov.): glabra; foliis deltoideo-ovatis vel subcordatis acutis grosse
dentatis, dentibus pauci-serratis; thyrso oblongo aphyllo; cymis plurifloris floribusque minutim
glandulosis; calycis segmentis ovatis margine haud scariosis; corolla læte coccinea, lobis 2 posticis
tubo ovato-oblongo gibboso dimidio breviore, anticis brevissimis; anthera sterili obovato.—
At the base of a rocky ledge near the summit of a mountain, Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico;
Wright (1470), Bigelow. What appears to be the same species in fruit was collected by Dr.
Bigelow near the Organ mountains. A truly handsome species. Specimens raised from seeds
in the autumn of 1852 (but which were unfortunately soon lost) displayed flowers as bright red
as those of Stachys coccinea.
PENTSTEMON AMBIGUUS, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. Y. p. 228, & in Marcy's Rep. p. 293, t. 16. Gravelly
hill sides near Tascate; July; and Burro mountains; September; also near San Diego;
Bigelow. Sand hills, Chihuahua; Thurber (742.) A common species in or near the southern
Rocky mountains. In the figure cited above, the sterile filament is represented as bearing a
small anther, to which no allusion is made in the letter-press. It is not found in the present
specimens, but exists in all those collected by Captain Marcy. In this as in several species of
the genus, either all four fertile stamens or the two posterior are often free from the corolla
nearly or even quite to the base.
PENTSTEMON LINARIOIDES (sp. nov.): suffruticosus, pube minutissima glauco-cinereus, multicaulis;
caulibus floridis simplicibus foliosis strictis (6–15-pollicaribus); foliis angustissime
linearibus seu lineari-acerosis imisve spatulato-linearibus mucronatis integerrimis; racemo vel
paniculo virgato laxifloro; pedunculis alternis brevibus 1–5-floris; calycis segmentis ovatis vel
ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis inferne scarioso-marginatis; corolla pallide cæruleo-purpurea superne
ampliata breviter bilabiata, palato pl. m. barbato, lobis rotundatis subconformibus patentibus;
antheris glabris subexsertis; filamento sterili longitudinaliter barbato.—Organ mountains;
Parry. Copper Mines and Los Animos, New Mexico; Wright, (1472,) Thurber, (331, 1115,)
Bigelow. Sierra San Luis, Chihuahua and Sonora; Schott. A well marked species, of the group
to which the preceding belongs; the numerous flowering stems form a woody base; the foliage
and inflorescence resembling one of the strict and narrow-leaved Linarias. Corolla 7 to 9 lines
PENTSTEMON JAMESII (Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 325): pumilus, strictus, puberulus; foliis
nunc glabratis omnibus sessilibus plerisque parce denticulatis, caulinis floralibusque linearibus,
imis et radicalibus sublanceolatis deorsum attenuatis; racemo 8–12-floro spicato; pedunculis
alternis 1–2-floris seu pedicellis brevissimis cum sepalis e basi lata lanceolatis sensim acuminatis
viscido-pubentibus; corolla (pallide purpurea) tubo angusto, fauce subito valde ampliata campanulata,
lobis conformibus rotundatis; antheris glabris; filamento sterili longitudinaliter
barbato.—Low places near the Limpio, July; Bigelow. This species may be described as intermediate
between P. Cobæa and P. pumilus, Nutt. The specimens are only 5 or 6 inches high,
herbaceous, erect, leafy; the leaves from 1½ to 2½ inches long, and 1½ to 2½ lines wide, thickish;
the upper floral linear-subulate and not exceeding the calyx; the latter is half an inch long;
the corolla, which has just the shape of that of P. Cobæa, is over an inch long. It is somewhat
viscid externally and slightly bearded within the lower lip. Sterile stamen like that of P.
Cobæa, but the beard denser.
PENTSTEMON STENOPHYLLUS (sp. nov.): glaberrimus; caule gracili 2–3-pedali; foliis linearibus
elongatis integerrimis, floralibus lineari-setaceis; panicula laxiflora; pedunculis oppositis
patentibus gracilibus 2–5-floris pedicellis 2–4-plo longioribus; calyce parce glanduloso-pubero,
segmentis ovatis margine scariosis ciliato-denticulatis acuminatis, acumine patente; corolla
infundibuliformi-ampliata (fere sesquipollicari cærulea?) vix bilabiata, lobis brevibus conformibus
rotundatis; antheris rima hirto-ciliolatis; filamento sterili glaberrimo summo apice dilatato.—
Hills between Babacomori and Santa Cruz, Sonora; Wright, (1477.) Radical leaves not seen;
cauline all alike, but gradually smaller and narrower towards the summit of the virgate stem,
the larger 4 inches long and 1½ or 2 lines wide, perfectly entire. Peduncles 1½ or 2 inches long.
Pedicels 3 to 6 lines long. Calyx 2 or 3 lines long. This species belongs to the section Cepocosmus,
and to the same group with P. imberbis. If, as seems likely, No. 186 of the collection
of Wislizenus, from Cosiquiriachi, belongs here, the corolla is blue.
PENTSTEMON DASYPHYLLUS (sp. nov.): velutino-puberulus; caulibus e basi suffructicosa strictis;
foliis lineari-lanceolatis imisve oblanceolatis integerrimis obtusis junioribus præsertim molliter
velutinis, floralibus gradatim minoribus cum racemo simplici laxo paucifloro glanduloso-puberulentis;
pedicellis alternis; sepalis ovato-oblongis obtusis; corolla ("purpureo-cærulea" fere
sesquipollicari) ampliato-infundibuliformi vix bilabiata, lobis rotundatis subconformibus; antheris
rima ciliolato-hirtellis; filamento sterili glaberrimo apice vix dilatato.—Stony hills of the
Pecos, and Cook's Spring, New Mexico; Wright, (1478). Valley of the Santa Cruz river on mountain
sides, and in the valley of the San Pedro, Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith, Bigelow & Thurber. Also
PENTSTEMON VIRGATUS, (sp. nov.): glaber, seu minutissima glanduloso-puberulus; caule herbaceo
simplici stricto; foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis integerrirmis, radicalibus spatulato-lanceolatis
obtusis, floralibus gradatim in bracteas subulatas breves diminutis; panicula virgata elongata
multiflora subsecunda; pedunculis plerumque oppositis 1–4-floris pedicellisque sæpissime
floribus haud longioribus; sepalis ovato-rotundis margine subscariosis; corolla (roseo-lilacina
venis intus purpureis) dilatato-infundibuliformi bilabiata, labiis æquilongis, superiore vix concavo
bilobo, inferiore patente tripartito, lobis omnibus ovalibus conformibus; antheris glabris
subexsertis; filamento sterili glaberrimo apice dilatato.—Santa Rita del Cobre, on the mountains;
Bigelow, Wright, (1476;) also gathered by Dr. Woodhouse. A pretty species, which has
been raised in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, from Mr. Wright's seeds. It is a foot or 18 inches
high, including the virgate inflorescence of half that length. Leaves from 1½ to 4 inches long,
and 1½ to 3 lines wide, usually tapering to both ends. Corolla two-thirds of an inch long.
Anther-cells soon divaricate. According to Bentham's arrangement this belongs to the section Eupentstemon.
PENTSTEMON PUNICEUS (sp. nov.): glaberrimus, glaucus; caule herbaceo valido; foliis crassis,
radicalibus obovatis, caulinis ovatis cordato-amplexicaulibus plus minusve connatis acutis
integerrimis, floralibus parvis; panicula contracta virgata nuda interrupta; cymis subsessilibus
multifloris; pedicellis gracilibus (flore fere æquilongis) nudis; sepalis ovalis obtusis; corolla
infundibuliformi, limbo fere æqualiter 5-lobo, lobis rotundatis patentibus; antheris glabris,
filamento sterili sub apice hinc barbato.—In the Guadalupe cañon, Sonora, June, 1851; Thurber
& Captain E. K. Smith. This is apparently a large, and must be a strikingly handsome species,
with its glaucous foliage and "brilliant scarlet" flowers. Lower leaves (with the base of the
stem) wanting in my specimen; but those present show a tendency to be eonnate-perfoliate.
Corolla less than an inch long; the throat moderately enlarged; lobes about 3 lines long.
PENTSTEMON PUNICEUS, var.? PARRYI: foliis superioribus (caet. ignotis) lanceolatis basi cordato-amplexicaulibus;
cymis pedunculatis; floribus paullo minoribus; sepalis oblongis; filamento
sterili sub apice hinc densissime barbato.—On the Rio Gila, March, 1852; Parry. The specimens
gathered are merely two flowering summits; the color of the blossoms not recorded, nor positively
to be made out. But its floral characters so nearly accord with the preceding that it
must, for the present at least, be appended to it.
PENTSTEMON WRIGHTII, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 4601. On rocky mountain sides near the head of
the Limpio, June; Wright, (unnumbered.) Santa Cruz mountains and Los Nogales; Captain E.
K. Smith. (The latter a somewhat remarkable form, but clearly of this species.) We have
also had this pretty species in cultivation. The corolla is rich rose-color, as described in the
letter-press, but with none of the deep red given in the figure in the Botanical Magazine.
PENTSTEMON FENDLERI, Gray, in Bot. Pope's Rep. p. 12, t. 5. Common apparently, from the
Platte through New Mexico and the Rocky mountains to Chihuahua, (Wislizenus, No. 245,) and
brought by all the collectors. It is Fendler's No. 576, and Wright's 1473. (This clearly is
not distinct from P. cyananthus, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 4464, which was overlooked when
P. Fendleri was characterized; it must accordingly bear that name.)
PENTSTEMON BARBATUS, Nutt.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 329. P. Torreyi, Benth.! l. c. p.
324. Common in New Mexico, along the mountains; Fendler, (581,) Wright, (440, 1474);
Bigelow, etc. Santa Cruz mountain; Captain E. K. Smith. We have this in cultivation from
Mr. Wright's seeds. It is hardy at Cambridge, and is taller (4 to 6 feet high) than the commonly
cultivated P. barbatus, as well as fuller-flowered; the virgate panicle becoming 2 or 5
feet in length, and bearing a long succession of fine scarlet blossoms, in some plants of the
most brilliant hue. The calyx-segments are either marginless or slightly margined. The
lower lip of the corolla at the throat is bearded, either somewhat copiously or sparingly, or in
some plants the beard wholly disappears, so that the name barbatus is not characteristic of this
species. But that all our forms are specifically identical with the old Chelone barbata I cannot
doubt. In establishing his P. Torreyi, Mr. Bentham, who is generally so very accurate, has
made two mistakes; the first, into which he was naturally led by the imperfection of the
original specimens, was in referring his plant to the section Cepocosmus, and comparing it with
P. imberbis, whereas it is a genuine Elmigera, having the upper lip erect, concave, and
moderately two-lobed, the lower 3-parted and reflexed; the second in attributing to P. barbatus
a bearded sterile filament, whereas it has always been described as with a naked one, conformably
to the distinction formerly taken in this respect between Chelone and Pentstemon.
PENTSTEMON BACCHARIFOLIUS, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 4627. Rocky bluffs at the Big Bend of the
San Pedro river, Texas; Wright, (439, 1479.) This showy species has been found only by
Mr. Wright, who discovered it in 1849. From seeds gathered by him it has been raised both
in England and in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. Overlooking Hooker's publication of the
species, I had named it P. Grahami, in compliment to Colonel Graham, United States Topographical
Engineers, under whose command Mr. Wright was when he, for the second time, met
with the plant; but the name has not appeared in print, so far as I am aware. The figure in
the Botanical Magazine does feeble justice to the very deep and carmine corolla, and represents
the plant as coarser and the leaves as considerably larger than usual. The latter in the wild
specimens are only ½–1 inch long, and very thick and firm. Far from being "annual?" the
plant is shrubby. The upper lip of the corolla is erect or at length somewhat recurved; the
PENTSTEMON CORDIFOLIUS, Benth. Scroph. Ind. p. 7, adnot & in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 329.
Mountains east of San Diego, California; June; Parry. Near the town of the same name;
May; Thurber. Santa Barbara; Major O. Rich. This species differs from all the rest of the
genus in its somewhat climbing habit. It runs over tall bushes like a Lonicera, and has bright
scarlet flowers, which are resupinate.
PENTSTEMON TERNATUS, (Torr. MSS.): glaber; caulibus e basi fruticosa erectis; foliis ternatim
verticillatis lanceolatis argute denticulatis utrinque acutis; panicula laxa pauciflora; corollæ
tubo elongato vix ampliato labio recto; filamento sterili barbato.—Mountains east of San Diego;
June; Parry. Branches straight and slender. Leaves about one inch long. Flowers in
terminal racemose panicles. Pedicels verticillate. Segments of the calyx ovate-lanceolate, acuminate.
Corolla nearly an inch long, pale scarlet according to Dr. Parry. This species belongs
to the section Elmigera of Bentham.
PENTSTEMON CENTRANTHIFOLIUS, Benth. Scroph. Ind. p. 7, adnot. & in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 323.
Mountains east of San Diego, California; June; Parry. Also near Monterey; Dr. Andrews
and Mr. Shelton. A fine deep scarlet-flowered species, with the leaves very variable in breadth.
PENTSTEMON BREVIFLORUS, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1946; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 329. California,
(near Monterey;) Rev. A. Fitch. A rare and remarkable species; also found by Dr.
Bigelow on the Stanislaus river. Corolla yellow, except the lobes of the lower lip, which are
PENTSTEMON HETEROPHYLLUS, Lindl. Bvt. Reg., t. 1899; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 300;
Gray in Bot. Whipp. Rep. Mountains east of San Diego, California; June; Parry. Near
Monterey; Dr Andrews. Our specimens appear to be suffrutescent. The flowers are pale
PENTSTEMON ANTIRRHINOIDES, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 594. Dry valleys among the mountains
east of San Diego, California; June; Parry. San Pasqual; Thurber; May. A rare
shrubby species, 3 or 4 feet high.
LEUCOPHYLLUM TEXANUM, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 344. Common in southern and western
Texas, occurring in all the collections. The stigma is bilamellate, as described by Kunze, but
the two lamellæ commonly cohere. This must be a beautiful shrub when loaded, as it often is,
with its rich violet-purple blossoms, contrasting with its silvery white foliage. In the finest
specimens the limb of the corolla is fully an inch in diameter, and delicately soft-bearded within,
and the wide tube two-thirds of an inch long to the base of the lobes. Sometimes the fifth
stamen is present and imperfectly antheriferous.
LEUCOPHYLLUM MINUS (sp. nov.): humile; foliis obovato-spathulatis retusis pube minuta
argenteis; calycis laciniis linearibus; corollæ lobis tubo dimidio brevioribus.—Hills on and
near the Pecos; Wright, (442, 1481.) Between Van Horn's Wells and Muerta; Bigelow,
Parry. A low, spreading shrub, only two feet high; the tomentum much finer and closer than
in the foregoing, and the purple flowers not half the size. Leaves from a quarter to half an
inch long, including the petiole or tapering base. I am not sure that this is specifically distinct
from L. ambiguum, having no specimen of that species. The corolla is, however, as deeply
cleft as in L. Texanum.
MIMULUS GLABRATUS, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Spec. 2, p. 370; Benth. l. c. Copper Mines and
Mimbres, New Mexico; Bigelow; Wright., (1842,) &c. Ojo Francisco and Tucson, Sonora;
Parry & Capt. S. K. Smith. Texas; Wright & Lindheimer. This appears to vary as much
in size and aspect, and to have nearly as large a geographical range as M. luteus; and M.
Jamesii is pretty plainly no more than a smaller flowered and almost entire-leaved northern
form of it.
MIMULUS BREVIPES, Benth. Scroph. Ind. 2, adnot., & in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 369. Near San Diego,
California, May; Thurber, Parry, etc. Chiefly narrow-leaved forms, the same as Coulter's No.
640. Bentham indicates it as perennial, but our Douglasian specimens show an annual root;
so do those of Thurber. The capsule of this species is ovoid-lanceolate, rather firm and chartaceous
in texture, loculicidal and splitting through the axis, separating the two placentæ, which
remain adnate to the valves, just as in Diplacus. Through M. rubellus, etc., there is a regular
gradation as to the dehiscence between this and the Mimuli with a thin and membranaceous
capsule, and a fleshy placenta, which shows no disposition to split.
MIMULUS CARDINALIS, Dougl.; Benth. l. c. Near San Diego, and in the mountains westward,
California; Parry. The valves of the capsule with the partitions in this species tardily separate
from the axis, from which the two placentæ are pretty widely separated, being projected far
into the cells.
MIMULUS RUBELLUS, (sp. nov): tenellus, erectus, e radice annua ramosus, viscido-puberulus;
foliis anguste oblongis lanceolatisve trinervibus fere integerrimis basi angustatis sessilibus;
pedunculis folium plerisque superantibus; calycis oblongi dentibus brevibus aequalibus, ore
aequali; corollæ purpureæ tubo haud exserto.—Wet ravines of the Organ mountains and
Copper Mines, April; Bigelow, Wright, (1483,) and Hueco mountains; Thurber, (135.) Plant
2 to 6 inches high. Leaves 3 to 8 lines long, the uppermost acutish. Calyx perfectly equal at
the summit, even in fruit, 3 lines long, narrow. Tube of the corolla yellowish, the limb 1½
line long, pink or purple. The valves of the capsule are pretty thin and delicate; but the
placenta splits at the summit in dehiscence, or is bipartible, one half remaining adnate to each
MIMULUS (DIPLACUS, Nutt.) GLUTINOSUS, Wendl. Obs., p. 51. San Francisco, Monterey, and
San Diego, California. In various forms, and both with red and yellow flowers. Several
annual Mimuli being dehiscent through the placenta in the same way as the present plant, there
appears to be no ground for viewing Diplacus as anything more than a marked section of
Mimulus, distinguished by its shrubby habit, glutinous foliage, and narrow pods of a firm
EUNANUS FREMONTI, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 374? Dry gravelly places near Monterey,
May; Parry. Only a single and miserable specimen was gathered. It seems likely to be a
state of E. Frémonti, or possibly of Douglasii, with a remarkably abbreviated corolla.
HERPESTIS CHAMÆDRIOIDES, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Spec. 2, p. 369. Santa Cruz, and Sierra
Verde, Sonora; Wright, (1484,) Schott. Also a variety with simpler and less spreading stems,
and obscurely toothed leaves (H. nigrescens, Engelm. & Gray, Pl. Lindh. No. 140:) between
the Pecos and the Limpio; Wright, (443,) and Rock Creek; Bigelow.
HERPESTIS MONNIERA, H. B. K. l. c. H. cuneifolia, Pursh. Monniera cuneifolia, Michx. Fl.
2, p. 22. Marshy shore of the Rio Grande, between Eagle Pass and Laredo, April; Schott.
Monterey, Neuvo Leon; Dr. Edwards. Chihuahua; Dr. Gregg.
CONOBEA (SCHISTOPHRAGMA) INTERMEDIA, (sp. nov.): viscoso-pubescens; foliis subpinnatipartitis;
floribus brevissime pedunculatis; antheræ loculis subcontiguis; capsula ovato-lanceolata calyce
subinæquali dimidio longioribus.—Dry hills around the Copper Mines, New Mexico; very
common; Wright. (1485). Annual, erect spreading, 2–6 inches high, with the aspect of C.
(Leucospora) multifida; only more pubescent; the flowers very short-peduncled; the corolla
twice as large, purple, or the lower lip pale. Capsule 3 or 4 lines long, pointed. This
connects Bentham's Conobea multifida and his Schistophragma pusilla in such a way as to
render it necessary to comprehend under one and the same genus these three species of closely
similar aspect. The pod is just intermediate between the ovate shape of the first and the linear
form which distinguishes the last; but it has the spirally striate seeds of Schistophragma. Its
unequal calyx (the upper sepal being somewhat larger, or at least longer than the others,) would
appear to exclude it from Schistophragma no less than from Conobea; but I observe the same
thing, only rather less marked, in an authentic specimen of Bentham's S. pusilla var. major,
from Santa Martha. The stigma is essentially the same in all three. The present species has
one peculiarity: while in its unequal calyx it seems to approach Herpestis, in its anthers, (the
cells of which are not side by side, but one inserted a little above the other) it approaches
Stemodia and its allies.
CONOBEA MULTIFIDA, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 491. Capraria multifida, Michx. Fl. 2, p.
22, t. 35. Common on the sandy shore of the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, April—May;
Schott. Rio Coleto, Texas; Thurber.
VERONICA PEREGRINA, L. On the Rio Grande, near El Paso, and Lake Santa Maria, Chihuahua;
Wright, (1488.) Plains near Laguna de Lache, Solado, Mexico; Bigelow. Tubac; Parry.
San Bernardino, Chihuahua; Thurber, (376.)
SEYMERIA BIPINNATISECTA, Seem. Bot. Herald, p. 323, t. 59, var. TEXANA: pilis glandulosis et
viscidis pubescens seu villosa; ramis subvalidis; foliis bipinatifidis vel superioribus pinnatifidis,
segmentis lato-linearibus obtusis inciso-dentatis; pedicellis sæpissime brevibus; antheris obtusissimis;
capsulis glandulosis acutatis vel obtusis.—Upper Guadalupe river, etc.; Lindheimer.
Lower Rio Grande; Wright. Head of the Pedro river, Sonora? Bigelow. A stouter, more
pubescent and glandular plant than S. pectinata, and with the leaves much more cut, sometimes
even tripinnatifid. The shape of the capsule varies so in the numerous specimens under examination
that I fear it cannot be greatly relied upon in this genus. The above character was
drawn up, under a different name, before Seemann's plant was published. I have not seen
Mexican specimens. Our plant has less dissected foliage and (except in one or two instances)
much shorter pedicels than are delineated in Seemann's figure, and no such incised or pinnatifid
calyx-lobes, (which, by the way, are not mentioned in the character,) still the two are likely to
fall under the same species.
SEYMERIA SCABRA (sp. nov.): hispidulo-scabra, gracilis; foliis linearibus parvis pinnatipartitis
paucilobatis superioribus 3–5-fidis integrisve; corolla fere glabra; antheris sagittatis, loculis
acutis; capsulis glabellis ovato-acuminatis.—Mountain sides beyond the pass of the Limpio;
Wright, (448.) Lower leaves wanting; the largest seen little over half an inch in length; the
segments narrowly linear 1–2-toothed or entire. Flowers about as large as those of S. pectinata.
Calyx-lobes narrowly linear. Capsule fully 4 lines long. Well marked by its anther-cells
tapering gradually to an acute point.
GERARDIA WRIGHTII (sp. nov.): caulibus e radice perenni simplicibus virgatis cum foliis
lineari-filiformibus mucronato-acutatis scaberrimis; pedunculis flore æquilongis; calyce truncato
breviter 5-dentato; corolla flava late campanulata e tubo brevissimo extus pubescente intus
glaberrima; filamentis brevibus apice tantum villosis; antheris conformibus nudis obtusissimis
basi sagittatis, loculis aristato-subulatis; stigmate clavato.—Hill sides between Babacomori and
Santa Cruz, Sonora; Wright, (1489,) Bigelow. With the habit, calyx, and corolla of a true
Gerardia, sect, campanifloræ, this plant has yellow flowers, (according to Mr. Wright's notes
taken on the spot,) naked anthers, short-awned at the base, and the filaments glabrous except
near the summit. The stamens are pretty strongly didynamous, and the four anthers similar.
CASTILLEJA PURPUREA, Don.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 531. Euchroma purpurea, Nutt.
Texas; Wright, &c. Not seen on the Rio Grande, but common further north and east. Well
distinguished by the lower lip of the corolla, which is 2½ lines long, but not always half as long
as the galea. The calyx is commonly split as deeply behind as before. "Bracts and calyx
varying from sulphur yellow to flesh-color, brick-red, and cherry-red, even in the same locality,
so that the specific name is not a good one." (Lindheimer.) The root is perennial.
CASTILLEJA LANATA (sp. nov.): perennis, tomento floccoso simplici denso undique incana;
foliis linearibus integerrimis, floralibus nunc trifidis apice coloratis; spica demum interrupta;
calycis aequaliter bifidi lobis obovato-oblongis integerrimis retusisve corollæ labium inferius
multum superantibus.—Along and near the Rio Grande, from Eagle Pass, etc., to El Paso;
Wright (452, 1495), Bigelow, Parry, etc. On the Limpio; Wright, (451.) Near Buena Vista;
Gregg. A most remarkable white-woolly species, with larger leaves and flowers than C. foliolosa.
The latter species is sometimes almost as white, but its tomentum is formed of repeatedly branched
hairs whereas the wool of C. lanata consists of long and simple arachnoid hairs.
CASTILLEJA TOMENTOSA (sp. nov.): perennis, pilis simplicibus laxis cano-lanata; foliis linearibus
margine revolutis integerrimis, floralibus trifidis superne coloratis; spica demum interupta;
calycis subaequaliter bifidi lobis semibifidis lanceolatis acutis corollam aequantibus.—
Mabibi, Sonora, June, 1851; Thurber. Considerably like the last and C. foliolosa, but the
wool less dense and floccose than in C. lanata, and the calyx different, and apparently fully as
long as the galea. Floral leaves and calyx-lobes red or purple.
CASTILLEJA ANGUSTIFOLIA. Euchroma angustifolia & E. Bradburii, Nutt. in Jour. Acad.
Philad. 7 p. 46? On Live Oak creek, the Limpio, etc., Wright, (1491, 1492, with yellow
bracts and calyx;) also in his first collection, but undistributed. Mr. H. Engelmann collected
it at Bridger's Pass. This most likely belongs to Nuttall's species, but the lower leaves are
CASTILLEJA INTEGRA (sp. nov.): perennis; caule stricto tomentoso; foliis linearibus integerrimis
subtus tomentulosis, floralibus oblongis obovatisque integerrimis coloratis (puniceis); spica conferta;
calyce æqualiter vel postice profundius bifido, lobis bifidis lanceolatis obtusiusculis labium
inferius galea multoties brevius adaequantibus.—Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright,
(undistributed,) Bigelow. Guadaloupe cañon, Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith. Also gathered in
the Rocky Mountains further north by Mr. Kreuzfeldt, in Grunnison's expedition. Stem one or
two feet high, mostly simple, rigid; leaves 1½ to 3 inches long, 2 to 3 lines wide, entire; most
of the floral ones almost wholly petaloid, ample, shorter than the fully developed flowers.
Calyx 8 or 12 lines long, red or reddish; "corolla reddish green;" galea 6 to 8 lines long;
the lower lip very short Apparently a well marked new species of the section Callichroma.
It is No. 584 of Fendler's New Mexican collection; and Dr. Bigelow gathered specimens in
Whipple's expedition on the Llano Estacado.
CASTILLEJA AFFINIS, Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech, p. 144; Benth. l. c., p. 532; var. MINOR; corolla
calyce paullo longiore. Bed of exsiccated streams, near the Copper Mines, New Mexico; Bigelow,
Wright, (1494.) Santa Maria, Chihuahua; Bigelow, Wright, (1493.) Presidio del Norte and
Sonora; Schott. Los Animos; Thurber. Tubac, Sonora; Parry. And Santa Cruz Mountains
in the same State; Captain E. K. Smith. A slender, often branching plant, with an annual or
biennial root. Flowers, especially the corolla, very much smaller than in the typical Californian
plant (such as Hartweg's No. 1896;) but Hartweg's No. 1897 connects the two. The lobes of
the calyx vary from nearly entire to deeply 2-cleft; the tube is often split down deeper on the
posterior than the anterior side.
CASTILLEJA LAXA (sp. nov.): herbacea, cinereo-pubescens; caulibus e radice perenni subdiffusis
ramosis gracilibus; foliis tenuibus scabridis lineari-lanceolatis integerrimis basi haud dilatatis,
floralibus calyce brevioribus, superioribus rubro-coloratis; floribus paucis confertis breviter pedicellatis;
calyce rubello antice profundius postice leviter fisso, dentibus brevibus obtusis; corollæ
galea magna, lobis labii inferioris brevissimis obtusis.—Mountain sides near Santa Cruz, Sonora;
Wright, (1490.) This appears to be a well-marked species of the section Hemichroma, with
the bracts and calyx more colored than is usual in that section. The thin leaves do not turn
blackish in drying; they are mostly about 2 inches long and 3 lines wide; the floral shorter and
blunter, the lower mostly green, the upper colored red. Calyx very thin, slightly pubescent, an
inch long, exceeding the lower lip of the corolla by 3 or 4 lines, but half or two-thirds of an
inch shorter than the ample galea, nearly straight, deeply cleft anteriorly, but on the posterior
side only to the depth of 2 or 3 lines; the teeth broad and short. Galea somewhat pubescent
on the back, yellowish, the edges tinged with red.
CASTILLEJA LINARIÆOLIA, Benth. in DC. Prodr., 10, p. 532. Arroyos in Sonora; Thurber.
"Plant 4 to 6 feet high." Though the calyx is rather shorter and the falcate galea longer, this
appears to be only C. linariaefolia. To it probably belongs C. fulgens, Nutt. ined., and C. candens,
ORTHOCARPUS DBNSIFLORUS, Benth. l. c. Dry hill sides, Monterey, California, April. Stem
nearly simple, but the specimens are early ones, and later in the season no doubt the plant
becomes much branched. Lower leaves simple, tapering to a very long narrow point. Appendages
of the lower lip rather obtuse.
CORDYLANTHU LAXIFLORUS (sp. nov.): paniculato-ramosus, hirsutissimus, sublandulosus; foliis
linearibus brevibus integerrimis rarius trifidis; floribus solitariis vel in ramulos breves adproximatis
unibracteatis; calycis lobo postico apice bidentato; corollæ labio inferiori saccato subintegerrimo;
antherarum loculo altero abortivo seu in stam. brevioribus plane nullo.—Rocky hills,
Sonora, Mexico; Thurber. Also Great Salt Lake; Col. Frémont, 1843. Plant branched from
the base, 1 or 2 feet high, turning dark colored in drying, very hirsute throughout with rather
viscid and and sometimes rather glandular spreading hairs; branchlets very numerous, short,
very leafy throughout, bearing from one to four or five flowers. Leaves 6 to 9 lines long, about
a line wide. Calyx half an inch long, almost equalling the "bright yellow" corolla. Galea
nearly straight, broad. Anthers one-celled and with a minute pendulous vestige of the second
cell, at least in the longer stamens. A true congener of the Californian species, remarkable for
its scattered flowers, and for the abortion of the smaller anther cells.
CORDYLANTHUS WRIGHTII (sp. nov.): paniculato-ramosus, glabellus, minute glandulosus;
foliis 3–5-partitis filiformibus; bracteis conformibus haud ciliatis; floribus subcapitatis; calycis
lobo postico 2–3-dentato; antherarum loculo altero pendulo etiam in staminibus brevioribus
manifesto. Prairies, from 6 to 30 miles east of El Paso, Western Texas; Wright, (450.) Sand
hills, Chihuahua; Thurber. This, far the most eastern of the genus, was first met with by Mr.
Wright, who found it only in the autumn of 1849, in his first expedition, which was attended by
many hardships, but which was very rich in its botanical results. This species is nearly related
to C. filifolius; but it is not so rigid, has finer foliage (without hispid hairs,) less capitate and
larger flowers, the more incurved corolla an inch and a quarter long, and the upper lip of the
calyx is more or less 2–3-toothed or cleft at the apex. Seeds elongated-oblong, deeply farovereticulated.
CORDYLANTHUS FILIFOLIUS, Nutt.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 597, California, (station not
recorded, but probably Monterey;) Parry, Shelton. The middle lobe of the involucral bracts
is somewhat dilated at the extremity and truncate-emarginate.
PEDICULARIS CENTRANTHERA (sp. nov.): acaulis, glabra; foliis pinnatifidis scapum bis superantibus,
segmentis ovatis duplicato-dentatis margine denticulisque subcartilagineis discoloribus
(albis;) spica oblonga densiflora; calycis cylindracei dentibus 5 aequalibus lanceolatis
albido-marginatis; corollæ galea cucullata erostri edentula labio inferiore patente paullo longiore;
filamentis glabris; antheris basi eximie bicalcaratis.—New Mexico, and on Ben More,
April, Bigelow; the specimens from the latter locality nearly past flowering. This is unlike
any other Pedicularis that I know of, and is distinguished by its awned or spurred anthers from
all known species except P. grandiflora, Fisch., with which it has little else in common. The
MITREOLA PETIOLATA, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2, p. 45. Wet places on Devil's river, and along
the middle and lower Rio Grande; also in Santa Rosa valley, Chihuahua, September to October.
Leaves larger and broader than usual.
BUDDLEIA MARRUBIIFOLIA, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 441. On the Rio Grande from the
mouth of the Pecos to Presidio del Norte; Parry, Bigelow. A neat shrub, 3–5 feet high, with
heads of golden yellow odorous flowers, which turn to orange red. It is No. 1407 and 1780
of Berlandier's Coll.; 311 of Wislizenius, and 444 Gregg.
BUDDLEIA SCORDIOIDES, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Spec. 2, p. 345, t. 183. Valley of the Pecos, and
in Sonora; Wright, (No. 447, 1486.) Mountains of Muerte, July; Bigelow. On the Rio
Grande, below San Carlos, October; Parry. Coralitas, Chihuahua, August; Thurber.
BUDDLEIA RACEMOSA (n. sp.): fruticosa, 1–3-pedalis; foliis oblongis subovatisve obtusis
inaequaliter crenato-dentatis basi subhastatis truncatisve raro abrupte cuneatis petiolatis glabratis
subtus ramisque junioribus pulverulenteo-canescentibus atormiferis; capitulis globosis
plurifloris breviter seu longiuscule pedunculatis in racemum virgatum elongatum fere nudum
dispositis; tubo corollæ calyce tomentoso brevioribus. (Upper Guadalupe, etc., Texas; Riddell,
Lindheimer, Wright, Ervendberg.) August, November. Var. incana: foliis pube mollissima
supra tenuiter tomentuloso subtus crebre tomentoso incanis. San Pedro river; Wright, (446.)
Omnino Buddleia, nisi filamenta stylusque exserta capillaria. Frutex 3–6-pedalis, ramosus;
foliis oblongis subhastatis sinuato dentatis discoloribus; inflorescentia laxa racemoso-thyrsoidea;
floribus sesqui-pollicaribus viridi-ochroleucis.
EMORYA SUAVEOLENS, (TABLE XXXVI.) Cañons of the Rio Grande, below the Presidio del
Norte October; Parry. Leaves opposite, 1—2 inches long, and from half an inch to an inch
and a half broad, sinuately or repandly toothed, very obtuse or truncate at the base, glabrate
above, whitish tomentose underneath; petioles scarcely half the length of the lamina, connected
at the base by an elevated ring. Flowers in terminal cymulose panicles, sweet-scented; pedicels
bibracteolate, the bracteoles subulate. Calyx tubular, 4–8-costate, 4-cleft nearly to the
middle; segments nearly equal, linear-lanceolate erect. Corolla tubular, elongated, three times
as long as the calyx, equally 4-cleft, the segments short and obtuse. Stamens 4, subaequal,
ELYTRARIA TRIDENTATA, Vahl. var. CAULESCENS, Nees, in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 64. Guadaloupe
cañon, etc. Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smtth, Schott, Thurber. Lower California; Mr. Rich. (No.
1647, Wright. No. 1207, Coulter; Mexico.)
CALOPHANES OBLONGIFOLIUS, D. Don. in Sweet Fl. Gard. 2, t. 181; Nees, l. c. p. 107. Valley
of the Santa Cruz river, etc., Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith, Thurber. Plains between Van Horn's
Wells and Muerte, and down the valley of the Rio Grande to the Gulf of Mexico. (No. 1462,
C. OBLONGIFOLIUS, var. TEXENSIS, Nees, l. c., p. 108. C. linearis, Engelm. & Gray, Pl. Lindh.
2, p. 50, (adnot.) Common along the middle Rio Grande on both sides of the river, and in
Sonora; flowering from April to September. (Nos. 1463 and 1464, Wright.)
CRYPHIANTHUS BARBADENSIS, Nees, Del. Sem. Hort. Vratisl. 1841, & in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 197.
Dipteracanthus nudiflorus, Engelm. & Gray, l. c., p. 21. Moist places in central and western
Texas, particularly along the lower Rio Grande; Schott, Bigelow. (Nos. 1454 and 1455, Wright.)
Ruellia alba, Nees is, perhaps, not distinct.
DIPTERACANTHUS? SUFFRUTICOSUS (n. sp.): caule glabro inferne fruticoso erecto; foliis obovatooblongis
glabriusculis subcoriaceis basi in petiolem attenuatis, margine retrorsum ciliatis;
pedunculis axillaribus 1-floris; bracteolis oblongo-lanceolatis; calycis laciniis lanceolato-linearibus
tubo corollæ elongato gracili subtriplo brevioribus. Presidio del Norte; July—Ausgust;
Parry. Sides of rocky hills, valley of the Pecos. No. 1461, Wright. Plant apparently about
a foot high. Leaves 1–1¾ inch long, acute or obtuse, smooth or slightly pubescent. Peduncles
2–4 lines long, the bracts a little longer than the calyx. Segments of the calyx
sparsely ciliate. Corolla white; the tube 1½ inch long, very slender, somewhat dilated at the
summit; lobes of the limb roundish-obovate. Stigma simple, (the inferior lobe abortive.)
Capsules 4-seeded; seeds hispid. This is the only suffruticose species of this genus known
within the limits of our Flora.
STENANDRIUM BARBATUM, Torr. & Gray, Bot. Pope's Rep. p. 13, t. 4. Mountains and hill sides
along the Rio Grande from El Paso to the mouth of the Pecos; March—April. (No. 1453,
Wright.) Stem branching from a thick wood base. Flowers pale purple.
SCHAUERIA LINEARIFOLIA (n. sp.:) suffruticosa e basi ramosissima glaberrima; foliis angustolinearibus;
spicis terminalibus gracilibus paniculatis, floribus distantibus, bracteis bracteolisque
subulatis; calycis laciniis lanceolato-subulatis, corolla (purpurea) subbilabiata laciniis oblongis
subæqualibus; antherarum loculis parallelis contiguis muticis. Rocks at the mouth of the
Great cañon of the Rio Grande, and on the Burro mountains; June–October; Bigelow,
Parry. (No. 436, Wright.) About a foot high. Leaves 8–10 lines long; the lowest ones a
little broader and somewhat spatulate; upper ones half a line wide. Flowers solitary in the
upper axils, the leaves being gradually reduced to subulate bracts, so that the inflorescence
becomes spicate. Calyx, corolla, and fruit, as in the preceding species.
DREJERA* WRIGHTII (n. sp.): ramis bifariam pubescentibus; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis
glabris, spicis unilateralibus nudis; calyce glanduloso-pubescente profunde 5-fido, laciniis
oblongo-lanceolatis; corollæ tubo angusto calyce multoties longiore, labio inferiore tripartito,
laciniis lanceolato-linearibus. Between the Guadaloupe river, Texas, and the Rio Grande;
also near Monterey, Nuevo Leon; June—October. Nos. 435 and 1457, Wright. Plant apparently
3 to 4 feet high; dull grayish green; the branches terete, marked with two broad lines
of soft pubescence. Leaves 1½–2 inches long, and 6–8 lines wide; green on both sides; the
petiole 3–5 lines long. Spikes terminating the paniculate branches. Bracts about as long as
the very short pedicels. Corolla an inch and a half long; purplish red; the tube slender,
inflated at the base, the enlarged portion about the length of the calyx; segments of the upper
lip a line and a half wide; upper lip emarginate. Anther-cells linear, contiguous, parallel.
Capsule smooth, 6–7 lines long, the upper half rhombic-ovate and semeniferous; the lower
attenuated to a narrow stipe and empty. Seeds commonly 2, rarely 3 or 4, lenticular, smooth.
DREJERA PUBERULA, (n. sp.): ramis bifariam pubescentibus; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis vel
lineari-lanceolatis puberulis brevipetiolatis; spicis brevibus axillaribus terminalibusque foliosis;
calyce glanduloso-pubescente profunde 5-fido, laciniis lineari-subulatis; corollæ tubo angusto
calyce multoties longiore, labio inferiore tripartito, laciniis lanceolato-linearibus. Gravelly
hills and ravines along the Cibolo of the Rio Grande; May—June; Bigelow. No. 1456,
DREJERA THURBERI (n. sp.): foliis (parvis) oblongis lanceolatisve pubescentibus; floribus
fasciculatis quasi verticillatis foliis longioribus; calyce glanduloso-pubescente profunde 5-partitis,
laciniis subulato-setaceis glanduloso-pubescentibus hirsutisve corollæ tubo vix triplobrevioribus.
Along water-courses, Las Animas, Sonora; June; Thurber. Sierra del Pajarito;
Schott. Cañon of Guadaloupe; April; Capt. E. K. Smith. An ornamental shrub, 3–4 feet
high, with a gray or whitish bark that separates in shreds. Leaves about three-quarters of an
inch long, obtuse and acute. Flowers mostly resupinate. Corolla dull red, an inch or more
in length; the tube funnel-form; lower lip 3-parted, the divisions linear-lanceolate. Capsules
mostly 2-seeded, as long as the fructiferous calyx.
DREJERA JUNCEA (n. sp.): aphylla (an semper?); ramis virgatis minute pubescentibus; spicis
remotifloris paniculatis; calyce profunde 5-fido glabrescente, laciniis subulatis corollæ tubo
angusto multo brevioribus. In a sandy ravine, La Peña, Cohahuila; November; Thurber.
Plant 3–4 feet high, entirely leafless where found by Mr. Thurber, but it may bear leaves
early in the season. Flowers sessile in unilateral spikes, without either bracts or bracteoles.
Calyx at first somewhat pubescent, but at length nearly or quite smooth. "Corolla scarlet,"
an inch or more in length; the tube slender; lower lip deeply 3-parted, the divisions linear
and narrow. Capsule ovate above the middle, tapering to a narrow base below; 2-seeded.
Besides the four species of Drejera here described, we have, from the collections of Dr. Gregg,
another, which does not appear to have been noticed hitherto. It was found on the battle field
of Paso del Gallinero. The specimens are not sufficient for a full description, but the following
character will serve for its identification:
DREJERA GREGGII (n. sp.): ramis bifariam pubescentibus; foliis ovatis scabriuscule pubescentibus
subulato-venosis; floribus fasciculatis foliis longioribus; calyce incano pubescente, lobis
lanceolatis tubo subæqualibus. A stout shrub. Leaves 1–1½ inch long, somewhat roughly
pubescent on both surfaces; petioles 1–2 lines long. Flowers dull purplish red, 1½ inch long;
the segments of the lower lip nearly as long as the tube, and very narrow. Fruit not known.
LIPHONOGLOSSA PILOSELLA. Monechma Pilosella, Nees, l. c., p. 412. Adhatoda dipteracantha,
Nees, l. c., p. 396. Western Texas, on the Lower Rio Grande, and in the adjoining Mexican
States, common; flowering throughout the summer. (No. 1458, Wright, 396, 1850, and 501, 1845,
Lindheimer. Plant 6 to 12 inches high, suffruticose, much branched. Leaves half an inch to
one and a half inch long. Flowers three-fourths of an inch long, pale purple. This plant is
not a Monechma, for the capsule is 4-seeded, and the habit is different. It is still further removed
from Adhatoda. We think it belongs to the genus Siphonoglossa, (Œrsted, l. c., p. 159,) the
character of which must be slightly modified to receive it. The calyx is 5-parted and the
narrow upper lip of the corolla is emarginate. The anther-cells are nearly parallel and placed
one above the other; the lower one conspicuously mucronate, and the upper one less so. No.
1213 of Coulter's Mexican collection is apparently an undescribed species of this genus.
ADATODA DIPTERACANTHA, Nees, l. c., p. 396. Rio Leona, Rio San Pedro and near Eagle Pass,
Western Texas; March, April; Schott, Bigelow. (No. 1458, Wright.) Valley of the Conchos
and near Los Garzas; Gregg. Monterey, Neuvo Leon; Dr. Edwards. A stouter form, more
pubescent and with the stem decidedly shrubby at the base, was found on the mountains of
Muerte by Bigelow. It is No. 434 of Wright's earlier collection, and may be Monechma
SERICOGRAPHIS CALIFORNICA (Gray MSS.): "foliis parvis ovalibus ovatis vel subcordatis, utrinque
cum ramis teretibus pube molli brevissima tomentulosis; racemis brevibus laxifloris; floribus
aut breviter aut longiuscule pedicellatis; bracteolis lineari-subulatis calyce brevioribus; corolla
rubella longe tubulosa, labiis truncatis, superiore emarginato, inferiore 3-dentato; antherarum
loculis subæqualibus sejunctis, inferiore basi calcare obtuso brevi incurvo auctis. Beloperone
Californica; Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 38? Jacobina Californica, Nees in DC. Prodr. 11, p.
729. Southern part of California; Frémont. Vallecita, California; Thurber. Although not
agreeing in every respect with the description, these incomplete specimens probably belong to
Bentham's Beloperone Californica, which Nees has not inaptly referred to his genus Jacobinia;
but it surely belongs to Sericographis. It has the hairy lines, answering to the bases of the
suppressed stamens, well-marked. In one blossom there were three perfect stamens. The upper
lip of the corolla neatly shows the two long membranous lamellæ which connive and form a
long channel containing in the bud the upper part of the style; a character which Œrsted has
added to the description of this and some related genera." A. Gray.
ADHATODA? LONGIFLORA (n. sp.): caule erecto minute pubescente suffruticoso; foliis lanceolato-oblongis
glabris sursum angustatis acutiusculis basi in petiolum attenuatis floribus fasciculatis
axillaribus terminalibusque sessilibus, tubo corollæ elongato gracili. Road between Zuñi and
Alta Sonora, September; Schott. Plant apparently about a foot high; branches erect and
slender. Leaves (including the petiole) 1½–2 inches long and 3–5 lines wide, entire, nearly
smooth. Flowers fascicled in the uppermost axils. Calyx a little shorter than the lanceolate
bracts and longer than the subulate bracteoles, the segments subulate. Corolla white?; border
4-lobed, the three lower segments oblong, the upper segments bifid at the summit. Stamens 2,
exserted; anther-cells separate, one placed above the other, obtuse at the summit, acute at the
base. Ovary 4-ovuled. This seems to be distinct from any species of the genus described by
DICLIPTERA RESUPINATA, Juss. in Ann. du Mus. 9, p. 268 fide Nees, l. c., p. 474? D. thlaspoides,
Nees l. c. Santa Magdalena and Bacuachi, Sonora, September, October; Thurber, Schott. (No.
1465 Wright.) Our plant is a perennial, and some of the specimens seem to be even suffruticose,
but D. resupinata and thlaspoides are said to be annuals. The length of the peduncle is variable;
in Schott's and Wright's specimens it is as long as the lateral divisions, but in Thurber's
they are sometimes very short, and the middle division much elongated. The heads, also,
although mostly 1-flowered, are sometimes 2-flowered. The bracts are mostly broadly cordate,
but in Mr. Thurber's specimens from Bacuachi they are ovate and obovate.
TETRAMERIUM NERVOSUM, Nees in Benth. Bot. Sulph, p. 148, t. 48. Var. hispidum foliis ovato-oblongis
obtusiusculis vel acutis (non acuminatis.) Santa Cruz and Fronteras, Sonora, June,
September; Thurber. Sierra de los Janos, in the same State; Schott. Rocky hills, Santa Rosa,
Chihuahua; Bigelow. Valley of a mountain stream near Sonoita, Sonora; No. 1466, Wright.
Sierra de San Carlos, Tamaulipas; Berlandier, No. 3181. Mexico; Coulter, No. 1206. Our
TETRAMERIUM PLATYSTEGIUM (n. sp.): caule minutissima pubescente; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis
inferioribus obtusis superioribus acutiusculis utrinque scabriuscule puberulis; spicis ovatis
terminalibus; bracteis late cordatis acuminatis appressis membranaceis leviter 3—5-nervibus;
calyce 5-partito; corolla bracteis subæquantibus, tubo gracili, limbi laciniis oblongis subæqualibus.
Ringgold barracks near Rio Grande City, on the Lower Rio Grande; May; Schott. Stem
much branched; the branches erect and slender. Leaves 1–2 inches long and 4–6 lines wide,
abruptly narrowed at the base into a petiole which is 2–3 lines long. Spikes 1 to 1½ inch
long. Bracts 6–7 lines long and 5–6 lines wide, with a short mucronate acumination, closely
sessile, somewhat roughly puberulous. Calyx much shorter than the tube of the corolla, the
segments subulate-lanceolate. Corolla purple, subbilabrate, the divisions obtuse. Stamens 2,
inserted at the summit of the tube of the corolla; anther-cells parallel, contiguous, rather acute
at the base. Stigma minute, capitate, 2-lobed. Capsule narrowed at the base, ovate above the
middle, 4-seeded. Seeds lenticular, muricate. In the 5-parted calyx this species differs from
Tetramerium, as the genus is characterized by Nees; but in T. ovatum, Œrst. the calyx is
BOUCHEA LINIFOLIA, Gray in Sill. Jour. (ser. 2,) 16, p. 98, (sine desc.): suffruticosa?
glaberrima; ramis sulcato-angulatis; foliis linearibus vel lanceolato-linearibus acutissimis integerrimis;
spicis laxiusculis; floribus subsessilibus; bracteis subulatis calyce multo-brevioribus;
capsula calyce breviore. Valley of the San Pedro, Western Texas; September, October; Schott.
(Nos. 436, 449, and 1509, Wright.) Plants a foot or more high, with long, slender, erect branches.
Leaves 1—2 inches long and 1—2 lines wide. Spike 2—4 inches long. Calyx cylindrical; the
subulate teeth scarcely one-fourth the length of the tube. Capsule obtuse, villous at the summit.
BOUCHEA SPATHULATA (n. sp.): suffruticosa; ramis teretibus; foliis crebris obovatis integerrimis
obtusis vel brevissime mucronatis puberulis; spicis laxis; floribus sessilibus; bracteis foliaceis
oblanceolatis, capsula calyce breviore acuta. Great Cañon of the Rio Grande near Mount Carmel;
October; Parry. Plant 1–2 feet high. Leaves about three-fourths of an inch long, often
fascicled in the axils and crowded on the short branchlets, somewhat scabro-puberulous. Bracts
nearly as long as the calyx. Tube of the corolla nearly three-fourths of an inch long, and the
limb half an inch in diameter.
LIPPIA WRIGHTII, Gray in Sill. Jour. l. c. Aloysia scorodonoides, H. B. K. nov. Gen. &
Sp. 2, p. 260: ramis subtetragonis patentibus, junioribus pedunculisque pulvereo-canescentibus;
foliis oppositis ovatis in petiolum brevem angustatis obtusis crenatis reticulato-rugosis supra
scabro-hirtis subtus tomentoso-candicantibus; pedunculis axillaribus folium subæquantibus;
spicis cylindricis laxiusculis; bracteis ellipticis acutis calyce longioribus; calyce ovato hirsuto,
dentibus ovatis. Rocky hills along the Cibolo of the Rio Grande, August; near the Hot
Springs, and on the Burro mountains; September, November; Bigelow. Presidio del Norte,
LIPPIA LYCIOIDES, Stend. Nomend. ed. 2, pars 2, p. 54; Schauer, l. c. Rocky places along the
Rio Grande and its tributaries from El Paso to the Gulf; also Chihuahua, Cohahuila and Nuevo
Leon, April—October. (No. 1505, Wright. No. 2547 and 3004, Berlandier.) A shrub, commonly
3–5 feet high, but sometimes attaining the height of 10 feet. Flowers very fragrant.
LIPPIA BERLANDIERI, Schauer, l. c., p. 575. Plains near San Felipe, September: also hills and
stony places near Eagle Pass; Bigelow. Cretaceous hills on the Lower Rio Grande, March—October;
Schott. Mount Carmel cañon, October; Parry. Plant suffruticose, 2–3 feet high.
(Nos. 459 and 1507, Wright; Nos. 832 and 2252, Berlandier.)
LIPPIA GEMINATA, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2, p. 215; Schauer, l. c., p. 582. On the Rio
Grande, from Ringgold Barracks downward. This exactly accords with Berlandier's plant,
except that the leaves are smaller.
LANTANA CANESCENS, (H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2, p. 259; Schauer in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 607)
foliis oppositis ternisve ovato-lanceolatis leviter crenato-serratis basi in petiolum brevem attenuatis
supra scabriusculis subtus molliter incano-pubescentibus; pedunculis folium subæquantibus;
capitulis vix involucratis demum ovatis. Santa Rosa, Cohahuila; Bigelow. This corresponds
so minutely with the description of L. canescens DC. Prodr., except in the leaves being sometimes
ternate, that little doubt can exist as to its being the same species. It occurs in none of
the collections but those of Dr. Bigelow.
LANTANA MACROPODA (n. sp.): suffruticosa, inermis, appresse hirsutula; foliis ovatis grosse et
acute seratis basi abrupte attenuatis utrinque scabriusculis subtus pallidioribus; pedunculis folio
2–3-plo-longioribus; capitulis paullo elongatis; bracteis ovatis cuspidato-acuminatis, extimis
majoribus involucrantibus; fructibus exsuccis. Ravines and rocky places on the Rio Grande,
from the mouth of the Rio San Pedro to 200 miles above; flowering the whole season. Saltillo;
Gregg; (Nos. 458 and 4513, Wright.) Stem 2–3 feet high, obtusely quadrangular. Leaves
opposite 1–2 inches long, somewhat scabrous with a short appressed hirsute pubescence; veins
prominent underneath; petiole or attenuated base of the leaf, about half as long as the lamina.
Peduncles 3—6 inches long; heads at first hemispherical, but at length ovate; the rhachis cylindrical
and faveolate. Flowers sweet-scented; corolla white; the tube scarcely exserted. Mature
fruit about the size of a hemp seed, nearly dry, with a thin sarcocarp; the endocarp bony costate-rugous;
cocci cohering. Seeds suspended from the funicle which arises from near the base
LANTANA ODORATA, Linn.; Schauer, l. c., p. 603. Var. BERLANDIERI: foliis rhomboideo-oblongis
acutiusculis supra scabriusculis subtus pallidioribus vix canescentibus. Ramos, Mexico, Thurber.
(No. 3184, Berlandier.) Plant 1–3 feet high, slender. Leaves about an inch long. Peduncles
(in Berlandier's specimens) much longer than the leaves. Flowers white.
LANTANA HORRIDA, H. B. K. l. c. p. 211. Var. PARVIFLORA, Schauer, l. c. p. 597. Near San
Antonio, Texas; Thurber. Hills and dry prairies along the Rio Grande, also on the seacoast
near Indianola; September—October; Schott. (No. 1511, Wright; Nos. 2114. and 2310, Berlandier.)
Banks of the Escondido and near the Painted Caves; Bigelow. We name this plant
on the authority of an authentic specimen of Berlandier's, No. 2310, which is certainly the same
as ours. It is a shrub 3 or 4 feet high, often quite unarmed, and usually the prickles are sparse
and extremely short. Flowers yellow, turning to a deep brown. The fruit is about the size of
a peppercorn and is juicy when ripe. It may be only a variety of L. Camara.
VERBENA OFFICINALIS, Linn.; Schauer, l. c. Rocky places between Van Horn's Wells and
Muerto, July; Bigelow. Seashore, near Galveston, Texas, September; Schott. Cañon of Guadaloupe,
Sonora; E. K. Smith. San Diego, California; Thurber.
VERBENA CANESCENS, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2, 274, t. 136; Schauer, l. c. V. remota,
Benth. Pl. Hartw. p. 21. Western Texas, along the Rio Grande, and in the adjoining Mexican
States. (Nos. 1496 and 1497, Wright. Nos. 827, 955, 1485, 2054, and 2247, Berlandier.
No. 77, (1846,) Lindheimer. No. 594, Fendler.) Some forms of V. officinalis approach this
species; and V. strigosa, Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. 1, p. 176, seems to be hardly distinct.
VERBENA AUBLETIA, Linn.; Schauer, l. c., p. 554. V. bipinnatifida, Schauer, l. c. Glandularia
bipinnatifida, Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 184; common everywhere in
Western Texas, New Mexico, extending to Chihuahua and Sonora. (Nos. 1501, 1502, and 1503,
Wright.) Flowers throughout the season. We have in vain sought for characters to distinguish
the two species here united. They vary in the number and form of the segments of the leaves.
The ripe nutlets are the same in both. We know of no plants which, in the wild state, are
more prone to hybridize than the North American species of this genus. Dr. Engelmann has
enumerated (in Silliman's Journal, vol.?,) many intermediate forms between V. officinalis, V.
hastata, V. urticæfolia, and V. stricta, which he found in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri.
AVICENNIA TOMENTOSA, Jacq.; Schauer in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 699. Mouth of the Rio Grande,
October—November; Schott. Also found, many years ago, at Tampa Bay, Florida, by Dr. Leavenworth,
and at Key West by the late Mr. Blodgett.
MONARDELLA VILLOSA, Benth. Bot. Sulph. p. 42, t. 21. San Felipe, California, June; Parry.
Var. LEPTOSIPHON: foliis integerrimis vel obsolete repando-dentatis; corollæ tubo calyce duplo
longiore. Stem apparently assurgent. Leaves three-fourths of an inch long, ovate, abruptly
tapering at the base to a petiole which is half the length of the lamina. Bracts ovate, acute,
slightly colored. Head nearly an inch in diameter, about 30-flowered. Calyx oblong-cylindrical;
teeth lanceolate, acute, nearly equal. Tube of the corolla slender, a little tapering
upward; segments of the limb linear, rather acute, scarcely equal. Stamens exserted; anther-cells
at length so much divaricate as to be in a line and almost confluent. Differs from the
ordinary form of M. villosa in being much less hairy, the leaves not crenate-serrate (as they are
in our California specimens, and in the figure quoted above), the longer petioles, less crowded
heads of flowers, and especially in the long-exserted tube of the corolla.
POGOGYNE DOUGLASII, Benth. Lab. p. 414. Valley of the Sacramento, and frequent in other
parts of California; Fitch, Stillman, Shelton, etc. We have never been able to distinguish
satisfactorily more than one species of this genus. We have numerous forms of it, but they
seem to pass into each other.
HEDEOMA MOLLIS (n. sp.): incano-tomentosa; foliis ovatis obtusis integris basi in petiolem
brevem attenuatis; verticillastris 6–12-floris; floribus brevipedicellatis; calycibus cylindricis
non gibbosis, dentibus brevissimis; staminibus inferioribus subexsertis, superioribus rudimentis
sterilibus.—Cliffs near Puerte de Paysano, September; Bigelow. Plant somewhat ligneous at
the base, which throws up several slender branches 12 to 15 inches in height. Leaves three-fourths
of an inch long and 3 or 4 lines wide. Flowers crowded in axillary cymules. Calyx
about 3 lines long, slightly curved, the teeth one-fifth the length of the tube. Corolla about as
HEDEOMA PLICATA (n. sp.): suffruticosa e basi ramosa; ramis erectis pubescentibus; foliis
rhombeo-ovatis utrinque acutis argute serratis crebre et eximie penninerviis subplicatis, supra
scabriusculis subtus pubescentibus; corollis calyce gibboso duplo longioribus. Dry ravines near
the Limpio mountains, July; Bigelow. (No. 464 and 1718, Wright.) Branches about a span
high, retrorsely pubescent. Leaves mostly shorter than the internodes, 3–4 lines long, of
rather a thick texture, tapering to a petiole about a line in length, the numerous straight and
parallel veins very prominent underneath. Verticils 2–6-flowered, the pedicels 1–2 lines long.
Calyx gibbous at the base, distinctly 2-lipped; teeth of the upper lip ovate, mucronate, half the
length of the subulate ones of the lower lip. Tube of the corolla exserted, more than half the
length of the calyx; upper lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe longer and emarginate; the upper lip
HEDEOMA DENTATA (n. sp.): annua; ramis erectis gracilibus pubescentibus; foliis petiolatis
oblongo-lanceolatis acutis pauci-dentatis; venis prominulis; verticillis remotis 6–10-floris;
calyce subbilabiato vix gibboso, dentibus e basi lato-subulatis inequalibus, labii superiore divergentibus.
Near Santa Cruz, Sonora, September; Thurber. Near the Copper Mines, October;
Bigelow. About a foot high; much branching from the base, forming a bunch about a foot in
diameter; the internodes of the branches rather distant. Leaves 5 lines long, tapering at the
base into a short petiole, acutely 3–4-toothed on each margin; the veins underneath conspicuous,
thicker at the extremity. Verticils usually not more than 6-flowered. Calyx slightly
gibbous toward the base; teeth of the lower lip nearly twice as long as those of the upper.
Corolla twice as long as the calyx. Upper lip emarginate; lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe
notched. Near H. Drummondi, but in that species the leaves are entire with inconspicuous
nerves, and the teeth of the calyx are all connivent.
Var. nana: foliis minoribus late ovatis vel ovato-oblongis interdum subintegerrimis. Rocky
hills of the Rio Grande, near El Paso, April—May. Plant usually from 3 to 6 inches high,
much branched from the base, incano-pubescent. Leaves one-third of an inch long. Bracts
subulate, shorter than the pedicels. Verticils approximated, 3–12-flowered. Calyx evidently
bilabiate, gibbous; upper teeth much shorter than the lower, subulate-lanceolate from a broad
base; lower teeth subulate.
HEDEOMA INCANA (n. sp.): fruticosa, ramosissima, incana; ramis erectis foliosis; foliis linearibus
vel oblongo-linearibus integerrimis obtusiusculis, axillis fasciculatis; verticillastris 4–6-floris,
floribus subsessilibus; calycibus oblongo-cylindricis villosissimis subaequaliter 5-dentatis.
Sandy places near El Paso, April—May; Parry, Wright & Bigelow. (No. 1523, Wright.)
Plant about 2 feet high with the taste and odor of sage; the branches slender, sometimes
apparently assurgent, slender, hoary, like the leaves, with a minute close pubescence. Leaves
about three-fourths of an inch long, sessile, tapering at the base, flat. Flowers about 5 lines
in length. Calyx densely villous with long white hairs; the teeth lanceolate. Corolla more
than twice the length of the calyx; upper lip notched; lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe deeply
emarginate; tube short, villous in the throat. Fertile stamens 2, a little exserted; the connective
very thick; the anther-cells widely divaricate below, opening upward. Abortive rudiments
of the superior stamens minute. Style strongly and rather unequally 2-cleft at the summit.
HEDEOMA DRUMMONDI, Benth. Lab. p. 308, & in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 245. H. acinoides, Scheele
in Linnœa, 22, p. 592 ? Sandy hills, Mexico, western Texas, and Chihuahua. (No. 463, 1518,
1519, and 1522, Wright.; No. 620, Fendler, N. Mex.; No. 285, fasc. II. Lindheimer.) This
species is certainly annual, and never perennial nor suffrutescent, as Bentham supposed it to be.
It is a variable plant. Sometimes it is dwarf and cespitose; the leaves are linear-oblong or ovate,
and sessile with a narrow base, or with a petiole nearly as long as the lamina; the calyx is more
or less hairy, and when the plant grows in shady places the tube of the corolla is about the
length of the calyx, while usually it is only about half as long. H. ciliata, Nutt. Pl. Gamb. p.
183, is probably only a variety of this polymorphous species.
SALVIA LANCEOLATA, Willd. Enum. 1, p. 37; Benth in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 299. S. trichostemoides,
Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 19. Borders of the Rio Grande in western Texas, Chihuahua, and
New Mexico; west to the Copper Mines, (No. 469, 470, and 1529, Wright; the last a very
narrow leaved form. No. 606 β & 608, Fendl., N. Mex., the former a small state of the plant.)
SALVIA AZUREA, Lam.; Benth. l. c. p. 302; Bot. Mag. t. 1728. S. angustifolia, Michx. Fl. 2,
p. 13. S. Pitcheri, Torr. in Benth. Lab. p. 251. S. cæsia, Scheele, in Linnœa, 22, p. 588.
Common along the Rio Grande, in New Mexico. S. farinacea, Benth. seems hardly distinct
from this species. No. 468 Wright, is a narrow-leaved form.
SALVIA ALBIFLORA, Mart. & Galeotti in Bull. Acad. Brux. v. 11. ex Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12,
p. 307. In damp situations, Santa Magdalena, Sonora; Thurber, Schott. Plant about 3 feet
high, paniculately branched above, smooth. Lower leaves 1½–2 inches long and an inch
broad, on petioles an inch or more in length, acuminate, mostly acute at the base, serrate.
Whorls about 6 flowered, rather closely approximate, forming long racemes, which are nearly
leafless. Pedicels two-thirds as long as the calyx. Upper lip of the calyx entire; lower
2-toothed. Corolla about 4 lines long; the upper lip strongly pubescent.
SALVIA SPICATA, Roem. & Schult. Syst. Mant. 1, p. 202; Benth. l. c. p. 315? Apache Springs,
March; Parry. Our plant accords with the description of Roemer & Schultes, and it appears
also to be the same as S. breviflora, Moc. & Sessé.
SALVIA BALLOTÆFLORA, Benth. Lab. p. 270. S. laxa, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 313. On
the Lower Rio Grande and its tributaries, and in the Mexican States south of the Gila; common.
(No. 471, 472, 1524, and 1525, Wright. No. 821, 1431, 2240, and 3186, Berlandier.) A
shrubby species, 2–5 feet high, variable in the form and size of the leaves. Flowers bright
purplish-blue. Our numerous specimens show a gradual transition from S. ballotæflora to S.
laxa. "The plant is used as an aromatic by the Mexicans, who call it Majorano," Schott.
SALVIA MICROPHYLLA, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Spec. 2, p. 294; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 335.
Mount Carmel, near the Great Cañon of the Rio Grande; Parry. Dry prairies between Elm
creek and Turkey creek; Schott. Mr. Bentham, to whom I sent specimens of this plant, says,
that it is "very near S. microphylla, but the leaves are almost entire and not rugose; the calyces
also are longer." It is a shrubby and apparently somewhat spreading plant. The leaves are
SALVIA PSEUDO-COCCINEA, Jacq.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 343. Neuvo Leon; Thurber. I
have specimens of what appears to be the same species, raised in the Cambridge (Mass.) botanic
garden, from Texan seeds collected by Mr. Wright. Perhaps not sufficiently distinct from the
SALVIA ROEMERIANA, Scheele in Linnœa, 22, p. 586. S. porphyrata, Decaisne in Rev. Hortic.
1854, ex Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4939. Crossing of the San Pedro river, Texas, and on Live Oak
creek, a tributary of the Pecos; also on mountains near the Rio Grande, in Chihuahua; Bigelow.
Rio Mimbres, New Mexico; Thurber. (No. 473 and 1526, Wright.) This species varies greatly
in the foliage. In the form represented in the Bot. Mag. l. c., (which is the same as Wright's
and Bigelow's from Live Oak creek,) the leaves are mostly simple, (rarely pinnatifid, with a
pair of small remote segments,) broadly cordate, 1½–2 inches wide and coarsely runcinatetoothed.
The description of Scheele applies to Thurber's specimens and to those collected by
Bigelow in Chihuahua. It is a showy species, with large bright scarlet flowers.
SALVIA COLUMBARIÆ, Benth. l. c.; Torr. Bot. Whippl. Rep. p. 123. San Pasqual, California,
May; Thurber. Dry hills near San Diego, California; Parry. This plant is called Chia, by
the native Californians. The seeds abound in mucilage, which is imparted to cold water, and
the beverage thus obtained is much esteemed as a summer drink. Thurber.
SALVIA TEXANA. SALVIASTRUM TEXANUM, Scheele in Linnaea, 22, p. 585; Torr. & Gray, Bot.
Pope's Rep. p. 169, t. 6. Western Texas and New Mexico, along the Rio Grande, mostly in
high and dry situations. (No. 466, Wright. No. 1090 and 2520, Berlandier.) We have removed
this plant to Salvia, from which it does not differ generically. It hardly accords with
any of Bentham's section, but is nearest Heterosphace, from which it differs in habit and in the
calyx closed by hairs.
AUDIBERTIA GRANDIFLORA, Benth. Lab. p. 312, & in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 359. (TAB. XXXVIII.)
In woods near Santa Barbara, California, March; Parry. Stem herbaceous 2–3 feet high.
Flowers bright crimson, large and highly ornamental.
MONARDA ARISTATA, Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n. ser. 5, p. 186; Benth. in DC. Prodr.
12, p. 363. Between San Antonio and the Rio Grande, Texas, and from the Presidio del Norte
to Laredo, April—September. A low form, which I think is M. pectinata, Nutt. Pl. Gamb.
p. 182, was found by Dr. Bigelow at the Copper Mines, New Mexico. It is also No. 1531,
CEDRONELLA CANA, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4618. Near the Copper Mines; Bigelow, Wright.
Burro mountains; Bigelow. Perhaps not distinct from C. Mexicana. No. 1532, Wright, has
broadly cordate coarsely toothed leaves, which are 1½ inch long and more than an inch wide.
In the specimens from the Copper Mines (No. 1533, Wright) the leaves are ovate or oblong,
8–10 lines long and rather sparingly toothed or almost entire. Our specimens from the Burro
mountains have lanceolate leaves, of which only a few of the lowest are slightly toothed near
CEDRONELLA PALLIDA, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 32, t. 29? Janos, Chihuahua, May; Thurber. Var.
foliis ovato–oblongis basi acutiusculis. (No. 1534, Wright.) Differs from C. cana in the more
dense and spike-like inflorescence, and in corolla being only a little longer than the calyx.
SCUTELLARIA RESINOSA, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2, p. 232; Benth. in DC. 12, p. 427.
S. Drummondii, Benth. l. c. Mule Springs, May—August; Thurber. Wet places near the
Flounce mountains, June; Bigelow. Lower Rio Grande; Schott. Valley of the Cocospera,
Sonora, September; Schott. Presidio del Norte; Parry. Plant annual, but sometimes appearing
to be suffrutescent, from the base becoming woody when old. Varies in pubescence, and
with the leaves entire or crenate, as well as more or less broad. S. Drummondii passes by a
gradual transition to S. resinosa.
Calyx subglobosus, inappendiculatus, breviter bilabiatus, post anthesin valde auctus, vesiculoso–inflatus,
reticulatus, labiis inæqualibus integris in ore parvo confluentibus. Corollæ tubus
longe exsertus, recurvato–adscendens, superne in fauce dilatatus; limbo bilabiato, labio superiore
concavo apice integro, inferiore patenti-convexo apice emarginato, lobis lateralibus brevibus
cum labio superiore coalitis. Stamina vix exserta: antherae ciliatae, staminum inferiorum uniloculares,
superiorum biloculares cordatae. Stylus apice subulatus, indivisus. Nuculæ depressoglobosæ
tuberculosæ. Cotyledones radiculæ brevi incumbentes.—Frutex ramosissimus; foliis
parvis petiolatis integris; racemis paucifloris terminalibus, floribus cæruleis.
S. MEXICANA. (TAB. XXXIX.) Ravines, Chihuahua, below Presidio del Norte, near the
Rio Grande; Parry. This remarkable plant was first discovered by Col. Frémont, in 1844, on
the Rio de los Angelos, a branch of the Rio Virgen, western New Mexico; but the specimens
were too much injured for description. It is a shrub 2 or 3 feet high, with numerous slender
spreading or reclinate branches, which are terete and hoary, with a minute appressed pubescence.
The leaves are about half an inch long, petiolate, ovate or oblong–lanceolate, acute at
the base, slightly pubescent, 3-nerved; petiole 2–3 lines long. Racemes 2–6-flowered, terminating
the branches. Flowers on short pedicels, as large as those of Scutellaria galericulata,
which they much resemble. Calyx, at first, with entire, very obtuse and equal lips, at length
very much enlarged (nearly three-fourths of an inch in diameter) and bladder-like, with a contracted
orifice. Corolla nearly an inch long; the upper lip concave and incurved; lower lip
dilated, the sides somewhat reflexed, much shorter than the upper lip, to which they are
Mr. Bentham (in the introduction to his Gen. & Spec. Labiat., p. xxix) says, that the embryo
of all Labiatæ that he had examined is either straight or only slightly curved; the only exception
being in Scutellaria, in which "it is curved backward in a peculiar manner." Salazaria
exhibits the same peculiarity, that is, the cotyledons are incumbent. The rather short radicle
is not applied close to the cotyledons, but makes an acute angle with them. This results from
the flexure of the carpel itself, which commences at an early period, and at last the vertex
approaches the base, as in Menispermum. The nutlets in Scutellaria are always more or less
roughened with minute tubercles, or with thick scales which are imbricated retrorsely. In S.
parvula there is a distinct horizontal wing, free from the tubercles, and surrounding the nutlet,
thus making an approach to Periloma, in which they are narrowly 4-winged.
It is evident that Salazaria makes a near approach to Scutellaria, but its nearly regular and
bladder-like inappendiculate fructiferous calyx, in which there is scarcely any distinction of
upper and lower lip, distinguishes it sufficiently from that genus.
STACHYS COCCINEA, Jacq.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 467. Near the San Pedro river and in
other parts of Sonora; also in Chihuahua; Thurber. Tubac, Sonora, March; Parry. Copper
Mines, New Mexico, August; Bigelow. (No. 1527, Wright.) Our plant is smoother than the
ordinary of the species. We have specimens of a Stachys, collected by Dr. Bigelow in rocky
places near the Limpia mountains, which we think is a variety of S. coccinea, but the flowers
are much smaller.
TRICHOSTEMA LANATUM, Benth. Lab. p. 659. (TAB. XL.) Solidad, above San Diego, California,
June—July; Parry; also found near San Antonio, in the same State, by Dr. Andrews.
Pubescence purplish and velvety. Stamens exserted two inches. Plant fragrant.
TETRACLEA COULTERI, Gray in Sill. Jour. (2 ser.) 16, p. 97. (TAB. XLI.) Rocky hills on the
Rio Grande, from Eagle Pass upward to El Paso; July—October. Sierra del Pajarito, June,
Schott, and San Bernardino, Sonora, April; Capt. E. K. Smith. Mr. Bentham having in a
recent letter communicated to me his opinion that Tetraclea is a true Labiate plant, and hardly
distinct from Trichostema, Dr. Gray makes the following remarks: "Tetraclea Coulteri is most
nearly allied to Trichostema, § Orthopodium, as Mr. Bentham suggests. But it differs in the
TEUCRIUM CUBENSE, Linn.; Benth. l. c. p. 578. T. laciniatum, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. York,
2, p. 231; Benth. l. c. Common in plains and low places throughout western Texas, N. Mexico,
Sonora, etc., June—September. (No. 1544, Wright.)
CORDIA PODOCEPHALA (n. sp.): ramalis teretibus subcapitatis; foliis ovato-lanceolatis obtusiusculis
basi angusto-cuneatis grosse serrato-dentatis utrinque ramulisque scabro-hirsutis; pedunculis
axillaribus terminalibusque elongatis erectis; capitulis globosis; calyce ovato strigoso
acute 5-dentato. Near San Antonio, Texas; October; also prairies and alluvions of the Rio
Grande from the San Pedro to the Pecos; Schott. Plains and grassy places, Piedra Pinta,
Texas; September—October; Bigelow. Near Monterey, Mexico; Gregg, Dr. Edwards. (Nos.
456 and 1510, Wright.)
Plant 1–2 feet high, nearly simple or moderately branched. Leaves 1–1½ inch long, and
3–5 lines wide; 4–6-toothed on each margin; scabrous on both sides, with short appressed
hairs, which commonly arise from an elevated base. Peduncles solitary in the axils, 2–6
inches long. Heads (exclusive of the corolla) about one-third of an inch in diameter; the
flowers closely aggregated. Corolla funnel-form, with a short tube, half an inch long and of
equal diameter; white or pale rose color; the lobes short and slightly emarginate. Fructiferous
calyx somewhat enlarged, the teeth triangular-ovate. Stamens included. Style long
and filiform; the apex twice 2-cleft. Ovary 4-celled, the ovules ascending. Drupe about the
size of a hempseed (Canabis); pulp very thin; endocarp reticulate-pitted. Cotyledons distinctly
plicate longitudinally. Apparently allied to C. patens. An undescribed species of this genus
was found by Gregg in the Balson de Mapimi. It may be thus characterized:
CORDIA GREGGII, (n. sp.): ramosissima, scabro-pubescens; foliis obovatis obtusis dentatis
plicato-rugosis, basi longe cuneatis; cymis contractis subcapitatis paucifloris; laciniis calycis
setaceis tubo campanulato brevioribus; corolla glabra infundibuliformi-campanulata. In the
northern part of the Balson de Mapimi, flowering in April. A shrub 5–8 feet high. Leaves
scarcely half an inch long, of a pale greenish gray color. Peduncles terminating the leafy
branches an inch long. Cymes 8–12-flowered, the flowers at first in a dense head, but afterwards
unfolding a little. The upper part of the 5–6-toothed calyx clothed with short blackish
hairs. Corolla more than an inch in diameter, white; the lobes obtuse and entire. Stamens
5–6, scarcely half the length of the corolla. Ovary tapering to a long slender style. Ovules
ascending. This species connects the sections Dasycephalæ and Cordiopsis. It is allied to C.
parvifolia, but has a much more contracted inflorescence.