Mirabeau B. Lamar travel journal, 1835 [Digital Version]

Bibliographic Information

Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, 1798-1859, Mirabeau B. Lamar travel journal, 1835 (June - October, 1835)

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Title: Mirabeau B. Lamar travel journal, 1835 [Digital Version]
Funding from: Funding for the creation of this digitized text is provided by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
Author: Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, 1798-1859
Statements of responsibility:
  • Creation of digital images: Woodson Research Center
  • Creation of transcription: Nancy Parker Boothe; Laurie Thompson; Philip Montgomery
  • Conversion to TEI-conformant markup: Philip Montgomery, Archivist, Woodson Research Center, Rice University
  • Parsing and proofing: Humanities Research Center and Fondren Library, Rice University
  • Subject analysis and assignment of taxonomy terms: Alice Rhoades
Publisher: Rice University, Houston, Texas
Publication date: 2010-06-07
Identifier: aa00359
Availability: This digital text is publicly available via the Americas Digital Archive through the following Creative Commons attribution license: “You are free: to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work; to make derivative works; to make commercial use of the work. Under the following conditions: By Attribution. You must give the original author credit. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above.”
Digitization: Page images of the original document are included. Images exist as archived TIFF files, JPEG versions for general use, and thumbnail GIFs.
Provenance: This journal was purchased from a manuscripts dealer in 1952, after surfacing as an anonymous Texas journal. Comparison of the handwriting with confirmed Lamar manuscripts at the San Jacinto Museum of History established the journal as being Lamar's.
Description: 194 page handwritten journal
Abstract: On his 1835 trip from Georgia to Texas, Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar kept a manuscript diary. This journal is written in continuous narrative form, with frequent historical or descriptive passages inserted, covering the months June-October, 1835, the period during which Lamar apparently made his decision to settle in Texas permanently and join in the Texian battle for independence from Mexico. Lamar went on to serve the Republic of Texas' second President.
Source(s): Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, 1798-1859, Mirabeau B. Lamar travel journal, 1835 (June - October, 1835)
Source Identifier: Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar journal, 1835, MS 311, Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University
Description of the project: This digitized text is part of the Our Americas Archive Partnership (OAAP) project.
Editorial practices
This text has been encoded based on recommendations from Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Any comments on editorial decisions for this document are included in footnotes within the document with the author of the note indicated. All digitized texts have been verified against the original document. Quotation marks have been retained. For printed documents: Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. No corrections or normalizations have been made, except that hyphenated, non-compound words that appear at the end of lines have been closed up to facilitate searching and retrieval. For manuscript documents: Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. We have recorded normalizations using the reg element to facilitate searchability, but these normalizations may not be visible in the reading version of this electronic text
Languages used in the text: English
Text classification
Keywords: Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus
  • Diaries
Keywords: Library of Congress Subject Headings
  • Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, 1798-1859--Diaries
  • Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte, 1798-1859--Travel
  • Southern States--Description and travel--19th century
  • Texas--Description and travel--19th century
  • Comanche Indians--Texas--History
  • Voyages and travels--19th century
  • Southern States--Politics and government--19th century
  • Southern States--Social conditions--19th century
  • Texas--Legal affairs--19th century
Keywords: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
  • United States (nation)
  • Georgia (state)
  • Columbus (inhabited place)
  • Texas (state)
  • Brazoria (inhabited place)
  • Nacogdoches (inhabited place)
  • San Augustine (inhabited place)
  • San Felipe (inhabited place)

Benj. Edwards Clinton Mississippi -
He published a pamphlet detailing the [Illegible: Fredom]
an scrape, wrote to him for its -


W. 12
T. 11 -
M. 10 -

Texas - Ta-has Texians


Journal. 1 [Columbus, Georgia]

Having resolved to visit Texas with a
view of settling there, if pleased with the
province, I left my place of residence, Co-
Georgia, on Monday 15th June 1835,
and without meeting with any occurrence of
note, arrived in Montgomery on the evening of
the 16th .
I had three fellow passengers in the Stage,
one of whom was a man from Texas, but who
could doubtless have given me much informa‑
which I desired, but he was to my eye so
unprepossingRegularized:unprepossessing a personage that I was not
disposed to contract any acquaintance with
him, and chose rather to loose the knowledge
which I might gain from him than encoun‑
the annoyance of his familiarity. Another
passenger was a gentleman of the United States
Army by the name of McKenzie, with the
rank, I should suppose of Captain; a man
of good sense, politeness and hansomeRegularized:handsome attainments.
He was one of the number sent to Fort Moultrie
for the purpose of draggooning Regularized:dragooning South Carolina out
of her rights and overawing her into submission
to intolerable outrage & wrongs, but I believe he
had no heart for the infernal job, and would no


doubtless have resigned his commission in
disgust rather than have proceeded to any violence
against the injured and insulted State. He
was I believe known to be a Nullifier and the only
one among the number sent on the bloody errand,
and was in consequence of his opinions sent ordered to
Savannah where he was entrusted with an inde‑
Command. He was also with the
troops in Cherokee Country, Geo, but In on all

such ungracious errands occasions, it is believed he so deported him‑
as to secure the confidence, of all parties; of
the Govt.. by faithful execution of duty and of the
community he dwelt among, by not abusinRegularized:abusing legiti‑
mate authority or invol arrogating any undelegated.
The third passenger whose name I do not know,
manifested for me a degree of solicitude for
my safety in a moment of some little peril which
could not fail excite my good feelings toward him.
at Inchee Creek 13th miles from Columbus, the
night dark, the horses darted off the buttment
of the Bridge, and threw the driver from his
seat. I was the only passenger in the Stage. I felt
the vehicle reeling off the Bridge & expected every
moment to land with an awful splash & a crush
at the bottom of the Creek, but more fortunately
than might have looked for, the Stage bounded like
a living animal from the Bridge and safely


landed on its four leggsRegularized:legs, I mean the four wheels.
the driver holding on to the reins, soon stopedRegularized:stopped
the fiery steeds, and after a proper flagellation
for their lawless conduct, he attempted the Bridge
a second time & crossed without difficulty. The
passengers resumed their seats, and I was rather
pleased than otherwise with the adventure, be‑
it made the driver, in resentment, double
the speed of his common gait, and dash along
at the comfortable & cheering rate of 6 notsRegularized:knots an
hour. The generous passenger who felt alarmed at
my situation, ran to the coach as she slr
cleared the Bridge to awaken me, believing me
to be a sleepRegularized:asleep, and earnestly entreated me to make
my escape out of the window before the horses
should rusht Regularized:rushed down the Banks. In this he
evinced a good heart, a benevolent principle, &
which more excites my admiration and affection
than personal accomplishments or intellectual
attainments. The road to Montgomery was in
good order; the tavern at which we stoped Regularized:stopped was
of the first rate, and every thing during my
abidance there contributed to make my the delay
rather acceptable than irksome. Between Columbus
& Montgomery I met with but little that excited reflection or worthy of description.
The reader may possibly have some desire
to learn something about this Town as it is one of


the most business-like & flourishing one in
the State.

(Give an account of the death of Mr Lucas,
by Barney Riley. Beverly Lucas brother to John,
was also Killed by Indian. The m murderer
is known yet no steps have been taken to appre‑
him & bring him to justice.)

(In describing Montgomery, remember Corney Buck,
Flat, Milton Cooper & others. Huff a Sawyer who
shot himself "all for love". Judge Shaw. Bynum.)

Left Montgomery on Friday 19th June in the
"Little Rock" about 4 Oclk Regularized:o'clock. The river was said to
be low, but to me it appeared in good navigable con‑
. The little rock as she is small but also sub‑
put together & has an Engine of considerable
power. Several passengers aboard, but with the ex‑
of two gentlemen, they were I believe all
either illiterate but honest cultivators of the soil or
equally ignorant but more insolent and trickey Regularized:tricky dealers
Dry Goods & Groceries — Addison says that men should
be ashamed of but two things Ignorance & Vice. How
sha bashful should the most of our planters be! How
doubly so should be the majority of the mercantile world.


But that which Addison considers a reproach the
Many esteem a virtue themselves for it. With many
Ignorance is bliss & dishonesty only cleverness.

The Alabama is a Noble River. It takes its name
from two Indian words Ala. signifying the Great
and Bama, water; the great river. The word
Ala. ha is also an Eastern or Arabic word meaning
God; by the Indians it is also used in that sense;
to signify the Great Spirit; the head of all etc. Some
writers have, in consequence of such occasional sim‑
in language, conjectured that the indians are
descendants from the Eastern Nations — Col. McKiney
formerly of the War Department, is about writing a
most valuable & interesting work concerning the
various Tribes of Indians; I had the pleasure of
reading an introductory chapter of work; and if
I remember a right he exposes the fallacy of
deriving the Indian race from the Arabs on so
slight a ground as occasionally similarity of words
in their respective languages.

The country through which Alabama River flows
is very fertile, & well adapted to Corn & Cotton.
For some distance the Banks are elevated, and occasion‑
exhibit very high & romantic Bluffs — One or
two particularly struck my attention; At Washington


one below that place and at Fort Butler.
Washington is a Small Village, containgRegularized:containing about
200 hundred inhabitants, in a handsome & healthy
site. The next town below is Vernon; and then

Benton Selma, all of the same class. Cahawba about
sixty miles by land from Montgomery is situated
on the East side of the river. It was formerly the
seat of Govt. of the State. It has been neglected for
several years but is at this time rather in a state
of improvement. Claiborn is 150 miles above Mobile.
The plantations on the river are fine, but the most
of them are subject to overflowing. The junction of
the Tombecbee & Alabama is about 50 miles above
Mobile. The low country from the junction as also
some miles above it is low and flat, all subject
to inundation. We meet lower with many splendid
farms. In high water, the houses on the plantations
are submerged in water; it rises two or three feet or more
in the floors. After leaving Claiborn some miles,
we meet with Live Oak; it becomes more & more
abundant as we approach the Bay. Among the
things which I noted as curious or worthy of obser‑
, were three; viz. An Eagle's Nest. It was on the
very end of a large old branchless tree standing near
the water's edge. The pilot of the boat told me he
had seen it several times this spring about its nest;
that he had been informed by older pilots than


himself who had been long running the river, that
the Eagle had been seen to build there for many
past. This is I believe a peculiarity of the Eagle.—
The seconRegularized:second item— was the disgraceful fact of a planter's
making his negroes work on the SabathRegularized:Sabbath. I regret that none
of the passengers aboard knew the man; I was anxious
to obtain his name that I might hold up him up
to scorn & detestation; and that he may yet not escape
detection, I will mention that the plantation is I believe
the first extensive one above the junction of the rivers.
The negroes were engaged in clearing a new ground; the
overseer was setting lazily on his horse in the midst
of the negroes. The clearing seemed to be an extensive
one, reaching a mile or more up the river, widingRegularized:widening and
narrowing as the swamp at the back of the field permitted.
I know no man who more deserves punishment of the laws
& the chastisement of public scorn. The third item— is
a coloured man by the name of Seymore; I think
Philip Seymore, living below the junction of the
rivers on a fine farm and owning, as I was told
by the pilot, Must upwards of 40 negroes. I saw
him and one of his daughters on the banks of
the river, but were not near enough to make ob‑
the beauty of the lady or to make any
phrenological observation on the old gentleman—

The Tombegbee at its mouth presents a beau‑


appearance. A small green Island rises at the the
junctions. The waters are bright & smootheRegularized:smooth and
spread out like a tranquil lake-few miles 20 miles
below above the junctions there I saw the appearance
of a large Creek and on asking the name of the
stream was told that it was called the “cut off”-
that is a channel or communication between the
two rivers, making o occupying the same position to
them as the dash or [Illegible: hair line] crop line connecting the
two prongs of the letter A. below the junction the
river, which is now called Mobile, forks, or rather
one breaks boldly from the other and runs upon its
own hook. I thought at first that the united
again but was told that they did not. The left
prong in descending was called the Tensaw and
discharged itself in Same Bay but on the oppo‑
side of a the town of Blakely. To me it
seemed the larger of the two prongs, and I was told
equally deep and good for navigation as the Mo‑
river. I look upon the Tensaw as a part of
or continuation of the Tombgbee, merely crossing
the Alabama river as one road crosses another—
The Tensaw has a cutoff counting the A cutoff
connects Tensaw and Mobile rivers in the same man‑
as the Cutoff above described connects Tombgbee &
I saw many of the blue crane, but only two of the


white species. Long before we reach mobile we
wind our way through a flat marshy country that
can never be subjected to cul the plough & hoe—
the city rose to view about 7 miles off. We approach‑
first about it by twilight. A storm had cooled
the atmosphere and it delightful & refreshing. Our
journey closed with the close of day, and — It was
sabathRegularized:sabbath evening. No noise, no bustle of business greeted
our enterance; all was tranquil & placid and I
as far as I could judge, the feelings of all the passengers
partook of the serenity of of the weather and peacefulness of scenes
around them.

We arrived in Mobile Sunday night . evening;
it was nearly dark. I ordered my Trunk to the
Mansion House, but not being abbleRegularized:able to obtain
there lodgings as comfortable and convenient as I
desired, I removed to the Alabama Hotel where I
was accomodatedRegularized:accommodated with all I desired. I was not so
fortunate at the Mansion House as my traveling
Companion Lieut.. McKenzie. I was told that there
was no single room in the house unoccupied & con‑
could not be furnished; But my worthy
Companion, Knowing the influence & authority of titles
with the Boniface race, he, in booking his name, took
the precaution to place after it the all important, potent
powerful letters L.t. of Mobile Point; When the Landlord


or his striker discovered these initials of dignity,
he immediately proffered to the gentleman a handsome
apartment to himself and actually turned out [Illegible: anst]
gentleman from the room who had been occupying
it to make way for the military guest. Now having
no title myself; no L.t. to M.C. or J. P. to place after
or appengeRegularized:append to mysignature, I was peremptorily informed that I could not
be furnished with single lodgings, & had consequently to
shift my quarters to a place where room was more abundant and
titles regarded less necessary indispensible to the security & obtainance &
security of needful comfort & attentions.

Sitting one evening on the Bow of the boat, an unassu‑
& intelligent gentleman, approached me, and
inquired how far south, I purposed to prosecute my
Journey. I answered that I was on my way to
Texas. I am pleased to hear it he replied, for I
am thither bound myself and shall be pleased with
company. [Illegible: He] On inquiry I found that he was from
Putnam County, that he Knew me well; was first
cousin to Mr. Moreland my Brother-in Law. His name
was Saddler.
Give an account of Dale's fight with the Indians
In Montgomery I had a tooth drawn.



Arrived sunday, departed Wednesday
morning for the Stage. Mobile is a delightful
City; about the size of Augusta, containing
probably upwards of Seven thousand inhabitants
Property is uncommonly high; town lots increa‑
in value daily. Rents for the best store-hous‑
is from two to three thousand dollars pr annum.
I met with Dr. Roberts; he looks instatuquo; He is
doing tolerably well; his sons are succeeding well;
The Joel is Merchant, Saml Alexr. is now absent
will probably remove to Texas to act as an Agent
to a Land Company. Olivia Mrs. Mather, spends this
summer in New York. Mrs.. Roberts is dead; I
saw her grave; and that also of her daughter's
Emily, they sleep side by side— With Col. Milton
I took a ride about two miles to view the
Bay. The edge of the Bay the eddy waters, is filled
large logs & trees broughRegularized:brought down the rivers during
freshets. The For miles round, the country about
Mobile is perfectly level. I supped with Milton
at Summerville; about two miles from town; or
rather it is (although out of the Corporate limits) a
part of Mobile, for the houses are stretched along
like a village all the road to the way to Summerville.
Summerville is a delightful place. More charming
residences; more lovely & attractive retreat from the


bustle of the City I never beheld. I know of no
place in the most cultivated & improved parts of
the Northern States that can vie with it for
beauty & comfort. Every lot is a Hoboken. Col.
Milton gave four thousand dollars for his lot
containing six acres, and can now sell it for 10 or
100 thousand— The College is about a mile from
Summerville or may rather he said to be in
the village. There is one Church here open to
every denomination— I heard a Phrenologist
give two nights lecture on his science and was
much pleased & entertained— This Science if true
does not necessarily destroy all moral accountability
as the religious world supposes. No artist, no sculpture
can so chisel out a man from marble to stand on
his feet alone; if he gives it the human shape
it will be certain to fall to the ground. Why then
does not man fall like the statue? By what prin‑
does he maintain his erect posture? Certainly
he does it against all laws of gravitation; he does it
by the power of his will; gravitation would drags
him constantly to the earth but his will is suffi‑
to destroy or counteract its force. And so with the
man who has a strong development of murder; he is
not necessarily a murder because he has the organ
in an eminent degree. He has the propensity, but


he has also the will to control it. But suppose
the murderous organ is strongly developed, and all
the counteracting organs are exceedingly week or not
at all developed? Why then the person will com‑
murder. How far is he then morally guilty
from a moral point of view? No more than an idiot
for his actions. Why is not an idiot or madman
punished for murder? because he wanted reason
reflection etc. to restrain him; or in other words the
restraining or counteracting organs were feeble or extinct.
Give an account of Boyington — his character
poetry etc —
13 Boats on the Alabama‑ 11on the Blackwarrior and
6 on the Tombecbee— 72 on the Mississippi‑
they talk in Mobile a great deal about the projected
rail road from Pensacola to the appalachicola bay &
to Mobile—
“Mobile Franklin Society” organized 17th JanyRegularized:January 1835 Franklin's
birthday. 100 members. Library well selected 600 vols. (Dr. A
Jones Librarian) lending Periodicals news papers etc.
several curiosities. A galvanic battery of considerable
power owned by Dr. Jones the librarian. Application will
be made next Legislature for a charter of incorporation-
Subscribers to the institution entitled to all all the
privileges of the members except voting, free access to
the library.

New Orleans


Arrived Thursday morning June —
From Mobile took the Stage to Porter'sville, where we
were received by the steamboat Otto; [Illegible: left] the shore
about five OclkRegularized:o'clock Wednesday evening, & crossing lake
Pontchertrain Regularized:Pontchartrain that night, reached point where the
Railroad meets the Lake, about 10 OclkRegularized:o'clock ; twenty more minutes
passed us over the railroad & landed us in Orleans.
The first thing that struck my attention was the dis‑
filthiness of the place. The offensive assaults
which were constantly made upon my olfactories
disqualified me for some time from noticing making
observations. The railroad is an expensive one,
costing to erect it upwards of one millions of dollars as
I should guess; yet it is esteemed good property. It
is between 5 & 6 miles in length—
One of our passengers in the Stage from Mobile,
stated that the object of his visit to N.O. Regularized:New Orleans was to
notice the country between Mobile & Portersville on
the Lake, as he designed to petition to the next
Legislature of Alabama for a charter to erect a rail‑
from the one point to the other. The country is
as favorable for the object as possible, that is for a
wooden railway; the ground nearly the whole distance
is a perfect level, sandy piney woods, well timbered, and
a road might be constructed like the Charleston railway
for three thousand per mile.


The Stage driver told me that, that was his last
trip on that road-the route was about to be abandoned
and the mail taken for the future from Mobile all
to Orleans all the way by water by way of Pascagoula;
the Boats were now in readiness for the object;
I saw one, (a Steam Schooner) at Mobile to be thus
employed— it was a large strongly built vessel, not
finely done, and as I was told could run superior
to most any of the boats. I was much pleased with
the construction myself; uniting in a graceful manner
the excellencies of two distinct species, combining wind
and fire alternately triumphing over the waters by
wind & then by fire— If the Mail should be taken
permanently by water to Orleans via Pascagoula; it
will bring this point into some repute as a place
of safe & fashionable retreat, both from N.O. Regularized:New Orleans and
Mobile during the sickly months. It can never
be anything more a place of pleasant resort for
health, having no fertile county around, no trade
connected with it. What then will become of
the rail road from Orleans to Pontchertrain Regularized:Pontchartrain? If that route
be abandoned as a mail route, will it not affect the
value of the rail road? The citizen from Montgomery
already alluded to, should he carry his projected of
a rail road from Porter'sville to Mobile into [Illegible: execution]
which of the two ways will meet with the most
patronage, the one by this rail road or the steam
boat route via Pascagoula They will be rivals—


Religion in Orleans. 16
This place has one advantage of over many
others, in religious matters, and it is in this, that
if they have but little of it , they make but little
pretentions. There are several churches of various
denominations, but I apprehend they are less croudedRegularized:crowded
than their rivals, the gambling houses & theaters.
I entered a Methodist Book Store and bought a [...]
Mr. Maffett's address delivered but a short time since
on laying the corner-stone of the Methodist Episcopal
Church. I was much pleased with the address; it dis
much imagination, richness of language,
and appropriateness; it was rather too flowery for the
common taste; it is a good specimen of the florid style.
The Keeper of the Book store seemed to be a pious &
sedate man; I should say he was a good hearted benev—
man, he was at least kind & polite to me in
answering a few interrogations which an inflated &
self important gentleman might have deemed imper—
I learnt from him the sign that the front of the of the church,
which is was to be 61 feet 6 inches in . He showed me a
plan of it. it was to be a fine building in every way
suitable to the City in which it is to be erected. and also simple substantial in character with the plain habits It is
and durable principles of the denomination — It willwill stand on Puydrass & Carondolet streets — I was
told by him that the Methodist denomination were few
in number; but that the citizens of Orleans had contrib‑
with a liberal hand to the erection of the building.


In a few days a splendid Collation was to be
given to the Judge, Jury & friends , in honor of a
decision of a law point by recently made in the
Supreme Court. It appears that the whole of the
Upper Fouxburg was once owned by an old citizen
of the place by the name of Poultney. The ground
has long since been laid off into lots, sold, and built
upon. It joins the western part of the city, but is not
within the corporate limits. Fouxburg is a word sy‑
with that of Parish, beats, or districts. The
heirs of Poultney sued for the recovery of the land
on the grounds that it had never been bona-fiedly
sold by their ancestor. The occu ground had was now
crowded with buildings and had passed uninterruptedly
from hand to hand; and should the claim of the heirs
be established the wealth it would bring to them
wealth unbounded, & to the occupants ruin irre‑
The decision of the Court was against the
claimants & the contemplated Collation is in honor
of that verdict. The Fouxburg I believe is called
the Parish of Lafayette. This parish is now a city for it
was incorporated as such in the year the the Legislature—
I attended the French Theatre; a splendid Opera
had been gotten up, but not understanding the langu‑
& the weather being intolerably warm, I left
after the second act. I forget the name of the piece;
it was never before performed in the US. The house


was croudedRegularized:crowded to overflowing. I looked through the
boxes to see if I could meet with beauty; I saw not
a female face which I thought pretty or tolerably
hansomeRegularized:handsome. I gave them credit for one thing the
neatness with which they done up their hair. illegible
Glancing my eye up into the gallery illegible
occupied by the quarterooms, I saw as illegible great
a dearth of beauty there as among the whites below.
The American theater was closed.
The first theatre in New Orleans was in the year-
During the revolt of the negroes in St. Domingo the
larger portion of the whites were murdered; some
few made their escape, among the number, a com‑
of actors, who arrived in N.O. Regularized:New Orleans and resumed
their profession in that place—

I visited but few of the public buildings; the
hospitableRegularized:hospital is a large and imposing building; and
I am told well regulated. Perhaps there is not its
equal for neatness & cleanliness in the U.S. They are
of the filthiest cities, can boast of the cleanest hospital.

Friday night June 26th. sitting in the public room
at Bishop's I heard some noise & loud laughing in the
street immediately in front of the door. I found that
a Constable had some suspected thief durance vile
He was tied upon a horse led by the officer.


The prisoner on being questioned by some of the
bye standersRegularized:bystanders as to the cause of his present predica‑
, he replied that his ancleRegularized:ankle had been sprained
and the gentleman leading the horse was kind enough
to take him to the hospitableRegularized:hospital — On being asked why
his arms & legs were pinioned he replied that
having taken little too much of strong water, he
was not able to maintain his perpendicular position
on the horse with some such assistance-In this
manner he laughed & joked; and concluded by
saying that he had had bad luck that night, for
in spite of good arms, good will, & good efforts to Kill
the rascal that had taken him, he failed in his ob‑
. Yes retorted the officer, but with your bad
luck you had some good, for if my pistol had been
as true as she usually is you would be saved the
disagreeableness of and the State the expense of a trial.
“And I should have lost all the pleasure of this
ride through the City free of expense” continued
the prisoner coldly. It appears that the prisoner
& the Constable had exchanged a couple of shots at
each other, but both neither taking effect, they
closed in with each other for a tusselRegularized:tussle. The prisoner
was over powered & surrendered; but he called upon
the officer to do him the justice to say that he had
not surrendered until he was entirely wore exhausted,
the Constable bore testimony to his courage & determination.


The unconquered temper of the prisoner had enlisted some
little sympathy in his behalf, when one of the
by standersRegularized:bystanders observed that he would as leave assist
in rescuing him as not— no response was given— the
officer proceeded with his charge to the Calaboose— as he
marched off, the man who was for rescue, remarked
that he knew the Constable well and that a greater
rascal dwelt not in the City. I expect to see some
little fun, but the whole affair passed off without pro‑
‑ ducing
a breeze; & I retired to bed— twas just 12—

There is scarcely a night but what some robbery
is committed; and hardly a day without a duel.
This the only mode of settling disputes here. the
most trivial affair is adjusted in this manner. Two
men quarrel, about, no matter what, a pin, or dog or
straw, and soon we hear an explosion; the quarrel is
ended for one or both the parties are silenced forever.
The thing is no sooner said than done. I was told
that there were at one time 27 duels here in one
day. It is quite common to have two or three
before breakfast. A few weeks ago two young
creoles, rivals perhaps in love, not will were procee‑
to the field of honor, and perceiving that they had
been discovered & would be arrested, they immediately
fell to with swords, and litterally carved each other up.
They had fought each other twice before with pistols


and now the third trial with swords. Such occurrences
are so frequent that they produce no sensation at
all in society; it is hardly mentioned by any one.
This morning I am told that there is a prospect of
a fight next monday; Yesterday there were two
duels fought, two of the combatants fell; no one
scarcely knows of it & I heard it accidently from a
boy who was praising the skill & courage of the
parties— Saturday 27. Another duel; the result I
have not heard.

I said the American theatre was not open;
but to nightRegularized:tonight 27th.. I entered a small room up two
[Illegible: ft] stairs, 20 feet square, where were assembled some
30 or 40 persons the most heterogenous mass; listening
to what was called in the bills of the morning a “Theatrical Entertainment.” The
propretressRegularized:proprietress (for it was a woman) was the only female
of the Corps, except her little daughter about 7 years old
who acted Young Norval, & his mother the aforesaid
mistress of the company, the character of lady Randolph.
She was the most abominable of all ugly looking women.
I never beheld a more ill shaped figure & face in a
female. When Norval he enquiredRegularized:inquired whether his father
surpassed all men in valor as she did her sex in beauty,
there was a universal roar of laughter. When she spoke
of her poor remains of beauty, I could not help from saying
to myself what a mighty ship wreck of charms!


The lady knew not only her own part well, but that
of every other character; she acted as prompter, and
after finishing her speech, in almost every instance
had to begin the answering one for those whom she
was dialoguing. She gave the clue in an audible voice
as if it were a portion of her own part. Several Sometimes times
she failed to be so prompt, and the Glenalvia in one
or two instances, becoming [Illegible: impation] of delay in the
looked for assistance thundered out, “Why dont you give
the clue”! The lady sang and it was as musical
as an nighting owl or an owlinRegularized:howling gale. She spoke
Philip's Eulogy on Washington, “speak the speech I
pray thee”- in a double hoarse monotonous voice without
modulation and without gestures. The orchestra was com‑
‑ posed
of two fidlersRegularized:fiddlers and one fifer. They were all
in their shirt sleeves and one of the Knights of the
catgut & rosin fell fast asleep in the middle of
Basney Glanajin; his hat which he had not taken off
fell over his eyes, his bow from his hand and soon
began to snore bass to his more wakeful companions
music and then I thought what a “concord of sweet
sounds.” The company met with uproarious applause
in which I contributed my due share.

Give specimens of their speaking and the coloquyRegularized:colloquy
which went be with the actors and the audience and
the musicians during the progress of the play. The
lady in the midst of her pathetic speeches would stop &
reprimand the fiddlers & tell some of the audience to be silent.


A night or two ago two persons were found dead
together in a room, with impelements of death in
their hands or lying near them; It was thought at
first that they had quarreled, fought & killed each
other, but suspicion soon feel on a third party, who
when apprehended confessed that he and another
individual had killed them; he made this confes‑
in hopes of becoming States evidence & thereby save
himself from the gallows. The person who assisted
him in the murder, went stooped down at one of
hydrens to wash the blood from his hands, when the
other murderer, apprehensive that he might be
betrayed his associate & accomplice, drew his dirk
and stabbed him in the back. The fal wounded
culprit is not yet dead.

Several speeches were delivered at the collation given
by the Parish of Lafayette to the Judge Jury etc—
The property claimed by Putnys heirs is said to
be worth 4 or 5 million dollars— I believe The
collation took place to dayRegularized:today Saturday 27—

In the evening in front of the tavern a party
commenced joking one another; an Irish man
among the number stated that Lord Somebody per‑
Lord Derby, as he is famous in the annals of
Cockfighting, owned 7 thousand Cocks— On, one occa—


sion he bet 25 thousand pounds — his first
Cock in the fight ran, and his lordship had
immediately the throats cut of 15 hundred cocks
which had been descended from the aforesaid dom=
. This tale was so extravgent Regularized:extravagant that several
persons other in ridicule of it still more extravagant.
One man requested the author of the cock story to
give another edition of Baron Munchausan. You
must excuse him replied an otherRegularized:another, he is an IrashmanRegularized:Irishman.
“And is not an Irishman” exclaimed the exasperated
narrator of the cock tale “as good as any body else?”
He may be so with me, but not so in the eyes of
all; for as I was once going up the red river aboard
of a steam boat, I had an occasion to borrow an
auger from a Settler along the banks. I sent an Irish
after the instrument; when I was done using it, I
told the same Irishman to take the auger back
to the owner. “No by Jasus says he I will go there again
For what do you think! when I went to borrow the
varmint, I saw the lady of the who told me to go to
her husband; & where is your husband says I, at the
stables says she; thither I went and meeting the a
black graseyRegularized:greasy nigger, I asked for the master of the prem‑
; he announced himself as such. When I returned to
the house for the auger I asked the lady if that nigger was
her husband; she said yes; I told her she was bad
off? Not so bad off, she replied as her sister; for she


poor girl was married to an Irishman-

Sunday 28th New Orleans.
This day I attended Church. I enquired the way to
the Methodist Church; for some time I met no one
who could direct me; I heard a Bell, & was told by a
negro that that was at the Methodist Church. Turning
the corner the building rose upon my view; it was a large
spacious structure, and seemed to be quite old & antiquated
in its style of architecture; On entering its portals, I found
a sign board on the wall directing strangers to pews
on the right hand. The clock in the Steeple, the appe‑
of the building and still more the sign board
notice to strangers, all indicated some other denomina—
than the simple & unostentatious disciples of Wesley.
Satisfied that this could not be the Methodist house
of worship, I enquiredRegularized:inquired of a lad who Directed me to
a small wooden building not distant off. Thither
I went and from the plainess of the seats, the size and
style of the building I found no difficulty in recognizing
it as a Methodist Church, or at least a church in
character with that unostentatious denomination. I was
in hopes of hearing Mr. Maffitt; some other person
preached & preached a good sermon; the congregation
was small, but I could have told from their meek
& simple manners, their plain but tasteful dressing, [Illegible: free]
from furbelowsyet remarkably genteel, that they be‑


belonged to other schools than that of the french, or
yankee— I now felt for the first time that I was
in the midst of people like myself; there was no I am
certain that the white congregation were all southern
people & the negroes also from the south. They appeared
totally different from the rest of the population of the city—
There was no french lankness, no creole complexion, no
city extraviganceRegularized:extravagance and bold impudence, but all plain, neat
modest, hansome, fair skin enbonpoint and unaffectedness.
I knew they must be Georgians.— The gallery was
filled with negroes who resembled in appearance & many
those of the south & different from the blacks raised here
as the southerners are from French or Yankee— The yankee
PresbeteriansRegularized:Presbyterians make a loud noise about the religious im‑
‑ provement
of the negroes, but I believe they [...] seldom
make any effort to get them to join their church; I
know in Columbus, they heven have not provided any
seats for the negroes in their church. The methodist
I believe are the only sect that has sincerely done any
thing for the negroes; a large portion of their congregation
and majority members are blacks. When I contrasted
the effective simplicity of the Methodist style of preaching,
building etc, with the cold blooded hypocrisy of the north,
and the [Illegible: orthodox] superstitious & preposterous rites of the
Catholic Church, I said to myself, if ever I be a
preacher, I will be a methodist one, to divetdivest my labors
among the poor, humble, neglected and needy—


Joel Parker [Illegible: Presbyterian] preacher, has a new
church, handsome & tasty building with a tall im‑
CupaloRegularized:cupola near on the south side Lafayette
Square. This gentleman is from Boston. For some
illiberal remarks respecting the moral & religious
condition of society in N.O. he was on his arri‑
here greeted with pretty strong demonstrations
of public indignation; was burnt in effigy; threat‑
with personal violence and the Mayor of the
City had finally to issue his proclamation on the
occasion to allay public resentment and secure
the puritan's safety.

In the new part of the city which is called
the Upper Fauxburg, Faubourg a canal was commen‑
about three years ago & now nearly com‑
, running from Circus Street, to into the
Lake near the Lighthouse 6 miles long.

A rail road runs throRegularized:through Baronne Street com‑
at Canal street and running to the Parish
of Lafayette about 3 miles in length- Another
rail road runs parallel with it through Magazine
street, starting at Canal street & terminating at Carlton
a town just commenced settling up the river‑
It is supposed these works will be abolished as a
[Illegible: nuicances]Regularized:nuisances the people are opposed to them‑


Le Moniteur de la Louisiane” was established 1794, the
only paper printed in the province during its subjection
to Spain.
Baron de Carondelet—his canal was cut by 60 convict
convict negroes, whose labor was procured by his petitions
to the King for that purpose. 1794 or completed1796

With a view of promoting french emigration to Louisiana
after the breaking out of the french revolution, Baron Carondolet
granted extensive bodies of land to various noblemen and
other individuals; among which wereMarquis de MaisonrougeBaron de Bastrop,
St. Vrain & others. Bastrop sold his claim to Moorhouse; the King of Spain would
not sanction the sale, & ordered that no lands should be granted as a citizen of the U. S.

After the defeat of St. Clair, Wayne succeeded to the command
after the death of Wayne, GenlRegularized:General Wilkinson took command in 1779

I give you the hystoryRegularized:history of the early settlement of Louisiana
because it is of itself interesting, and is so connected
with the first possession & settlement of Texas as to form
an appropriate introduction to the hystoryRegularized:history of this prov‑


The City of Lafayette is about mile & half or two
miles from the N.O. PropperRegularized:proper; it is a separate corporation
the act of incorporation passed last session of the Legislature.
It is a beautiful town on the river, uniting the trade
& conveninceRegularized:convenience of city with the pleasures & comforts of ru‑
life. It contains orange groves, and shaded with
live oak. Preston spoke at the Lafayette Fete with
much applause; he was the attoney employed to de‑
the property against the claimants—

The increase in the value of real estate is truly
estonishingRegularized:astonishing. An old frenchman many years had
his house pulled down by order of the Governor bec‑
it was an old wooden building liable to be fired &
so situtedRegularized:situated that if it could not burn without setting
fire to other valuable property- His name was Mills
He importuned the Govr. for a long time for pay for
his demolished domicil; and for the purpose of getting
rid of eternal applications, the govr. granted to Mills, a
tract of low swampy marsh, not considered of any
value. The Frenchman rec.dRegularized:received the grant because he
could do no better, but considered himself unpaid for
the loss of his shop. This man lived to an advanced
age; and about three years ago he laid off a part
of his swamp in town lots & sold them for two hun‑
hundred thousand dollars‑ the whole grant is said
to be worth a million—


Another case similar to the foregoing— an old
fisherman, obtained a grant for a small tract
of ground on which his hut was erected on the
bank of the river. He and the immediate heirs were
all dead. Many years elapsed, but some remains
of the hut were known so late as 1811. Recently some
of the decendents of the old fisherman, sued the
corporation for the ground; the corporation offered
them 75 thousand dollars for the claim; they asked
a hundred thousand; this was refused; they g
claimants gained the [...], reared a buildings on
the spot and is worth more thanall all they demanded for it‑

Saturday 27- I met Hana, Bulloch, Retherford
Patton & others; Hana begged me to return. He
had a spell of the fever; by his advice I abandoned
the idea of sailing for MadagordaRegularized:Matagorda, & concluded to
take the first boat up the Red River to NatchetochesRegularized:Natchitoches

The river Mis at New Orleans is constantly receding
from the City, & widingRegularized:widening in channel proportionably on
the opposite shore. Persons owning grants for ground to
within so many feet of the river, now when the river
recedes, can the owners of those grants advance within
the specified limits to the river? This has been the
source of some litigation & contention, I bilieveRegularized:believe, it is


the question is settled in favor of the claimants to all
land herto found; but for all which may form in this
manner in future shall belong to the corporation—
The river is perpetually undergoing various changes; in
a few years one island disappears, & another makes its
appearance; the sediment in the water is so great that
it is alone sufficient to form an island in an eddy
place in [...] few years.

Left New Orleans Tuesday 30th.. June, about
2 Oclk— A beautiful situation at McCarty's point
now called Carrollton ‑ The whole country up
the river exhibits but one unvaried aspect;
The private esidences small and inelligantRegularized:inelegant;
very few [Illegible: hiby] improved places. About 100 miles
above N.O.Regularized:New Orleans A church stands on the banks of the
river, it looks solitary & useless— The I was much
disappointed in the appearance of the crops; they
were not so luxuriant as I expected; Cane small,
corn inferior to that on the Alabama river; Cotton
good, but little of it. I notice also but little care.
The settlements country looked not like plantations, but like
military encampments — the Sugar Mills or house
of factory the best buildings; the dutch br Barns
as their best buildings; & so with the Sugar factory.

The steam boat Romeo are in, good boat; Captain


polite, honest substantial, worthy man very un‑
thing. We stopped this morning before
breakfast 1st July to take in a female passenger.
She parted with her friends on the bank suffect
with a Kiss, & a couple she gave, one on each cheek,
to a beautiful aubonpoint lady about 18 I envied
with all my heart. She was dressed in loose flowing
white muslin frock, with a kind of elegant negligee that
rather indicated the probability that she was a
married lady. IllegibleWhen we first hove to, I was
elated with the hope that she was to become a
fellow passenger, but instead we had to receive her
more antiquated & less attractive companion. I saw
her bound up the She whom we left behind, I
saw her bound up the levee her foot slipping at every
step & she loud laughing at her prospect for a fall.
She succeeded however on cling the bank, and I left
her standing there smiling like Aurora, & waving a farewell her
white handkerchief to her friend now gliding on the
turbid smootheRegularized:smooth waters of the Mississippi — I stood gazing at
her as far the eye could strain, and with the last
gaze I sighed to loose what I had not gained &
to secretly indulge tha visions that could never be real-
— God, I wish I were young once more—

A small town named Plaqueamine on the
Left hand side of the river was passed this morning; nothing
About it worthy of note; an inconsederableRegularized:inconsiderable place—
(110 miles from N.O.)


[Baton Rouge]

BattonRegularized:Baton Rouge, is a village of some importance;
SoldersRegularized:Soldiers of US. stationed there; It stands on a Bluff
on the right side of the river; it is on the first elevated
ground from the Balize up to this point.
The derivation of the word is this Batton, stick
and rouge, red, meaning red stick, why it was thus
named is not known. 130 miles above N.O. 2 miles
above Plaquymine—

July 1st at evening—
Town Bayousara on the right hand side of the river
30 miles above BattonRegularized:Baton Rouge- St. Francesville is
back of Bayousara about illegibleone mile distant; Woodville
(Perhaps in Mississipp) still back of St. Francesville 40 miles—
This is a rich cottony growing country — many thou‑
bales cotton shipped from Bayousara to N.O.—

Atchafalaya Chafalyre 57 miles above Bayousara & three miles
below the Mouth of the red river. AtchafalayaChaffalaya makes
from the Mississippi and empties into the gulf Grand Lake
The lands on this stream fertile like those on the parent
river; settlers will have to throw up levees — the country
has not been settled but a few years; they are now
clearing the raft out of the stream and when completed
it will be open a new passage to the gulfGulf Attacafra etc.—

July 1st was so cold on the river as to make fire comforta‑ bleRegularized:comfortable
We reached Chaffalyre about 9 oclk Thursday 2 nd 1835—


It was is believed that the attchafalaya is but
a continuance of the Red River, which instead
of resuming directly on to the Gulf now empties
into the Mississippi. 3 miles below where it empties
breaks out the Achafalaya keeping a straitRegularized:straight
direction with the Red—until it spreads itself into a
broad Bay as it empties into the Gulf—

It was for a long time conjectured that the Mississippi
would cut throRegularized:through a point and make Atchafalya its
chief channel & thereby destroy N.O; But this is
no longer apprehended, since the Mississippi has
formed two cutoffs runing commencing above the
red river and terminating a few miles before Atchafalya—

In ascending the Red River, Mississippi, after entering into the
Red River, the water becomes clearer; I was gratified at this
as I was weary of washing in the turbid water of the Mississippi‑
But in a few hours run, I was disappointed; for I formdRegularized:formed
that the what appearance of limpdnessRegularized:limpidness that belonged to Red
River was owing to the clear transparent waters of Black
River emptying into it; after ass leaving the mouth of Black
River, the Red R. assumed the deep red complexion which gives
to it its appropriate name-This River Red divides into
a great number of branches, which leaving the main channels
at one point & entering it again at another. Each Branch
has its appropriate name. The Branch on which Natch‑


stands is called Little River, a small narrow, muddy
but Deep stream. These stream branches are constantly
fluctuating, first one & then the other becoming the
principle channel. That on which Natchitoches stands
it is said is yearly becoming less & less navgableRegularized:navigable, and as the
waters decline in this they encreaseRegularized:increase in the neighboring branch
called Bondieu which leaves the main river above Natch‑
about 10 miles. It is supposed that the waters in little
River will so decline as to affect the commercial importance
of this place; the owners of real estate here, however do not
seem to be apprehensive of the decline of inthe value of property
as they say they will connect this branch & the Bondieu
by a cross Rail Road a distance of 4 or 5 miles; But if I
‑ should suppose if this Branch ceases to be navigable, & the
of a town would certainly spring upon on the other branch,
probably at its head 10 miles above this—

After entering the Red River, we run several hours
without finding any banks to the River; the water smeemsRegularized:seems
to spread illimitably over a dark thick illimitable for wil‑
; we then have the appearance of Banks, but they
are low and subject to overflow, rising a few feet above the
surface of the water; this land is subject to entry, & a few
settlements are forming one it; it is good land, but it will have
to be protected by levees; After leaving passing through this
we then enter into higher grounds where the Banks rise
high above high water mark; and then commences plantations


extensive & highly improved. This is the heart of the
cotton growing country of Louisiana; the land is exceedingly
fertile, but the water bad or none at all; th Rain water is
chiefly used; the Red River being too muddy & brackish.


Situated on the western side of the River. The property
chiefly owned by French who seem to be averse to improvement‑
Lots sells high— The some little improvement going on; the
town dirty extremely, sickly, streets narrow, houses in a
state of rottenness & dilapidation. River water not used
much; One large spring about a mile dis distant
serves the whole town; the water warm & bad—

Tuesday 14th The Red river lands will avarajeRegularized:average nearly
200 lbs Cotton. One hand can make 7 Bales weighing 500 each
. The planters many do not make provender enough for
their horses; they have to buy. On board the Romeo, were
several bales of Hay for the planters on the river; at this
I was surprised; to think that in a country where corn is
so easily made, that there should a deficiency—

On a fine day under favorable circumstances, a first rate
hand can pick 300 hundred lbs; on an average throRegularized:through the
season, big & little old & young together they averagepick 150 lbs


The naches is the left or western branch of snow river.
it should be called Snow river instead of Snow Naches as Naches
means snow.


[History of Louisiana and Texas to Current Times]

The following facts gathered from Judge Martin of Orleans
in a conversation with him.

The Spaniards had possession of Florida until 1762
when Spain parted with it to Great Britain. They
re-took Florida from G.B. during the War of the
American Revolution; they kept it till the peace of
1783 when it was confirmed to them by treaty of that
date. They held it then until Mr. Monroe's adminis‑
; Florida was then ceded to the U.S. It was ob‑
by purchase the U.S. paying about 5 millions two millions
dollars of which was paid to Spain & the balance to American citizens for illegal [Illegible: seizures]
and at the same time relinquishing some
claims which she held against Spain for spoliations.
In this negociationRegularized:negotiation, the Sabine was fixed upon
as the line dividing this country from the Spanish
possessions in Texas. The Sabine has two prongs
as branches; a difficulty likely to arise as to which is
to be considered the dividing line—

There are two rivers emptying into the sabine bay,
the one known on the maps as Sabine, the other as
called in Texas Snow River up to its fork the left prong o
being called—Naches the right Angelina Amhaunlene . It is contended that
this is the true Sabine & the left prong the real dividing
line between this country & Texas; But this cannot be the fact
for the Treaty of 1819 ceding concluded at Washington City 1819.
Ceeding Florida, says that Mellishi's map is to be the
governing one; & in that map the Eastern Stream is the
one named Sabine.
On the Snow river or Naches the degree of latitude
is not to be found mentioned in the treaty of 1819.
James Adams & Don Onis knew this.


From Martin's Louisiana-
1537- Soto sailed to subjugate Florida-army nine
hundred foot & three hundred horse- furnished at his
own expense; he had acquired great wealth in
Peru when he accompanied Pizaro thither ‑ He
landed in the bay where Narvaez had landed 11 years before.
‑ ‑ ‑ In the Spring his army marched thro the back
part of the State of Georgia; being in search of gold perhaps
the ancient signs of human work discovered in the
Gold region of Georgia was dug by him ‑ ‑ he went
thro part of Kentucky, Tennessee & returned to the bay
of Mobile- He fought the Hiscaloosas Mobilians,
& Alabamians & other tribes now forgotten. He fought
successfully for a long time; but illegible reaching red river
he died with fever & was buried in a strong coffin
sunk by lead bullets in the Mississippi that the in‑
might not obtain it‑ His wars resulted
in no good to his country but ruin to himself &
his followers-

1541. Muscoro succeeded Soto and led the army up
Red River to Natchetoches & Nacogdoches. Took
winter quarters here, built boats & descended the
Mississippi in the spring, had a brush or two with the

1558 Admiral Coliquy sought in Florida an assylum
for his persecuted protestants. Sean Ribaud headed the
colony & settled at Augustine


1670. Talon the first intendent of New France
dispatched father Marquette a recollet monk &
& Joil Joliet a trader both at Quebec in search of
a river which the Indians had given great accounts
of the Mississippi. They succeeded in descending fin-
it & descended the Red River- 1673 the only per‑
who had floated down it since the days of
Muscoso one hundred & thirty years before.

1678 Robert Cavelier de Lasalle, under the Prince
de Conti went on projected discoveries in compani
taking with him Chevalier de Toute a favorite of the
princes an italian officer.

1681. After many distressing circumstances & opposition both
from indians & disaffection of his own men, Lassalle
encamped on Red River March 27, 1681. He descended
and returned to Canada thence to France to announce his

4th July 1684. Lasalle, with 12 young men volunteers
& 50 soldiers set sail set sail under patronage of
Govt.. with to plant a colony on the Mississippi. In
sailing for the Mississippi they lost their [Illegible: mooring ] &
found themselves on an unknown shore. Lasalle wanted
the Capt. Of the vessel to sail again for Mississippi, he
refused; Lasalle & his men went ashore; the vessel returned
to France, & Lasalle after various efforts to find the Mississippi
finally built a fort on the Bay now known as St. Bernards.


St. Bernard & garrisoned it with one hundred men-
Shortly after he established another post up the river
Rio Colorado de Texas. He repulsed indians in fight‑
After long exertions & fatigue his followers became
anxious to return home, & attributing all their suffering
to their leader he together with his nephew was murdered
in 1687. near the western branch of the Trinity River-

This broke up the colony- they wandered awhile with
among the Indians ‑

The Spaniards hearing of this Settlement, sent Don
Alonzo de Leon to scour the country & hunt out the
french colony – he found none – met friendly by the
Assinais indians to whom Leon gave the appellation
of Texas or friends. a few years the spaniards sent
Missionaries out here among these indians & established
Military posts. These missions or posts were the
beginning of the spanish settlements in the province
of Texas. 1689‑ 91—etc.—

1698. Iberville now, flattering himself with better
success, resolved to follow out La Salle's projects-he
was patronized by Count de Pontchartrain. He met
with several of Lasalles men. Descending the Mississippi
he planted his colony on the eastern extremity of the Bay
of Biloxi. Here he built a fort. In May 1700 Iberville
sailed for France & left his brother Beneville at the head
of the colony & ordered St. Denys up the red river on discoveries‑


In 1702 Iberville returned from france bringing with
him a stores & a reinforcement of troops.
The colony paid but little attention to agriculture ‑
harrassed by perpetual strife & wars with the Indians;
the colony improved slowly, but little prosperity‑

1712 The King granted to Anthony Crozat the ex‑
commerce of Louisiana with great privileges
Crozat's charter bears date 26 sept. 1712.

1716. Beneville was still Govr. of the fro colony — Two
frenchmen had been killed by the Indians. Beneville
demanded the head of the chief by whose order these
men had been murdered; An Indian volunteered to die for
his chief & his head was accordingly severed & presented
to Beneville as the chiefs; but Beneville learning that it
was not the chiefs, still demanded the head of the chief.
A deputation waited on Beneville & offered themselves as
sacrifices to save their chiefs; Beneville was inexorable,
and the chief was finally executed illegible to appease him.

1716 St Denys was Crozat's agent to vend his goods.
He went to Natchitoches to sell them & also to prevent
the encroachments of the Spaniards from Texas. He
penetrated Texas down to where La Salle was murdered
about 36 years previous. Here he was taken prisoner
& sent to Mexico; imprisoned 3 months, released and received
with hospitality by Don Pedro; whose daughter he falls in love
with her mairiesRegularized:marries her and in six months departs for
Mobile leaving his wife pregnant.


1718 Beneville fixed upon the place where new
Orleans now stands as the principle settlement of the

1720‑ The spaniards having established posts &
missionaries among the Indians in Texas, now claimed
this country; Laharpe with men penetrated the coun‑
and claimed it by virtue of Lasalle's discoveries
36 years before as a part of Louisiana; he said that
he never heard that Spain had ever had any pretensions
to any part of the country east of Rio Bravo; all the
River flowing in the Mississippi with all the country
watered by them being the property of france. P. 58

(In 1769. Natchitoches had 811 inhabitants; its present population
is about 12 hundred) In 1783 its population was 756.
In 1803. at the cession to the U. S. pop. 1631. In 1810. 2870

1773 Daniel Boon with four other families commenced the settlement of Kentucky
Population of Mobile in 1785- was 746. in 1803. 810

Fort Butler on the Alabama river, probably named after
the brave & lamented Genl. Butler who fell in the destruc‑
of St. Clair's army

Miro threatens transportion to every Quarteroon etc. & who lives
who lives in a state of concubinage, & extravganceRegularized:extravagance in jewelry &
dress will be evidence of the fact. He complains that the
head dress established between the Quarteroons & whites had not been
kept up. He directs them to wear their hair bound up in a handkerchief



16631763. When Louisiana was transferred to Spain
by treaty; the inhabitants were much opposed to it &
sent on a deputation to france to petition the King
to rescind the treaty. Jean Millet was at the head of
the mission returned & reported his failure- It was
two years after the treaty before Spain took possession
of the Country. Don Antonio de Ulloa appointed by
the King of Spain [Illegible: by] to the Govt. of Louisiana arrived
at Orleans 1766, visited the several posts and spent
much time at Natchitoches. According to the census
taken this year there were between 5 & 6 thousand whites
and blacks of nearly an equal number.

Ulloa had never exhibited his authority to take
possession. The colony still flattered themselves that
they could prevent the transfer of the county to Spain;
but on finding there was no possibility of defeating
the treaty, many were for open resistance, and plead
the successful efforts of the American colonies in re‑
the StamptRegularized:Stamp act etc. to stimulate the hearts of the
timid & doubting- At a public meeting Resolution
was passed ordering UlolaRegularized:Ulloa from the country; he de‑
; but ere long an army was sent under the
command of O'Reilly to take possession. The French
colors were struck; the Spanish hoisted; & this ended
about 71 years after the arrival of Iberville the
Govt. of France of Louisiana


O'Reilly took possession of Louisiana in 1769. On
his first arrival he professed friendship & promised
oblivion to all the efforts which had been made to de‑
the treaty & the opposition to Ulloa; but so soon
as he was fixed in power he basely murdered all the
principle leaders in the opposition to Spanish authority—
O'Reilly's conduct was disapprobated by the King of
Spain who prohibited his appearance at court. The forces
he left in N.O.Regularized:New Orleans Sailed for Havanna—

1785. An attempt made to establish the inquisition‑

What was the disposition of Louisiana toward the
cause of the American Colonies during the Revolution?
They were not unfriendly to it. At the opening of the
Revolution there were In rend several Philadelphia Merchants
in N.O.Regularized:New Orleans all favorable to the American cause. Oliver Pollock
was the most zealous & distinguished. TheThey procured a supply arms and
ammunition for the settlers of the western part of Pennsylvania.
This came within the Knowledge of tl GalezRegularized:Galvez the Govr. Genl. of Louis—Regularized:Louisiana
Canoes were sent from Fort Pitt or Pittsburghto New O.Regularized:New Orleans to receive the mu‑
of war thus collected by Pollack & others. They were
delivered to Col. Gibson. Capt. Willing from Philadelphia who came in company
endeavored to persuade the British settlers in this quarter & FlordaRegularized:Florida
to join the Americans, but they refused & continued faithful to the
royal cause; probably from the apprehension that they might
be doomed to suffer as Milhet & others in Louisiana who opposed the
transfer of the countyRegularized:country to Spain; who drove Ulloa from the countyRegularized:country and was
after punished shamefully & treacherously by O'Reilly—


1778. Oliver Pollock now acted in N.O.Regularized:New Orleans" openly as agent for the
American Colonies. Galvez recognized him as such and
promoted his views. Galvez afforded them aid out of the
Royal Treasury, to the amt.Regularized:amount of 70 thousand dollars—
Capt. Willing on his second visit to N.O.Regularized:New Orleans with about 50
men, commenced a predatory war upon the british settlements
on the East side of the Mississippi at Baton Rouge & other places.
The british withdrew to the west side of the river into Louisiana
for safety, taking their slaves & other property. This act of Capt..
Willing was deemed inhuman & ungrateful as he had been
kindly recd.Regularized:received on his first visitby the very men whom he now plundered & whose
houses he burnt.

1779 Spain BrittanRegularized:Britain declared war against France for the
aid she had afforded the American colonies. In 1779. Spain
proposed that a meeting of the bligerentRegularized:belligerent powers at Madrid
where G. BritianRegularized:Great Britain should treat with the American colony as
independent nation. G. B.Regularized:Great Britain refused; Spain then under the
pretext or charge G. B.Regularized:Great Britain wished to indemnify herself for the loss
of America & fo by seizing on Spanish possessions & to accom‑
this had sat the Indians of Florida upon the people
of Louisiana, she declared war against G. B.Regularized:Great Britain So soon as
Spain's declaration of war agantRegularized:against Britian reached Louisiana
Galvez the Govr.. rallied all the Americans in & about N.O.Regularized:New Orleans
who were joined by militia voluntersRegularized:volunteers, making an army of
about 14 hundred men. Galvez directed his operations aganstRegularized:against
Baton Rouge, where. Col. Dickson commanding at Baton Rouge
had only five hundred men. Galvez; succeeded easily in taking it


it; a capitulation took place, and Galvez had the honor
of having the exploit celebrated b in a poem by Julian
Poydrass a man of wealth genius & afterwards a member
of Congress.
1779. Congress sent a minister to Madrid for the
purposes of negociatingRegularized:negotiating a treaty by which the U.S.Regularized:United States might
be entitled to th a participation in the navigation of the
Mississippi. Spain opposed it; France discountenanced it.
It was contended by Spain, that the U.S.Regularized:United States had no claims
to any part of the British possessions in Florida or on the
east side of the Mississippi, and as Spain was now at
war with G. B.Regularized:Great Britain She had a right to conquer & take permanent
possession of Florida & the British settlements on Mississippi,
and its was expected by Spain that the U.S. would prohibit
all the all attempts abstain from any attempt to take possession
her or conquer it herself, or & notpermit the southern people
to make any enroachments by forming settlements on it —

1780. Galvez after his achieventRegularized:acheivement at Baton Rouge was
promoted to some higher command. His army had
been disbanded inconsequence of the yellow fever &
small pox; but having received reinforcement from
Havanna, he marched against Mobile; and after many
disasters by storms, he reached there; erected battery against
the Fort (Charlotte) and finally drove the commandent — into
capitulation — Galvez now returned to N.O.Regularized:New Orleans and
projected an invasion of Pensacola. He was equally


successful in taking that place. The garrison was
commanded by Genl. Campbell; he was driven to surren‑
, and in the articles of capitulations signed May
1781. Pensacola with the whole province of West Florida was
surrenderdRegularized:surrender to Spain. Thus had Spain reacquired from
by conquest all the possessions which she had ceded to
G. B.Regularized:Great Britain in 1763. Galvez was rewarded by the appointment
of Capt-Genl. of the provinces of Louisiana & Florida—

Soon after this a general treaty was formed between
G. B.Regularized:Great Britain the USRegularized:United States & Spain. G. BritainRegularized:Great Britain confirmed West
Florida to Spain and also ceded E. Florida to her. " G. B.Regularized:Great Britain
acknowledged the Independence of the U.S.Regularized:United States and recognized
as their southern boundary, a line to be drawn
due east from a point in the river Mississippi in
the latitude of 31 degrees, north of the equator, to the
middle of the River Chattachoochee; thence along the
middle thereof. to its junction with Flint river; thence
straitRegularized:straight to the head of St. Mary's river to the atlantic
ocean." This is the dividing line between the
U.S.Regularized:United States and Spanish possessions. The navigation of the
Mississippi was free and open to Spain, Great B.Regularized:Great Britain, &
the U.S.
A difficulty now arose between Spain & the U.S.Regularized:United States with
regard to the Boundary; When Spain ceded Florida to Britain
in 1762. The norther boundary was fixed at the 31st. degree of
north latitude; But G. B.Regularized:Great Britain afterward, wishing to take in some


important settlements, extended the line of Florida due east to
from the mouth of the Yazoo river; in latitude 32.28.
Spain after the general treaty of '83; contended that
the line was intended to start from this latter point that
in latitude 32.28, & runs to the Chattahoochee, because that
boundary of extension of the boundary of Florida by G. B.
had always been recognized & acquiesed in; But the U.S.
contended for the lines 31st.. degree of north latitudes being the
proper & true point, 1st because G. B. had no right to have
extended Florida as she had done, & secondly, because the
31st degree was distinctly specified as the starting point, in
the illegible treaty of 83.
Another difficulty arose about the navigation
of the Mississippi. Spain contended that G.B. nor
the U.S. having no land either bank of the river
they had no right to demand its navigation; but the
U.S. contended for her right under the treaty, and also
by virtue of her succeeding to the british right to the
left bank above the Bayou Manchac; Britain had
claimed the a participant in the navigation by treaty of 62;
The U.S. succeeded to her claim. The U.S. insisted upon
a litteral fulfilment of the treaty of 83,
When quarrels lasted for a series of years and
were finally settled, by the retro-cession of Louisiana by
Spain to France, & the subsequent cession of the territory
to the U.S. in 18___ and the purchase of Florida in 1819—


During the period between the general treaty of
peace and of 1783. to the cession of the country to the
U.S., what were the prominent circumstances in the
HystoryRegularized:history of Louisiana? First an attempt to establish
the Inquisition defeated by Miro Gov.—2nd The deep interest the colony took in
the French Revolution.
The efforts of Genl. Wilkinson to
establish trade between the western people & N.O.Regularized:New Orleans — permission
is granted him 1789. The unsuccessful attempts of the U.S. to ob‑
by negociation with Spain permission to navigate the Mississippi
French Revolution; Louisiana takes deep interest. Genet the
french minister, planned two expeditions against Louisiana for
the purpose of taking from Spain & attaching it to France.
Many Americans join in the project & receive commissions
from him. Baron de Carondelet Gov. at this time was a
Frenchman, but took all necessary means to defeat Genet.
Carondelet attempts to separate the Western Country from
the Atlantic States. In 1795 by treaty the U.S. has the
right to navigate the Mississippi. Carondelet still prosecu‑
his views of separating the Western Country, sent Powers
under some other pretence, to Kentucky to consult with Genl.
Wilkinson and other leading men. Lacasagne, Sebastian
Brackenridge & others leading men; Powers saw Wilkinson
who was unwilling to join in the project; Powers returned
amp; reported to the Baron, that whatever might have once been
the disposition of Kentucky to such a scheme, the people
were now indisposed to it, since they had gain the navi‑
of the Mississippi & Congress had afforded them suc‑
against the indians.


The U.S. in consequence of some spotiations on american
property, was disposed to quarrel with France; JnRegularized:John Adams
was Gov. President; he conceived the idea of conquering
N.O.Regularized:New Orleans as indemnity & also to quiet the Western people,
and additions were made to the army for this purpose, but
Adams seeing no prospect of a reellection not being reellected, the project was abandoned,

By the treaty on the first of Octr..Regularized:October 1800 between Spain &
France, Louisiana was ceded to France. The cession was
affected in 1801. Buonaparte took immediate possession.
The French Louisaniansrejoiced at this. They had been under
Spanish dominion for 34 years; and were glad now
to be united to their brethren from whom they had
been severed. But their rejoicings were of short dur‑
for in 1803 Bonaparte who had caused Spain to
give up the country to France, now sold the country to the
U.S. Thos.Regularized:Thomas Jefferson was President. The tri colored flag
which had been so recently hoisted was lowered, and the
striped banner hois elevated in its stead —
Congress authorized the President to take possession of
the Territory in Oct. The President done so, and appointed
Claiborn who was Govr.Regularized:Governor of Mississippi & GenlRegularized:General Wilkinson
Commissioners for receivgRegularized:receiving the ceded teritory

The U.S. gave 15 millions dollars —
Claiborn was the first governor —
Burr the late vice President visited N.O.Regularized:New Orleans 1805.
The first legislature was held in Louisiana 1806


What is the hystoryRegularized:history of N.O.Regularized:New Orleans from its purchase
up to 1812. The people were dissatisfied at the new
order of things; The appointment of Claiborn, Govr.Regularized:Governor who knew
nothing of this manners or language was offensive; his
sudden introduction of new laws & municipal proceedings
embarreessedRegularized:embarrassed & confused them; the old militia disbanded
& the Americans organized into volunteer companies & patron‑
by Claiborn; Claiborn's marked & obvious distinction be‑
the american the two classes of citizens; these &
other such acts, induced the peop together with the scar‑
of coin, & the uncertain period when they should be
admitted as a State into the Union, induced the in‑
to hold public meetings, at which Memorial
was drawn up & a deputation chosen to carry it to
Congress. Their memorial deputationwas unsuccessful; Congress passed
a law declaring the Govt shall be such as had been established in laws of Mississippi; & that the Territory
should be admitted into the Union as soon as the population
should amount to the constitutional number viz. Sixty thousand —

Then came Burr into the country. In a year thereafter
the President of the U.S was informed that Burr was med‑
mischief to the Union thro'Regularized:through the Western States;
but as these States were not suspected with any want of
fidelity & attachment to the Govt. no attention was at first paid
to the reports; the rumor however gaining strength, that an
association extending from N. YorkRegularized:New York thro'Regularized:through the [Illegible: west] to N.O.Regularized:New Orleans at
the head of which was Burr, the president began to look upon


the matter in the light of a serious conspiracy; and appointed
Graham Secretary of the territory of Orleans to investigate
the plot, ferret out the workers and bring them to punish‑
. The president in the mean time issued his procla‑
announcing the existence of the conspiracy, invoking
warning the citizens from engaging in it & calling on all
officers civil & military to be active & vigilentRegularized:vigilant in sup‑
it. This gave Genl. Wilkinson an opportunity to
figure in the affair. With a suddenmost extraordinary zeal for the
safety of N.O.Regularized:New Orleans & the Country, he wrote to the President that some
he had discovered some of the most disteng eminent men disten‑
hither to for integrity were engaged in the plot; he
let out important contracts for the fortification of the City secretly
and called upon the Govr. of Mississippi for troops who
refused because Wilkinson refused to state what he wanted
with them; he calls upon seizes by force & violence Bollman
& others as conspirators; & shipped them off it was not known
where; Judge Workman granted writs of Habeas Corpus for
their releasemt; Wilkinson disregards them; takes the judge
prisoner & calls upon the Legislature to suspend the writ
of Habeas Corpus; they refuse
; Judge Workman liberated; he
calls upon Claiborne as Govr. to protect the people of
the Territory from military violence & maintain the civil
institutions & authority of the country. The Govr. declines doing any‑
thing & made an unsuccessful attempt on the Legislature to suspend the Habeas Corpus of & Workman resigns his commission in disgust in
Claiborne Rumor was afloat that Burr was desending the Mississippi
with boats & and an armed force; was taken at Natches, but making his escapeClaiborn issues a proclaimation in [...]offering


a reward of two thousand dollars for his apprehension‑
He was ‑ re‑ apprehended in March 1807 near for Stoddart &
placed under a strong guard was conducted to Richmond
Virginia for trial. I remember when he passed by our
dwelling on his way thither, in warren county. Genl. Wil‑
in May following proceeded to Richmond to attend Burrs
trial. After a long & tedious examination of the matter
Burr was pronounced by the jury Not Guilty. Then took
a new turn in Genl. Wilkinson's fortunes. In december next there‑
after he a motion was made in Congress in 1807 to bring Genl.
Wilkinson to trial, who was strongly suspected not only of
being a pensioner of Spain, but also a participater in
Burr's conspiracy. Wilkinson hearing this demanded a
court of enquiry; it was granted him.The court closed its
deliberations in June acquitting the General. The president
approved the verdict. But not withstanding this verdict a
general impression prevailed that he was guilty. A man by
the name of Clark made a publication against him, arraying
such a force of testimony against him as to convince could
not easily be gainsaid or surmounted, shewing that he had
been a pensioner of Spain & accomplice of Burr's, that
the clamor became so great that he was ordered to return
to Washington City – Wade Hampton superceeded him in com‑
of the troops – Wilkinson went to Washington. Two
committees reported on his case neither actually [Illegible: caning] him
& yet neither acquitting him & Congress adjourned without doing anything. A court martial was after‑
the illegible wards
ordered in N.O.Regularized:New Orleans for his trial; the charges


gainst him were two that he had rec.dRegularized:received money from
Spain, that he had contrived with Carondelet to separate the
western States people from the atlantic States; that he was an ac‑
of Burr's; that he had wasted public money
& had disobeyed orders. The trial terminated in his
acquittal & the President approved the award 14 February
1812. This terminated the affair of Burr & Wilkinson.
It is still the belief of thousands that both are guilty.
The object of Burr was not discovered, but report assigned
to him three separate objects — 1st The erection of a new
Govt.Regularized:Government in the west by a separtion of the people from the Union;
secondly; thatan attack on Mexico; & thirdly, the
settlement of the large tract of land granted by Carondelet
to Baron de Bastrop on the Washita river. Be his
object what it might, it is believed by many that Wilkin
‑ son
once attached to the cause because alarmed and
turned traitor to it, & basely betrayed his friend.
This brings matters down to the declaration of War —
Louisiana [Illegible: Dabanliana] was admitted into the Union in 1811
admitted 30th April 1812.


On the 12th FebruaryRegularized:February 1813. Congress authorized the president
of the Us.Regularized:United States to occupy & hold that part of West Florida
lying west of the river Perdido, not then in the possession
of the U.S. When [...] Louisiana was ceded to the US. though
she claimed to the river Perdido yet she left Mobile in
possession of Spaniards. Clairborn was ordered not to interfere
with any fort then occupied by Spain. But in 1813 the US
States deemed it improper & unsafe longer to delay taking
possession, & orders were accordingly issued to Genl. Wilkinson
to take Mobile. The task was easy of execution for the
Fort tho' Charlotte strong was not garisoned with more than 150
efficient men. Don Gayetans Perez commanded who
ui soon perceived the necessity of capitulation. With A
part of the artillery retained by Wilkinson he sent to
Mobile point which commands the entrance of the bay;
A small force is still kept up at the point where is
stationed my military com friend Lieut. McKenzie.
After this Wilkinson was returned to N.O.Regularized:New Orleans & was shortly
ordered to join the army on the frontiers of Canada.
Genl. Florinory succeeded him in the command of the
forces on the Mississippi; but not failed to acquit
himself with any high achievements. He was a lawyer of
[Illegible: Aryents Geo.] & no part of a military man; he may have
had the thirst but not the abilities of one; he was approved
to the command in violation of all the rules of gradation, by
the recommendation of Mr. Crawford, whose interest he afterwards
opposed when he was candidate for president of the US —


Texas — Bay St. Bernard
About 1799 the Spaniards erected a fort on the
ruins of one which La Salle and desplayedRegularized:displayed on
it the Spanish flag. A few years after Laharpe
was commissioned to take possession of St the bay of
St. BarnardRegularized:Bernard. The project however was viewed in
Louisiana as premature & was disapprobated.
Laharpe proceeded. His instruction was to take
formal possession of the county by building a fort and by
placing on a post the arms of France in some conspic‑
place on the sea shore. He endeavored to excite the
indians against the Spaniards & asked of them permission
to establish a colony which they refused. After several ad‑
, some not the most honorable with the indians he
returned and reported the unpredictability of making
at that time any settlement in that quarter. I know of
subsequent efforts on the part of the French to take
possession of the country. The Spaniards retaindRegularized:retained their
foot hold, increased their settlements & have remained
in possession of the country ever since. This excludes every
shadow of just claims of France to the territory as a
part of Louisiana by virtue of LaSalle. Page 43.


If you have be had the patience to wade thro'Regularized:through the long
and wearisome letters hertoforeRegularized:heretofore written to you, you will prob‑
remember the early attempts which were unsuccessfully
made by France to gain Texas as a part of Louisiana.
LaSalle's location on the Colorado, and his unfortunate and
together with the disperssionsRegularized:dispersions & suffering of his followers will
not have escaped your nc notice. You will recollect that
after the failure of LaSalle's attempted settlement of Texas
the Spaniards made their way into that country, first by
sending missionaries among the Indians, then erecting a fort
on the ruins of one once reared by LaSalle, and finally plan‑
a colony. Laharpe was sent to drive them thence, assert
the claims of France, and formally to take possession; but
the enterprizeRegularized:enterprise failing entirely, the Spaniards retain their
occupancy, and the country has been continued in their unmolested
possissionRegularized:possession until the Mexican revolution of 1821. ever since As tenacious however as Old Spain was
of her right to this territory, yet she took no steps towards
extending her settlements or in increasing its population
and reducing it to cultivation; but on the contrary rather
seemed ready to oppose check enterprise and arrest emigration. She
was not willing that other nations should get a foot hold in
the country, & yet was unwilling herself to take any measures
for the its improvement. The reason of this was that Spain
was not only jealous of other nations but had become jealous of the province of Mexico, and apprehend‑
that this promise would some day be disposed to revolt
from her authority, she was disposed to throw every obstacle


in the to MexicosRegularized:Mexico's accumulation of strength. Emigration into
Texas was accordingly interdicted; Travellers were not permitted
to [Illegible: venture ] to the country and every foreigner found on its soil,
viewed in the light of a tresspasser was subject to such pun‑
as despotism might prescribe. But not withstanding all
these efforts on the part of Spain to prevent the settlement of
Texas, yet many of her new subjects, in violation of the prohi‑
moved thither and formed themselves into small compact
colony or towns and lived abstracted from the world, in poverty & ignorance, cut off from all commerce trade etc. It was this that Nacogdoches first commenced.
It was settled foundedabout the same time with PhilidelphiaRegularized:Philadelphia, and if it
had have been fostered by a like govt.. and salutary laws, U it would
now, instead of being an insignificant rendezvous of some 5 or six
3 or 4 hundred penniless adventurers, it might be equal in char‑
& learning to this great O Athens of America and in wealth
& population unrivalled by any a inland city in the U.S. Th Such
is the widely different or opposite effects which despotic & free
Govt.s Regularized:Governments have in developing the resources of a country and [...]
ap appropriating converting into blessings the bounty of nature its the blessings of [...]
Under the depressing influence of Despotism Nacogdoches has
slept for a century in ignorance idleness & poverty, whilst at PhilidelelphiaRegularized:Philadelphia
deemed scouraged by the under the auspices of the Goddess of liberty
has reared her stupendous edifice shed over the continent her
the light of science, and whitened every sea with the sails of commerce.
The very same effects of the two systems are equally perceptible in the char‑
morals, and ability of man. Despotism debases the human
soul to the level of the brute creation; Freedom elevates it to a
condition compatible with dignity of its original creator, & man


walks abroad in the glorious impress of his God.
Now it was from such unwise and jealous policy that
Texas, remained for more than a century to the world an unknown
wilderness. No attempts had been made by Spain to reclaim it;
But as soon as No one had any knowledge of the face of the country
or fertility of its soil. It was not until Mexico had succeeded
in emancipating herself from the dominion of Spain, and erecting
herself as an independent republic, that the county was open exam‑
and opened to the adventuring pioneer. Mexico obtainedproclaimed her
independence in 1821; adopted the republican constitution in 1824 and immediately thereafter, judiciously dire‑
her attention to the unoccupied territory which had so long
been suff suffered to remain undisputed by the ploughshare in its primitive condition — She
had the example of the American States before her: the Govt. Regularized:Government of
the U.S. had wisely & liberally thrown open her vast & fertile regions
not only to her own people, but to emigrants from all quarters
of the world; and the unexampled increase of wealth population &
happiness that follows & resulted, determined the genlRegularized:general Congress of
Mexico to pursue the same policy and invite to foreigners from
all countries to a residence in a country which had was new ascertained
to be unrivaled in beauty salubrity & fertility —The door of emigration
was accordingly thrown open to this delightful province. The Govt.
now passed laws for the regulation of the Distribution of the lands;
and the first grant which she made to an Empresarias for was
to Col. Stephen F. Austin.

It must be remarked however that one abor one
abortive attempt had been made by an enterprising individual to colonize the county
previous to its spearation Regularized:separation from Spanish authority. Col. Austin


from Louisiana who has travelled extensively in the country & who he and
perhaps the only foriegner who had any correct knowledge
of it succeeded in obtaining from Old Spain a grant
for an extensive body of land which he selected on the
waters of the Brazos & the Colorado with the agreement
that he sold in [Illegible: a] specified period he was to plant upon the
colony 1000 families; but in consequence of the Revolution
in Mexico, which broke out very shortly after he had ob‑
his grant, together with other causes operated a he was
defeat of defeated in his extensive schemes; and he died shortly after
without having realized any thing from his exertions—
In 1824 the Mexico adopted a Federal Constitution;
and imitating the Americans not only the construction
of their govt. Regularized:government but also in the happy policy of speedily settling
her unappropriated domain, she commenced that course of
generous encouragement to emigration which has so soon
populated the country with — thousand souls and made
the wilderness to bloom & blossom like the rose. The first
steptRegularized:step which she took towards advancing this favorite project
was the renewal of the forfeited Grant to Austin to his
son Col.. Stephen F. Austin. To this followed other grants
in rapid succesion, and the tide of [Illegible: paper] emigration has annu‑
increased & is still increasing with quadruple rapidity.
You may perhaps be pleased with to see arranged in

cronologicalRegularized:chronological order the names of the various individuals
[Illegible: who now ] obtainedto whom these grants have issued for. Where they are. I give them
not only in their true authography, but such as are as source of them


are spanish names and of difficult pronunciation, I shall will,
for convience to you, adopt the plan of Walker in his
dictionary and spell them as they are pronounced. Like‑
wise I will give the date of the grants and specify the num‑
of families contracted to be planted on each.
Names No. of Families. When they expire.
[...] Col. Austin forfutedRegularized:forfeited & renewed to his son 1000 families. date not known.
Stephen F. Austin not known. date not known.
Vehlein's 300 21 DecrRegularized:December. 1835.
Burnet's 300 22 " — "
Pardilla & Chambers' 800 12 FebryRegularized:February 1836
Cameron's 200 21 May "
Austin & Williams's 800 25 FebryRegularized:February 1837
Felisolas' 600 15 OctRegularized:October "
Cameron's 200 19 SeptRegularized:September "
Milam's, now Dominguez, Soto etc. 1 FebRegularized:February . 1838
Beciles & Rayuelas' 14 March "
Lefturich or Nashville Company May "
McMullen & McGloin's 200 16 Augt.Regularized:August "
Beales in the State of Tamaulipas 9 OctRegularized:October "
Soto & Egerton also in Tamaulipas 1 JanryRegularized:January 1840
Austin (Mores) obtained his grant under Ferdinand
7th, King of Spain —



"Under the dominion of Spain;. Texas was a separate
province occupied by three military posts, la Bahia,
St. Antonio de Bexar and Nacogdoches; and settle‑
of Mexicans werRegularized:were formed around each, which
grew into a considerable town at bexar, of about 3000
and at Nacogdoches & La Bahia into villages of
about 5 & three hundreRegularized:hundred inhabitants; This number has
not increased & forms at present nearly the amtRegularized:amount of
Mexican & Spanish population in Texas."
New York American Octr.Regularized:October 1834
Old Austins name was Moses; he obtained his grant
his grant from the Commandant at Bexar; he went
to Orleans the U.S. to procure settlers and died on his route.
His son S F Austin applied to the Commandant to let
him have his fathers contract, but the commandant decli‑
. So soon as a new order of things was established in
Mexico after the revolution he went there & made appli
to the Govt.Regularized:Government The Govt.Regularized:Government granted it; and passed a
general law for colonizing the country.


From Natchitoches to Nachogdoches

I left Natchitoches, that town of filth, fever & feuds
on Wednesday afternoon 15 July and proceeded only
about 9 miles to a Mr Freeman's where I tarried the night
and fared myself much better than my mare, which was
limited in her supper to little more than a quart of corn, without fodder or
oats or grass and in the morning was served with a breakfast equally
scanty and dry. My bill was a dollar & quarter. After early
breakfast taking leave of liberal landlord I proceeded solemn &
solitary on my over a barronRegularized:barren tract of country of thin gray
soil sandy soil but little tempting to emigration, for about 15
miles when I stopped at MrStoker's where I found a dinner
adapted to my appetite & where my mare made her was fur‑
with ample opportunity of supplying the deficiencies of the
two preceeding feeds. She had corn oats & fodder in abundance
and doubtless done as much execution in the manger as I
did in the trencher. From Stokers I passed Fort Jessup, founded by Genl GainsRegularized:Gaines, a handsomRegularized:handsome barracks. I reached just about dusk
about 8 miles from the fort the habitation of an antiquated widow, Mrs Brown, where I
was told that my mule could be furnished provided with oats
a very material consideration as the article was so plenty & the store of old corn was
almost entirely consumed on the road. At most of the public
stands nothing was to be had but green corn, an article, which,
the inexperienced in very few days riding will find in‑
& unsuitable for a horse travelling animal. My
nag was here with abundantly served with food, but badly


watered. I said My land lady was antiquated intimated mine hostess was somewhat advanced
in the vale of years, but she was not more ancient in this
particular than she was in manners. She is a genuine
relictRegularized:relic of the old fashiondRegularized:fashioned people in the country, who some
20 years ago acted from instinct, spurned all formality
and spoke without art. I enquired if she would have tea
for supper; no, she replied tea was not as good as coffee; but on telling
her that I not only preferred it but could not drink coffee
she replied that she had good milk & I could drink that. I
insisted however on having tea, and believing that she possibly
might not have the of it it probable she had
none of the article, I poured from a tin canister which
I had filled with the article green leaf the necessary quantity and presen‑
it to her; she took it & promised cheerfully enough to have
drawn in time for supper, but said that she had plenty of
her own and would placed what I handed her on the
shelf as she said for another time; that time however came
not to me, for I departed early next morning after settling a
moderate bill of 62 1/2 cents. Some where between MrsBrowns
and Freeman's, I came to a creek where the bridge had just
fallen in with a waggonRegularized:wagon heavily laden with merchandize &
drawn by 6 yoke of oxen all of which together with the driver went down to the deep
bottom of the channel with an awful crash & a splash. No
material damage was done to the live stock, but driver & his
whole team having miraculously escaped with unbroken bones. The waggonRegularized:wagon
met a sadder fate; with every spoke fellow & hub broke &
every joint wrenched every nail drawn & every plank shivered


& splintered the unfortunate vehicle exhibited a picture of large with the goods floating
around it like a school-boy's demolished trap, or the disjointed fragments of a
ruined world. But never mind that. With permission I will
proceed with my important & deeply interesting narativeRegularized:narrative. My
next day's journey was 8 & twenty miles; it being 16 miles to the
Sabine where I stopped & fed and twelve thence to Mr. Andersons Mr. Ander
where I took quarters for the night. The Sabine you
know is the dividing line between Texas and Louisiana, a
narrow muddy stream, emptying into the GulphRegularized:Gulf of
Mexico and not navigable except probably a few months
for small keel boats. immediately on its western bank
resides Mr Gaines, the proprietor of the ferry, an old settler
in Texas an intelligent & worthy gentleman, from
him whom I gathered much useful information with regard to the
present political condition of the Country. He has been
acting as Alcalda, which with us is Justice of the Peace,
and it would be well if the offices were generally filled
with men having half his information ability & disposition to
do right; but in consequence of the law requiring the
Alcalda to reside or hold his courts at the seat of Justice he resigned the
office rather encounter the inconvienceRegularized:inconvenience of which he
would have attendant upon faithful & punctual atten
dence compliance with the law requisition & a punctual atten‑
to duty. Mr Anderson It is useless to say that here my
stood up to her corn & fodder, and the reason was she had some to stand up to.
fared well, not scantily fed, she stood up to a rack filled
with fodder and a trough full of corn; and such is the
always the case when I have the good fortune to sojourn


with a man of breeding & gentility. No man person of good
education and politeness will ever starve put a travellersRegularized:traveler's
weary animal on half allowance to save a sixpence worth of oats or corn
it is never done except only by those the vulgar whose souls
have not been expanded by intelligence and whose
humanity but whose in whom selfishness has been fostered by igno‑
and humanity has been suffered perish for the want of reflection —

Mr Anderson, the gentleman above mentioned with
whom I domiciled the night, was is worthy of a passing remark
for having so egregiously violated the Malthusian poli‑
of population. As I lay on the floor stretched my
limbs on the floor to recruit my exhausted strength,
there flocked around all in noisy confusion a battall‑
of dogs & children; It was in which it was difficult to determine
which were the more numerous or noisy. That a new settler
pioneer in a country where game abounded should have
around him a vociferous pack of hounds is a circumstance
may be reasonably expected & easily justified;
it was no way surprising, but how came these congregated
there such a number of children from three to six feet
high in regular gradation like a pair of stairs, was a matter
for which I could not so readily account, nor perceive the
policy or reasonableness of. Perhaps he was a schoolmaster,
or more likely he took they were there as boarders con‑
to some neighboring school; but no, neither is right;
those children are all his own; and what is still more
extraordinary & laughable is that they are not half which


he has. Of how many do you suppose he is the father?
twelve, higher 15 - higher 20 higher 25 thats the numbeRegularized:number
and I put him against any other man in ten states who
has been married only twice & only one wife at a time. Now Malthus says that
population increases faster than the products for its support;
proposition no doubt true in dense populated countries;
and if Mr Anderson were living in such I would say that
he had done no service to community; but residing in
a fertile region & sparse population, I can look upon his
achievent Regularized:achievementin no other light than a worthy effort to settle
[Illegible: a] the south western wilds, for which he ought to be
rewarded with 25 leagues of the richest soil of Texas.
Here my own fare was not very good and my mare's would have
been much worse, if I had not examined the stable previous to retiring to bed and
bribed the servant to replenish the empty trough. My bribe
I left before breakfast paying him 125 ctsRegularized:cents, just double
the sum which I had paid the night previous at Mrs Browns for the
same provender and a superior supper, but of this I could
Regularized:[not] reasonably complain as he had per adventure more than
trebbleRegularized:triple the number of children to provide for than my
unsophisticated widow. Taking an even start with the
sun I journiedRegularized:journeyed on at the rate of 4 miles an hour until
which brought me to mr Thompson's about the hour of twelve.
Here I took up my abode for two or three a few days; arriving
on Friday Saturday morning and decamping on Monday morning; receiving
during the time suitable attention & kindness; and paying on
my departure 3 dollars to the friendly host & 50 cents to the Servants.


Indisposition was the cause of my stopping. I was con‑
but not having sufficiently recovered from my billious
attack in Natchitoches to encounter much fatigue,
and the long days journey which I had made the day
previous threw me into a high fever, which returned the
next morning with increased violence and disabled me from
promoting my proceeding beyond this gentleman's house.
[Illegible: Time] passed off as pleasantly as was compatible with
the condition of my health. The inmates of the habitation
were not wanting in kindness;' and I had the satisfac‑
of meeting here three of my worthy acquain‑
from Georgia, who were just from the waters of
the Brasos Regularized:Brazos and now homeward bound. They had all suffered
more or less from fever & the relazing in debilitating in‑
of the sun on the broad prairies. They were
bracing themselves up by the potent energies of Quinine
and on their recommendation I took a dose of it myself
which only served to increase hightenRegularized:heighten my fever.

A Camp meeting was held in the neighbor‑
about two miles off. This caused several good from [Illegible: that party] many
persons of mixed character & from distant sections to call on impose themselves on my host for gratuitous accomodation which
afforded me an opportunity of making several inquiries
in relation to face of the country & the conditions of the principle rivers.
to navigation They satisfied me that the lands were generally
fertile & the water courses not susceptible of extensive navigation.
Here, for the first time I heard anything like political dis‑
a portion of the company enters into it with some


warmth, whilst all seemed to take more or less interest in the
matter. Some were in favor of immediate separation from
the Central Govt others thought they had no grounds of com‑
against Mexico, whilst others expressed [Illegible: from] a desire
to have the country purchased by the U.S. which was also
met with opposition. I found however that all
with one or two individual exceptions expressed their opinions
with great caution & reserve as if they were affraidRegularized:afraid from
some cause, I know not what, of making their opinions
fully & freely known. Amongst the company was an unfor-
gentleman, unfortunate in two particulars, first in
having too long a tongue and secondly in having lost his abscond-
wife; who was too loquacious to be long silent, and too
much taken up with himself to talk upon any other subject.
No matter what topic was introduced,politics whether religion, politics
or speculation, he was certain to be the loudest and longest speak-
and as invariably slided from the matter of discussion
into a tedious hystory of his own private affairs - It appears
from his own representation that there dwelt in the
neighborhood an old man who was a notorious despiser of truth
and a great dealer in slander who [Illegible: notwithstanding] had a beau-
and true spoken daughter who seems not to have inherited
her father's failings with whom our hero fell desperately
in love and with the brevity of another hero of ancient date
who came, saw and conquered so he woed and won and married this
fair paragon. It is not known how far he was influenced
in the matter by [Illegible: fie] the prospect of securing advantage


but certain it is, that in a short time after the happy
union, he demanded of his father-in-law certain cows
bulls and heiffers wh as the rightful property of his blushing
bride purchased by her own labor and secured to her by title
in her maiden name, which aforesaid stock the old man
had promised day to day to deliver but with his proverb-
hostility to truth still refused to do. This was not long
to be borne and a quarrel shortly ensued between the party
which increased in violence until they came to open hostility
to each other and [...] of character. One serene
and beautiful evening when our hero was as tranquil
as the close of day, he chucked his bride under the chin,
and laughingly said "I wonder Serena how it happened
that bad a father should have so good a daughter." The
bride flattered with attention and doubtless partaking some
little of the general disgust against the old man, as also
a little indignant at not having her cattle duly surrendered
she said to the good natured husband that if he would
what had [Illegible: passed ] she would tell him something. "An-
of beauty and goodness I will forgive you any and every thing.
What is it?" "Why" replied the lady, he is not my father
whom you take to be, my mother is my mother, but my
father is another man." Our hero ordinarily was a sen-
man but he was too much devoted to his fair Serena
to love her less on the account of what she could help -
Parentage and birth was nothing as long as she was all beautiful
and virtuous, and his felicity was not to be interrupted by light


and trifling causes. It was doomed however to receive
a severer shock. He was visited early one morning by
his old enemy, who told him that Serena the beautiful
Serena had been over to his house and after expressing her
utter disgust over the brutality of her husband requested him
to call this morning and take her home; that she was
resolved no longer to live with a man for whom it was
impossible for her to retain any affection or respect. This would
have operated on any other person as a damper;
but our hero was in somethings a philosopher and to the
message and demand of the old man he coolly thus replied
If Serena talks about me she does the same about you.
But a few evenings ago she told me your conduct was so
disgraceful and rascally that she was determined no lon-
to bear the infamy of caling you father; she says that
she is not your daughter, that she had been always con-
as such to schreene her mother from infancy but the
infamy of [Illegible: feel] being your daughter is more insupportable
than her mother's disgrace." This was certainly a [Illegible: pozer;]
a good roland to the old man's oliver, but the result of the
affair was however proved disastrous to the unhappy bridegroom; for the
old woman, now took taking sides with her husband against the
unfortunate son-in-law and by united efforts finally suc-
in [Illegible: process] prevailing on the newly made wife to
return to her mother's habitats leave her disconsolate hus-
towhat progress he is making is the [Illegible: in thy species of destitute Asoper defeat] knoweth not die of a broken heart. Thus stand [Illegible: she off]
matters between them for the present; probably likely to continue so.


I was too unwell to attend camp meeting more
than to spend a few hours there on saturday noon.
The congregation was not very large say 150 which was
attributed to the inclemency of the weather. I was told
that one had been held last year in the neighborhood
which was numerously attended. I heard but a part
of a discourse which was interrupted by the rain. The
Preacher's name was Stephenson; he was on a missionary
visit to Texas, but not being allowed anything from
by the Conference out of the missionary fund, his depen‑
for support was upon the contributions of his con‑
He seemed to be a zealous & sincere
man but if his pay be only in proportion to the qual‑
of his preaching his maintanceRegularized:maintenance will be scanty
& precarious. A young Minister rose in the pulpit
& announced that a collection would be taken up the next
day for father Stephenson and after the proper quantity
of blarny to his audience he hoped they would not
only be liberal in feeling but also in their pockets—
He was a sharp spruce looking hick who might be
more readily taken for a gawky country beau than an ambas‑
from God. His shirt and his cravat was tied not
tastilyRegularized:tastefully & neatly but in the manner of the latest fashions and
his shirt collar was equally as broad as mine which you
know is not very narrow, but differing in this particular, that
mine are is turned down, whilst his running to a point
projected like two up to his eyes like the horns of the


of the moon and shoving up under his ears it seemed almost
to lift him off the ground. He looked like he would have
to mount a stump to spit over his cravat. His name I
knoweth not & if I knew it would be useless to give; he may
probably be really a serous serious man in spite of his collar
and a sincere christian in spite of his "false bosom."
I noticed in the congregation among the ladies a due
proportion of beauty, and among the men the usual
order dignity and appearance. Indeed so far as
looks and propriety of conduct & behavior was concerned
I doubt whether you could find in a similar promising
assemblage of the same number, a larger share of it
in any parts of my own State. Two ladies particularly
struck my attention, one of them a married lady whose was married,
whom I afterwards saw at Mr Thompson's, whose per‑
attractions as well as gracefullness of manners which
united dignity with ease, and elegance with simplicity would
have adorned & enlivened the proudest mansion in any
country. To me she looked like a lost pleiad which had
been shaken from the bands of Orion & was wandering out of its proper sphere. The other lady
had mild blue eyes, skin that would shame the snow,
and features of pleasing regularity, and nothing
wanting to make her a belle [...] courtof the first water at life &
animation. I called her the dead beauty. From a
young physician a native of Virginia & a man of intelligence & good breeding I procured some calomel and Quinine and
leaving the encampment returned to my lodgings with a
high fever.


Monday morning I I said bid adieu to Mr. Thompson and
his worthy lady, some little repleted in the health in my
feelings but wofullyRegularized:woefully deficient in strength; and passing thro'Regularized:through
St. Augustine, a new town with a few framed buildings & a
population of a hundred souls or more, I arrived about one
oclock at Mr George Teels, almost entirely exhausted, where
I dined and tarried until next morning tortured all the while
with a burning fever & most excruciating head ache. I found the
gentleman & his wife polite & kind enough; but there was on
the premises a silent down cast unintelligent selfish looking man
against whom I could not help contracting a strong prejudice
mainly on the account of his appearance & phrenological devel‑
. I saw stinginess indelibly stamped upon his countenance
and strongly developed in the appropriate organ; and accor‑
when he went to feed my mare this prinicple of his
nature was fully displayed. I was too unwell at the time
to attend to feeding her myself, but on going to the stable in
a short time after, I found not a blade of oats fodder or
a grain of corn. There was in the trough some five or
cobs which the hungry creature was laboring to masticate to the detriment of her nether jaw.
I asked this individual if Believing that his old corn was rather
scarce to feed bountifully with it I concluded that I would
give her green corn rather than she for her not to have ebough
to eat she should suffer for the want of food, and accordingly
proposed to him to let the negro boy gather some foderRegularized:fodder
fodder blades from from the field, to which he yielded a
reluctant assent saying that he was affraidRegularized:afraid the stripping of


the stalk would injure the ear; the boy came with a few blades
not more than I could span with one hand, and that was
about all which [Illegible: very poor ] I wrench from this man whom I
will call Gripus. To me its astonishing how a human rational
reflecting being can get his conscentRegularized:conscience to play so low and mean
a part and make money by such inhuman means. Such a man
should not only be doomed to travel like the two pilgrims to
mecca with peas in their shoes, but they should perforce
route on a half allowance of bread & water and even this penance
would hardly attoneRegularized:atone for the inhumanity of half feeding a
traveller's hungry & jaded horse. I had much rather that
my own meals should be abridged by the tavern keeper than
that he should be starved; and when I must left Mr T—
the next morning in settling my bill I felt that I would
rather have paid four fold & had my animal well
provided for with water & provender.

From Mr Teels I reached went to a man by
the name of Martin about 20 miles where I remained until
next morning when I set out in company with a stranger &
reached Nacogdoches about 11 oclkRegularized:o'clock wednesday it being wed‑
morning. Thus you perceive from Natchitoches
to this place, I was few hours more than 7 days coming com‑
; the distance being I should say 130 miles altho'Regularized:although it is
on the map only one hundred.

And now after this long rigamarole, I fancy I
hear you exclaim — "What does all this amtRegularized:amount to — what
care I about how far you rode & where you tarried —


what doth it signify to me who you saw; who fed
your brute; who stinted her allowance— I want to know
something of the face of the country, the character of
its soil and the facilities of transportation—" True the
letterRegularized:latter is dull & altogether unimportant & worthless; but
since you will insist upon my writing lengthyly letters
you must expect them porportionally dull & heavy.
And as for the kind of information which you desire
I can impart all which I have been able to gather
in very few words. I will proceed to do it.
From the Natchitoches to the Sabine the land is of
a thin gray soil such as we find in the poor parts
of the undrained lands of Putnam & Morgan.
I think the country resembles very much the coun—
of Walton and Gwinnett, but not as well watered
and salubrious. I call it a poor county holding out
but few inducements to migrants except the low price
at which it can be procured. But a small portion
of it as yet has been offered for sale, it was not in
demand & and the Govt arrested the sales; there are some
few sections open to entry at the Govt price 125 cts.
There are on the road good many squatters, who all
expect to hold their possessions when the country is brought
into market by preemption laws. I doubt not that
much valuable lands are to be obtained at the minimum
price, which will be in demand in few years. Poor
persons who wish to get possessions without money &


without fines would do well to settle as a squatter in
this section on the road & near to the Red River. I found the well wa‑
indifferent, at some places bad, and nearly all the creeks
& branches along the road were dried up. I saw but
few running streams, and from this I can conclude it to be
a limestone country. The timber is like that which we
usually find on thin soil in Georgia.

Directly we crossed the Sabine, the lands were
altogether of a different nature; the whole face of the
country varies from the east side of the stream. It
It appears that nature designed their river not only as that stream is not only the dividing line be­tween the Govts
a line boundary between the two Govts but also as a
but also a dividing line between the barren & the fertile lands, for directly
after crossing the Sabine it I passed thro'Regularized:through a skirt of pine‑
about 4 miles in width; and then struck upon
a dark deep red soil which presented one unvaried
appearance of complexion & fertility for — miles until
I reached the Attoyac river. This part of the country is
known in Texas as the red lands. I was told that theRegularized:they
extended on the left side of the road nearly to the
Galveston Bay, on the left s right side further than
has as yet been explored by the whites. The lands cer‑
look fine and doubtless are productive, but I should
judge they were of a thirsty nature & would require a
good quantity of rain, which the settlers seem not to
expect. The rains in the summer here are few &
far between. I have been told that they rarely ever


have a seasonable year; yet they all seem to cal‑
upon a good crop of whatever they plant, whether
it rains or not. This year has been very dry yet
I noticed corn & cotton that promised a rich harvest.
This I attribute to the freshness of the fields; I cannot
that when the soil shall have been cultivated for
several years & repeatedly exposed to the sun, that
they will be able to realize what they now gather without
copious & frequent rains. The soil is deep and will
last well. I noticed along the road a good deal of indifferent
corn, low yellow, fired & with very small ears. Mr Thom‑
where I tarried a few days told me that he expected ex‑
if it did not rain to make 12 hundred pounds
of cotton to the acre in a small field which attracted
my attention; but if it should prove seasonable from
now out, he would make double that; but his land was
unusually good & situated on a small creek.
The red lands are well watered; and the streams
do not dry up as on the east side of the Sabine.
After crossing the Attoyac River which we would call a creek as I have said above
the land changes. The soil is of light and thin with
sandy foundation; occasionally interspersed with
strips of the red land, but generally very poor much
of it not reaching to what we call in Geo. the third quality. This
continues to Nacogdoches. From the Sabine to this
place the country is not hilly or mountainous but gently
undulating, and very badly timbered. The size and


nature of the timber here is no indication of the depth or fertility
of the soil. The richest part of the red lands have hardly
enough trees sufficiently straitRegularized:straight & tall for rails to fence it.
It is oak, hickory, black jack & post oak, nearly all
of it of scrubby growth; except on the water courses, and
even on them there are thick sturdy growth of towering trees
as characterize the low forests of Alabama Florida & Georgia. To me the country
seems delightful; the woods green with grass; abundantly
watered; very easily cleared and remarkably fertile
when opened. I know of no possible objection
to the country except two, its inconvenience to market and the
apprehension that the lands in a few years will require
more rain than usually falls in this country during
the summer season. With regard to the facility of market
the Red river is the only certain navigable stream for all
the produce of the country from this place to Natchitoches.
There is the Sabine, but I cannot assertain with certainty whether
it is navigable or not; many say that t will be with
a little clearing out; my own impression I have already
expressed in another part of this letter. By refferenceRegularized:reference to
the map you will perceive that I have been speaking of
the lands contained in the three grants of Zavala, Vehlein
& Burnet. These grants are consolidated & owned by what
is called the "New York Galveston Bay & Texas land company."


The Sabine is not navigable it

The mexican women thoRegularized:though far from hansomeRegularized:handsome
are remarkable for their elegance of carriage and
the gracefulness with which they wear the mantle.

Mina in his expedition some of his men being
taken prisoners were hung in consequence of
their not having some showing of citizenship.


Natives of Texas.

They are of dark swarthy complexion, darker than the
inhabitants of old Spain & not possessing the clear red of
the Indians. They all have black hair & eyes. The women
a far from being hansomeRegularized:handsome, though they are superior to
any of the indian race on regularity of features. The same
remark applies to the men; they seem to be as I presumed
they are in fact an intermediate race between the Span
iard & the Indians Castilian and the children of the
son, varying in their complexion as the Castilian or Montazuma blood prevails. Gen. Pike says he met with one fair female Mexican
who was by way of distinction called "the girl with
light hair". They are both men & women, kind and hospitable
but none but destitute of energy & enterprise, more indolent
than the savages without their patriotism or war-like dispo‑
. They are extremely fond of singing, dancing, and
such amusements. In manners, customs and dress how‑
they are rapidly assimilating themselves to the Americans
a natural & unavoidable effect from their situation & intercourse amongst them.

These people have long been in possession of the fairest
country in the world, embracing every variety of soil, climate
etc; a country equally adaptable for making sugar, wine, cotton
corn, tobacco, grazing & wool growing, and yet from
their constitutional & habitual indolence & inactivity they
have suffered these advantages to remain unimproved
and now have the regret if they are capable of making
the reflection of seeing the country pass into the possession


of another people, and all the blessing which they might
have reaped flow to a race whose presence must, if
not totally operate their extinction, at least keep them in
a state of povery and degradation. The greatest bounty
of providence they have neglected to improve & profit by
and enjoy, and have parted with without even a mess of
pottage in return. Yet these people seem not deficient
in natural genius. They have taste in music, pain‑
& sculpture, and I doubt not if properly cultivated
would be found equal to any of the European Americans.
They seem particularly to have a taste for the mechanic
arts. The skill & ingenuity evinced in the manufactoring of
various articles useful & ornamental, out of gold
silver & wood is evidence enough of their capacity & their happy
adaptation for mechanical and manufactoring pursuits. If the
climate be too relaxing to them for them to pursue agricul‑
vigor and success, they might have directed
their attention to employments more better suited to their
their climate & habits & disposition; they might have become
a manufactingRegularized:manufacturing people; and growing their own wool and
cotton & silk, the finest in the world, with little labor or exertion,
they might have rivalled the European nations
and furnished the american with people secured themselves
the trade of their agricultural neighbors, the American people. But instead of realizing
these blessings, they have preferred to languish in poverty indo‑
& poverty, and have suffered their country the most delightful
provinceland in the world under the sun to remain continue for more


than a century unreclaimed & unenjoyed.

Wild Horses

The Mexicans are the best riders in the world, and
in war no cavalry would stand before them. They are equal
to the fierce and wild CamanchaRegularized:Comanche. When one is mounted it
is impossible to unhorse him. He will bridle and saddle
the wildest Mustang in forest on the prarieRegularized:prairie and leaping
on his back will lead defiance to any exertions which
the animal may make to free itself. Their triumph over
the terrified or infuriated steed beast is owing to nature of the
bit which is forced in his mouth and the counteraction of
saddle leather upon his back; the one being of iron, large
and strong and contrived with a lever power that can almost
disjoint the nether jaw, whilst the latter well fitted to the back
of the animal so that it cannot turn, has broad stirrups
thro'Regularized:through which the foot cannot is secure from slips, and a high pummenelRegularized:pommel
in front, reared up nearly to the breast of the rider over
which he draws a check rein and which he can seize
& support himself in any danger or emergency. Thus mounted the
terrified & infuriated animal may rear & kick down
the plains, bound down & rush into rivers
all unavailingly, for the rider secure in his seat but laughs
at the efforts and spurs him into more furious cantering.

Their horses are strong and athletic notwithstanding
their diminuitive size, being certainly larger than the Ozark
horses but not near equal to the English or American breed. They
breed the most of what they own, as the most of the wild


have returned far into the interior on the Nueces
River where they are lured not by the grass but by the salt lagoons. A few however are still inhabiting the prarieRegularized:prairie
between high up on the rivers of Brazos & the Colorado
but they are rapidly receeding from the advances of
human footsteps & In a few more years they will be found
only the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains. They are still
however occasionally hunted by the natives on the Colorado where they are many as numerous as the trees in the forest.
Traffic in these occupants of the plains wild horses has was constituted once the principle
business intercourse between the Americans & Mexicans,
and it was in catching & tamingbreaking these free & untamed coursers
of the forest that they became such so expert and
intrepid in this horsemanship equestrians. The ass and the mule
herd with the mustang & when a drove of either is to be
taken for domestic purposes or for exportation, the plan
adopted is to form a small enclosure with a narrow inlet entrance
from which entrance inlet they extend run out wings
are run out for a considerable distance into the prairie in doing as they
line these until the mouth is sufficiently extended expanded not to
attract the attention of the animals or alarm excite their appre‑
. the game Thus preparedWhen this is done the Mexicans hunters go in quest of Mounted on horses trained for the[Illegible: business] of the
best speed and bottom trained to the business and strongly caparisoned they roam the
plains until they find a drove of suitable drove size of to five hundred
of to three hundred which they deploy and lure into the mouth of the
center did wings which have been extended by sending a horse or two of
their own, drilled to purpose & sensible of their duty, to head
the drove. The disciplined animal moves carelessly on in
the path prescribed whilst the unsuspecting mustangs follow


on like a mighty cavalcade in the footsteps of the pioneer,
until they are fairly hedged in by fences on either and
their prisoners in the rear. The Mexicans now, loosing slacking the
saddle-bows and planting their long spurs
of steel into the flanks of their horses, they charge furiously
upon the bewildered and terrified drove, which driving them
ahead like a with the confusion of a routed soldiery until forced through
a narrow portal they find themselves encompassed by a
small impregnible enclosure which resists ever deperate
effort to escape. Thus like a band of human asses are they betrayed of their freedom by two blindly following leaders. Next they are caught by having a long rope
with a running noose adriotly thrown over their necks. The
likeliest of the flock are selected and the balance set at
left free, to cut lonesome their wild gambles on the bead luxrientRegularized:luxuriant prarieRegularized:prairie.
They is the rise chosen as selected & the weed thrown away; & As it is with
the mustang on the plain so it is with man; the very beauty &
strength that gives the one supremacy on the plain is the cause of his [Illegible: lead about in]
the loss of liberty, whilst with the the unhappiness or to ruin
of the other is often not than otherwise wrought by the very
qualities which exalt him among his fellow creatures—

The wild horse is said to be the Andalusian blood
crossed by the Arabian. ThoRegularized:Though small they show their
blood. They are adapted for war or distant journies
as they can live upon much less and perform equal labor.
They are not heavy enough for draughtRegularized:draft horses; they can
travel on grass alone when other horses would fail altogether.
Travellers in Texas should provide them duly with a
good one in prefferenceRegularized:preference to American horses.


When taken young they do well, but the old ones
are apt to run away. the method of breaking them
to the saddle is barbarous; it is done by starvation and
hard riding. One newly caught is mounted and suffered
to race take over the prarieRegularized:prairie his own course, but spur‑
at every leap until he is perfectly exhausted and
stops of his own accord. The same thing is repeated
& the animal suffered until he is entirely subdued.
The Andalusian horses are the purest mounts in this
world they are so called because of the place where they are
bought in Spain called Andalusia-Page 144

The Comanches

These indians inhabit the mountainous district of
San Saba, which they cross both in the Spring & atum
Autumn, & where they deposit their family occasion‑
during their long expeditions. These indians generally
kill the buffalowRegularized:buffalo with bows & arrows. Horses trained for it
sometimes they kill them with spears. The buffalowRegularized:buffalo is
so acute in its scent that they cannot get in shooting distance
of them to kill them with their rifles. They are docile placable
timid until wounded when they become furious & make
terrible & dangerous war upon there adversary. Their flesh is
food for the Indians, and their skin an article of traffic.
They are [Illegible: suca] skillful in tanning them with so and
imparting to them a pliability equal to the dressed deerskin
of the Creek indians. Their trade is altogether in wild horses and mules. They catch hundreds
& thousands, tame them & then herd & graze them as cattle. Equine trade carried on with them
from St. Louis & various posts of agriculture. They never pretend to make corn
not even for bread; they eat alone from year to year. The country is fertile but all prarieRegularized:prairie.
See Page 116


The nearest settlement to Galveston Bay with the exception of
one family near the fish bar is forty miles to Anahuac, or about
the same distance at the mouth of the San Jacinto. Mr Holby

Taken from the
Cincinnati Gazette Nov 1829

It is susceptible of no division that can make more than
4 states— Of those 4 two would be maratimeRegularized:maritime and the coast
and 2 would be interior— The two maratimeRegularized:maritime would
also be agricultural— The other two would be far‑
, grazing & mineral states; air salubrious, climate
delightful— In the rear of these interior states would be
a region of mountanousRegularized:mountainous & barren country, which in the pro‑
of some century, when the redman & the beasts are
exterminated might form two temporal Govts.—

The term Texas is usually understood to designate the
whole tract of country lying between the Southwestern
boundary of the US and the Grande. "Stirctly speaking
& according to the political arrangement Texas does not
include the whole of that region."—" There is The federal state of Tamau‑
spreads to the river Nueces which empties 120
miles north of Rio Grande in the Gulf."— Coahuila
scallops out of what is geographically called Texas a
tract equal to Tamaulipas— "The country between the
Nueces & Rio Grande for near 100 interior from the Gulf, is
out continuous prarieRegularized:prairie and excepting a belt of 20 miles
in depth is an arid sandy &


sandy and sterile plain, affording scarcely sufficient
herbage to sustain the few deer that no & wild horses
that roam upon it." "The Nueces is a long narrow
stream incapable of any useful navigation and distinct
of a harbor for anything superior to a shallows."
"Matamoras imports goods to the amt. of several mill‑
dollars annually, which are sent up on
pack mules to Monterey, Saltillo, Chihuahua,
Durango, Zacatecas, San Louis PotosiRegularized:San Luis Potosi , & many
other minor inland towns" it contains from 7 to 9
thousand inhabitants & increasing with unchecked
rapidity" Matamoras lies in Tamaulipas. "The
acquisition of it to this Govt would be of no value
for the country on this side of the Rio Grande &
proximate to Texas the Brazos St. Iago is inca‑
of supporting even a hamlet for fishermen."

In the House of Representatives of the U.S. on the tariff in 1833
W. Thomas of Louisiana remarked "What would
be the condition of the plating if there if it (duties on cotton)
should be taken off? They had He was not for letting
Texas into her market (Louisiana). Let Texas hunt a
market as Louisiana had done.

Texas forms an inclined plain from theRocky Mountains
to the sea. It is all gently undulating until within
sixty of the coast where it becomes level. 70,000 acres Sugar Land.


In 1827 the population of Texas was 10,000. Now it is 36,000.
The territory is equal in extent to that of France.
Its sea course is not less than 350 to 400 miles long
7000 to 10,000 bales of cotton made in Texas.

Law passed in 1830 prohibiting Americans from settling, repealed 1834
After passing Zavalla Mount & Velhim's grants you enter into
a prarieRegularized:prairie county. With the exception of these grants Texas
generally may be said to be a prarieRegularized:prairie country skirted by
timber on all the water courses. This is particularly the
case after passing the Trinity; and as you advance to
the north west they are of vast extent. Dense forests
are to be found on Brazos & other rivers but never on the
high lands.

Cane ripens several inches higher than in Louisiana.

The states composing the Mexican Rep Federative
Republic are the state of Chiapas , Chihuahua ,
Coahuila & Texas , Durango , GuanajuatoRegularized:Guanaxuato , Mexico ,
New Leon , OajacaRegularized:Oaxaca , Puebla de los Angeles
Queretaro , San Luis Potosi , SinoraRegularized:Sonora & Sinaloa , Tabas‑
, Tamaulipas , Vera Cruz , Xalisco , Yucatan
Zacatecas ; the territory of Upper CaliaforniaRegularized:California , Lower
, Colima , & Santa Fe of New Mexico .

Coahuila & Texas would probably been separate
state if Mexico had not been jealous of American legislation
Coahuila lies more adjacent to mexico, and is populated
chiefly by Mexicans, here they were attached to Texas
as a check in the Legislature.



My ague & fever at Natchitoches was the first that I
had ever had, at least for so many years that I had no relation of
the feelings produced. It is all dreadful disease; I felt like I
was in a state of depotation; sliding on the polar ices, but burnt
up at the same time. The fever notwithstanding the extreme
agony into which it threw me gave double calamity to the mind;
I was all night long writing poetry, making speeches, fighting battles
soaring with the eagles & throwing them in among the rocky mo‑
. My heart at the same time felt it was a vesuvius
pouring its burning lava throRegularized:through the brain—

Before reaching Thompsons, my mare whilst riding
along in a slow walk without any object apparently to
frighten her, suddenly gave a tremendous snort "and
back recoiled I knew not why" and made a
desperate effort to beat a retreat; presently I heard
something like the music of a grasshopper and dis‑
but a few paces before me stretched coiled in the
road a large bloated reptile with venom spewing
from his fangs as if ready to strike and his tail
surgingan note admonitory note a note of defiance & warning as made as to say
let the "admonished beware". I had no fiddle like
Chattanbrain to charm the monster into peace & compla-
accordingly had to retreat for a while
until suitably armed. I subdued the monster withby the potancy of a long pole
instead of doing with music doing it by the powers of harmony music. See Serpents "[Illegible: & bears]
of Palestine"



Arrived there sick; Dr Lewis my physician who
neglected me yet brought in an enormous bill of 49.75
Remember nothing he done for me except bleeding me
once, presenting some pills & quinine after; ,his dis‑
with neglect and indignant I sent for his associated
partner in his pra the practice Dr. Heard who called to
see me once. Lewis is a drunken self-conceited ass.
The family also neglected me; the old lady & 4 daughters.
Lewis invested to his wedding; he was to marry one of the girls
in the town. From a traveller who had just arrived
from the Brazos, I purchased a mare bridle & saddle, giving
him his full price without jewing him 110$. After the
bargain was concluded & he paid he threw me a rough staff
like a walking cane with a hollow tube fettered to the one end
of it. the other end pointed The use of this staff was
to support your umbrella in riding by passing planting one
end in a leather socket attached to the stirrup leather, and
sticking the handle of the umbrella in the tube
attached at the other end. As the man I purchased it of
him and found finding it a great convenience I by turn
recommend it to you when you have to carry an umrella
on horseback; but I leave it you to say whether
it was liberal & generous in the man from whom I
purchased then to make me pay one dollar for this article
for which he had no further use. He should have thrown
it in with the saddle & briddle, but instead of this he sold
it, making by the transaction a dollar & losing his character for liberality.


St. Denys


When he was sent in occupancy with some Canadians
& Indians to arrest the Spaniards in their attempts to form
a settlement in the neighborhood of Natchitoches he was &
also to proceed into the intended provinces of Spain to find
sale for Cozats goods; he reached Natchitoches free of any
adventure. This was in 1714. He left some of his Canadians
here (after erecting huts for them) & there proceeded into for the
internal provinces of Spain with 12 Canadians with him. He
went to where LaSalle was murdered. He forced them to the Bravo,
where he was apprehended arrested by Don Pedro who sent him to the Govt
of Caonis 200 miles, who sent him thence to Mexico, 700 miles, where
he was imprisoned for 3 months; released & conveyed back by the Govt.
to Caonis. Thence he proceeded to Don Pedro's & married his
daughter; and finally got to Mobile about two years from the time
he started on his journey. The Canadians left at Natchitoches by
DenysRegularized:Louis Juchereau de St. Denis was the [Illegible: conimecent] of that town. In 1816 after his return
a detachment under the command of Dustine was sent there to
build & garrison a fort. This was the foundation of Natchitoches—

In 1718 DenysRegularized:Louis Juchereau de St. Denis went to Mexico to obtain a release of the goods
which had been taken from in his expedition of 1714. Here he was im‑
but released in a month & his goods restored. He sold his goods
on credits & never recdRegularized:received paytRegularized:payment; he therefore damndRegularized:damned the Spaniards for which
he was again imprisoned, but soon obtained release & means of escape
throRegularized:through the friends of his wife, he fled for home at Mobile with percipitation
On his return home he was ordered to give up his command of Mand &
take command of Natchitoches. Having done so in 1720, and continuing


in prosperity for two years, when his tranquility & [...] was disturbed more by the Gov. of
Texas Gallo who advanced upon Natchitoches with goods & soldiers
determined to trade or fight; shortly, he was assailed by the Natchez, but
St. DenysRegularized:Louis Juchereau de St. Denis maintaining his ground, achieved many exploits and repelled
his invaders.; His exploits drove the Natchez into peace after a long war
in 1734. His [...] this history further. Natchitoches continued
to move along in a slow pace of improvement for many years. In 1769 its
[Illegible: proprietor was the] so that from St. DenysRegularized:Louis Juchereau de St. Denis victory over the Natchez
to 1769 a period of 35 years if could boast of He.

After Louisiana had been purchased by the U.S. the Span‑
in Texas still envied the same disposition to encroach upon
Natchitoches. Natchitoches certainly ought to have belonged to Texas
but the French having settled it & retaining possession, it was claimed
as a part of Louisiana. The Spaniards possessing Nacogdoches had
always wished to be in possession of this point of trade (Natchitoches).
They accordingly still kept up their incredulity upon it.

In 1806 a part of the soldiers from the fort at Nacogdoches
were sent to build a new establishment about 4 or 14 miles from Natchitoches
at the Adyes. The Spaniards had many years previous settled Adyes together with Simon Herrera from N. LeonRegularized:Nuevo Leon . The Govt of Texas with an army of 7 hundred &
a consideralRegularized:considerable force crossed the Trinity with a view of sustaining
this new settlement. The U.S. warned them not to approach; they
replied that they did not wish to conquer this part of the territory, but
that they had a right to patrol plant a fort there to prevent a contraband trade.
Nacogdoches was greatly reinforced & the U.S. perceiving the simplicty
of annexing her forces also ordered Gen. Wilkinson to repair there
with his army forthwith. Claiborne also sent some militia & their army moved for the Sabine—. Shortly
after the arrival of these forces at Natchitoches the [Illegible: news reached ]


however Burr's conspiracy broke out, which rendering Wilkinson
forever (as he himself demured) necessary in N.O.Regularized:New Orleans . He thought it
best to make peace with Herrera & the Govt of Texas and
after stating to those that his object in going to the Sabine was
not war but a peaceful occupancy of the rightful territory of the
U.S. and then proposed to the Gov. that if he would the Spanish
forces should be withdrawn to Nacogdoches, he would withdraw
the American forces to Natchitoches; and that the U.S. would not
thereafter cross the Arroyo Hondo if the Spaniards would not the
Sabine. To this arrangement all parties finally assented, peace was
restored, and Wilkinson the mighty warrior of the Sabine hastened to OrleansRegularized:New Orleans to attend to the affairs
of Burr where he figured as largely as he did on the Sabine.

At Nacogdoches some travellers arrived and
told the horrible tale of the mob rising in some town
in Mississippi and arbitrarily hanging some gam‑
and a tavern keeper. The wife of the tavern keep‑
requested that the dead body of her husband might
be delivered to her for decent burial, which they refused
and threw it into a ditch—

The T'esh Ayish bayou embracing the country round about
St. AugustineRegularized:San Augustine is called by the Americans Irish Bayou
but the true name is from the tribe of Indians called


Communicated by Joseph Dust
Tribes of Indians in Texas
This side River Grande

Car_reese [Illegible: Bopspace]
Le-pans Paupaus
Ah-patchRegularized:Apache x Delewares
Carrancawars x Shawnees
Taukaways x Kickapoose
x Co-shot-tees x Cherokees
Al-abaminas Unwannick
Co-shat-tees Cadoes
Biloxes Texas-Ta-has
Chomancheese Be-dies
Tanyavese Co-coes
Shar-etiek, these indians
all the men have their little finger
cut off their left hand in infancy
x Cherokees
x Creeks
Tar-wach-a-mahs Chickasaws
Wa-coes The Creeks and Coshatters were ori‑
the same people, but they
separated into two tribes
Na-co-lo-che-to, Nacogdoches
was named after this tribe
instead of Nacogdoches it should
be Nacolocheto
I-eshe, spelt in Spanish Ayish
x Choctow not Choctaus


History of Texas

Hunter an Englishman proceeded to Mexico
in 1820 to obtain a Grant of land for the Cherokees,
he failed in his mission, returned among the
indian, prevailed upon some to come without
permission and in 1827 raised an army of
them joined by some 40 or 50 Americans and
commanded by hunter & a half breed by the
name of Fields. Their avowed object was to
conquer Texas and call it Freedomia. They were met
by the Mexicans and driven back. Austin's small
colony aided in repelling them; the Indians sued
for peace, and Bowles for the purpose of reconci‑
the Mexicans proposed to Beene (an American
who had been long acting as colonel in the Mexican
Govt) that Hunter and Fields should be given up
to [Illegible: ato]not only to restore peace but also to attonRegularized:atone
for the death of the Mexican who had fallen in
the skirmish, the only man killed in the affair tho'Regularized:though
several were wounded. The proposition was
assented to & the indians accordingly killed
Hunter in about 20 miles of Nacogdoches; Fields
fled with his family across the Sabine. He
was pursued by 2 Cherokees and cowardly murdered at
his camp. there were no Indians engaged
in the way but the Cherokees, and this was the
first introduction of the Cherokees in Texas. This
party of them had quarrelled with the chiefs


of the nation in Arkansas and joined Fields
and Hunter, seceded from the tribe and came to
Texas. The history of Fields is this; he had killed
some Cherokee in Arkansas & thereby forfeited
his life, but he had seen Hunter & learnt his
scheme. Fields accordingly proposed to the offen‑
tribe that he would procure them lands
in Texas if they would pardon him. They agreed
to it, but when Hunter failed to get the grant
and told them that the land was theirs & they
then they took an army to defend what they thought
belonged to them. Hunter's name was John B.
Page 148

Lands from NacogdoRegularized:Nacogdoches

Lands from Nacogdoches to the Angelina distance 22 miles pronou‑
Au-ha-le-na, is poor, the most of it being
sandy land, with occasional good tracts near the
water courses. After crossing the river I am told the
land is good and very level, continuing into the
Natches distance 16 miles. From naches to the Trinity
upwards of 50 the country is attractive, the quality of
the soil varying from the most fertile to the most barren After crossing Trinity we bid adieu to
any thing like freestone water, well are used alto‑
shallow & affording no pleasant refreshing and
delightful draught. True


I left Nacogdoches Tuesday 26th July and
reached the Angelina at the setting of the sun. The
weather most intolerably hot; I coughed up blood & bile
every five steps of the way; had a dreadful time of it, but
finally reached the river, took lodgings with Mr. Geo. Dust
when I was completely prostrated with the fever; took
heavy dose of calomel but still I coughed up bile as bitter
as quinine mixed with mucus from lungs. I afterward
tried Tartar at night like to have died under the operation
the next day morning swallowed a heavy dose of blue masses
and rhubarb & aloes. This left me nerveless. My stomach
was injured by the Tartar, have no been able to digest any
thing since, dyspeptic as the devil, but the fever seems
to have left me & I am now trying the quinine. I expect
to leave here tomorrow morning which will be Monday the 1st

See page 105

At Nacogdoches, a Dr Hart stepped into the
office of a Judge with whom he felt agrieved in
some way, & laying a brace of pistols on the table invited
the man of civil authority Law to take one & settle the dispute between them by
this ancient & honorable trial by battle; this was certainly exalting the
military above the Civil authority; and the honorable
man of the green bag & wool sack, having once taken
up arms in Nacogdoches against this very principle
could not consistently with his past conduct & present profession, do
otherwise than decline the honor which the chivalrous Knight of the Pestle politely in‑
. The result of the matter was, that the Dr had judgement pronounced against
his pistols, fined 50 dollars for the indignity offered to our officer of
Govt & 50 dollars to the Judge himself for the fright & for some other cause unknown.


History of Texas

Nacogdoches was first settled about 1779. When
When Adayes on the east side of the Sabine 17 miles
from Natchitoches was broken up, the garrison was
removed to Nacogdoches

In 1812 the Mexicans in the Interior Coahuila made an effort
to establish a republic in their country. They
sent Gen. Bernard to Texas to the Sabine & in the
U.S. for assistance; the Govt took no notice of it, but
suffered him to get as many volunteers as he
could; he succeeded in obtaining 150 Americans;
Spain hearing of the movement sent on a consid‑
force to arrest & subdue them. When they
reached the Sabine, their advance guard had
two of their men suddenly shot down by the other
party; this threw panic among the Spaniadsish
army which retreated to Nacogdoches.

Whilst the Spanish army was marching to
the Sabine they took by force four American
settlers in Texas and compelled them to bear arms
against Bernard & his men; one of these 4 peremp‑
refused & was ironed; when their advanced
guard were fired on & the army broke the other
three Americans departed & joined their country‑
under Bernard. The Americans pursued
the Spanish forces to Nacogdoches & reached there
([Note: Adayes had been frequently broken up; I allude to the first.])


in time to save the life of the American prisoner who had
refused to fight just about to be executed. The
Spaniards fled & retreated to St. AntonioRegularized:San Antonio . The
Americans pursued them, and concluded to
take possession of Sabbardee because it was a
good fort. They marched directly to Sabbardee &
secretyl advanced into the fort at the very mo‑
the garrison was beating a revaller; the
terrified soldiers leaped the walls & fled & thus
the fort was taken without the fire of a gun.
Third day after the fort was taken an army
came of 1700 advanced upon the fort; in a few
days they had a reinforcement of 4 or 6 hundred
more Spaniards. Thus was the fort compassed
by an army of 2,000 or more whilst in the fort there
were only about 150 Americans & 250 Mexicans
who had joined them. A struggle ensued which
lasted for 4 months; fighting every day until the
soldiers in the fort finally issued out and com‑
routed the enemy & drove them to San
Antonio. The Americans pursued, the Spanish
army with reinforcements met them about 4 miles
from town, a battle erupted, the Spaniards fled & the
Americans took possession of S. AntonioRegularized:San Antonio . They took
13 Spanish officers prisoners, and under the pretense of sending
them to Majorca to ship them out of the country
they were secretly taken away & every one of their


throats cut. This horrid transaction was
committed by a few blood thirsty men without the
knowledge or approbation of the troops and so
soon as the troops heard of it, it created such uni‑
disgust & abhorence that they threatened to dis‑
& some to take just vengeance on the perpetrators.
Gaines at the Sabine was an officer & was about to
resign & return home rather than be associated with
such men. The American & Mexican troops remain‑
at San Antonio until Louisiana came with an army
which was easily dispersed.

In the fight previous about 4 miles from town
the Commandant of the Spanish forces felt so confident
of beating the Americans when he could get them
in open prarieRegularized:prairie, that he actually loaded a mule
with strings to tie the prisoners when he took
them; they were then whipped in 15 minutes &

At last GenlRegularized:General Bernard was succeeded
to the Command after the first battle at San
Antonio by Tolado. About 15 days after this battle
Spain sent another army under Aradones and the Americans
& Mexicans less successful under their new leader
were completely whipped & routed after
lives of glorious achievements exploits. The routed troops
broke for the Sabine; the Spaniards purused & took
28 Mexicans & 3 Americans prisoners; They discharged


the Americans & shot the Mexicans. Thus
the war of 1812 & 1813; between the Mex‑
& Old Spain; in an effort for independence.

See page 112

Aradondo, after shooting the prisoners proceeded to
Nacogdoches thence to Natchitoches and with a view
of learning whether the routed would rally again, he
went privately to Natchitoches and there endeavored
himself to raise volunteers & being unable to get any,
he was satisfied that the war was at an end.

Second Expedition

Mina a Frenchman came & made headquarters
at Galveston, gathered 60 or 80 men, moved to Matagoria
accomplished nothing & debarked for the interior & after a short sweep was finally overthrown. Thus
ends his efforts. Then came General Long, formerly Dr. an
American. StaidRegularized:stayed 2 months at Nacogdoches and
gathered 70 to 80 soldiers; the Spaniards under
Col.Regularized:Colonel Anashupas came 400 put him to flight & took
80 prisoners. Long went to the interior proceeded to Mexico and was
received as a General Officer in the army of Old Mexico
(that country having now declared indepenndence)
and foolishly lost his life by obstinately
refusing the countersign to one of his own
certainly who shot him dead. This brings the
history up to 1821 (see page 111)


During the revolution of 21Regularized:1821 in Mexico the Texas
remained in a passive condition, huzaing alter‑
for the king and then for Mexico as they
could hear of the triumphs of either. They were
altogether submissive to the power that be; to either
as they prevailed.

After the establishment of this Independence
of Old Mexico, Coahuila & Texas formed one of the
federative states. Then came the Fredonian War.

The Skirmish between
the Americans & the Soldiers at Nacogdoches

AugtRegularized:August 1834 The hystoryRegularized:history of this transaction
is variously related; but I am told by good author‑
that the real cause of the difficulty has never
been given to the public; the ostensible cause assi‑
was that Santa Anna had turned traitor
to the cause of liberty in Mexico & had joined
the royal side;
the commandant of the Garrison was opposed to Santa
Anna's cause & that he wished to erect the military over the civil authority;

The reason which has been im‑
to me is this; that there was in Na‑
a young man [Note: (This man is now Judge) see an adventure with Dr Hart Page 100] who was suspected of
being rather more intimate than Spanish manner
permitteRegularized:permitted with a lady whose exclusive attention
the Commandant of the troops at Nacogdoches wished
& had been in the habit of monopolizing. A cor‑
ensued between the parties; the
Commandant, whose name was Joseph Pe-ed-dras,


threatened the young Don Juan; the Alcalda
of the place took sides with this amerousRegularized:amorous Lothario
and after some excitement the Commandant threatened him with
his authority & afterwards threatened the pope. The young man & his
friend the Alcalda now appealed to the peo‑
to put down the power of Santa Anna
protect the power of santa Anna in this
person civil authority against military domi‑
; and under the full impression that their lives
& liberty were eminently endangered, the people flocked to‑
from the country & well as the town, and prepared to
assault the Fort. Before any attack was made however,
it came across the minds of the agitators that it would be
well for them to have some plausible apology for the procee‑
to the Central Govt which was nothing more than Santa
Anna himself. A proposition was accordingly addressed
to the Commandant, that if he would avow his devotion
to the cause of Santa Anna, & repudiate the opposing Royal
power, that the people would disperse & the fort unassailed.
Now when they appealed to the people, they said nothing
about the Commandants partiality to what they termed
the royal cause in the Central Govt; they were assembled to
protect the Civil authority from being exterminated by the military
and yet now a word on this point was urged to the com‑
; no assurances exacted, no guarantyRegularized:guarantee deman‑
, theRegularized:theysimply asked him to say that he was attached
to Santa Anna's interest. Now if they had been acting in
good faith to the public weal, uninfluenced by any private
revenges, it is not evident that they would not have limited
their demand to the simple point which they argued


but would have said something about the dangerous
condition of the Civil authority; something about his threats?
But no not a word. To have expelled the troops, and
then to have assigned as a reason for so doing that they
were arrogating too much power in the country; they knew very well would
not be pleasant intelligence to Santa Anna; but to call
the people to getherRegularized:together under this impression that they were ral‑
in the cause of endangered liberty; and then to show
by documentary evidence to Santa Anna that they had
done all this for the allegiance & love they bore to him;
would be adroitly accomplishing their secret revenge with the
aid of the people & at the same time securing the appropriation of
the Central Govt.

A gentlman who figured in the fighting gave me
these as his views; & told me that if he had have known
as much about the origin & motives of the parties before as he
learnt after the battle, he would not have mingled in it.

Now I am decidedly opposed to the principle of
quartering troops in any country in times of peace.
If I were asked what is the most certain & fatal Govt to
liberty, I would answer a military one. The Govt. that
on any occasion has to resort to the muskey & the bayonet
to protect her own people from anybody & favor them to be free, is not a Govt. to any
notion. Directly the holding is called into requisition for
such and, there librerty and; the military is exalted above the
Civil rule, & of course becomes a military Govt.


Some people prefer military Govt. to a state of Anarchy.
The difference between them is that; the one is lasting &
the other permenant temporary; Liberty is not to be enjoyed
in neither, but an equal portion of security may be obtained
in either, by equal subserviency & moral debasement. Society
thrown into anarchy, will suffer horrible evils for a while; but if left alone
the fermentation will like the fermentation of Malt, turn
to pure & genuine spirits; but if the military be resorted
to, to restore order, that order will be purchased by the
stressed loss of liberty; for the potent arm that can quell an‑
, that horrible hydra, can easily sustain its own power and grasp grasp what‑
power it desires & hold what it grasps. Let no one
then charge me with being friendly to military establishments in
this or any other Govt.; I would have them exploded in all;
but at the same time I would not have it understood that
I approve of the taking of the garrison at Nacogdoches
for the private cause which has been assigned for the
act. If that cause be the true & real one I can only say the Commandant of the fort and the young men
on the other forts and the prime movers of the pope on the other were acting from
the same principle, the accomplishment of private ends
& secret or open hatred, by an appeal to military force;
differing in this particular that the army of the one was
regular troops, that of the other undefined mutation. But insidious & privileged wiley Regularized:wily the Demagogues But
who is willing to put down his enemies or accomplish any
measures by faithlessly betraying the nation into war under the pretense of Genl. welfare ; is as
much as despot & as effectually elevates the military above
the civil [...] authority, as he the pleasured chieftain, who plants his standard


in a fort of adamant & sends forth his decrees in the voice of his artillery.

Leaving the question as to the motives of the parties,
Let us proceed to the fight itself. The fight commenced
early & lasted till late; no serious damage done; at
night the Garrison decamped & pushed toward
Angelina; a party of Americans about 20 pursued and
headed them the next day before they crossed the stream.
A consultation was held among the Americans to know
whether they should give the enemy battle? The foe was
400 strong, the other party 20 only; One of this little band
concluded that the inequality in numbers was so great as
to make it the hight of folly & madness to engage in open battle,
& declined the conflict; the others joined by the gentleman
who lives at whose house they were consulting only about
100 yds from river, they marched down to the banks &
found on the other side the enemy ready for their reception.
The enemy demanded what they wanted? they replied that they were the advance guard of the Brazos
The stream is very narrow, it was almost fighting breast
to breast; a few fierce fires ensued, and the army of 20
had to retreat, having however none of its men either killed
or wounded, whilst their own fires on the enemy counted
pretty well 2 dead & several wounded. The spaniards now crossed the river and
marched to the toward the house where the other party had retreated.
Unable to contend in open conflict, stratigem was resorted
to, the Americans kept such incessant moving about pres‑
themselves at every crack & corner of the dwelling &
the out houses as to induce the belief that the forces


were much larger than had been exhibited on the river.
They had indeed been reinforced amounting in all to 60.
Perceiving as they (the Enemy) thought that every crack in the house was
a port hole, the Spanish forces were affraidRegularized:afraid to advance,
and finally hoisted a white flag for parley & or negoci‑
. The propritorRegularized:proprietor of the premises at the
signal sent his son, a lad of 18, to know what they de‑
or desired; the young man told them that the
americans were flowing rapidly, they were then about
800 strong & that 800 were in one hour's march. This
threw them into panic; the Americans, then proposed that
if they would surrender their arms & ammunition, they mi‑
proceed unmolested on their way thro'Regularized:through the country;
if not, the forces present
would battle with them until the advancing army of 800
should arrive. The proposition was assented to; the mu‑
of war was yielded & themselves surrendered as
prisoners; the expected reinforcement never made its
appearance, and the Spaniards after learning the stratigem
were permitted to depart on their journey from the countyRegularized:country.

Dr Hoxey informs me that the commander of this party who commanded also
at the attack at Nacogdoches, was afterwards hung for murder. He was a man
of tolerable fair character, popular with the people & had property. A
pedlar had been murdered & robbed, and one of the party committing the
murder, turned states evidence & swore that this man (the commandant)
whose name I don't remember, together with another were the murderers;
whereupon he was tried & executed together with his other
accomplice, both protesting their innocense to the last under the gallows.

The fight at the Angelina commenced about dusk; the americans driven
back the Mexicans supped & staidRegularized:stayed in dust's dwelling the night; by light
next morning they hoisted a white flag thro'Regularized:through the chimney as token of peace


Genl Long I am informed was a broken down
physician; who having lost his practise by drunkenness &
being too lazy to labor, & too besotted to swindle or
steal, resorted to this means of restoring his ruined
fortunes. Dubbing himself Genl he came to Texas & issued
his hand­bills, proclamations, &c, calling on all who were
patriotic to rally under his banner & make one
more desperate struggle for the Independence of the CountyRegularized:Country..
About 40 or 80 vagabonds whose fortunes were about as desperate
as their leader's obeyed the call & assembled at Nacogdoches
where one poor solitary family alone resided. He was a
merchant there with a few articles exclusively for indian trade. Long &
all his following could not raise 100 dollars. It was
therefore justifiable in such great emergencies to press
private property into the public service; this poor merchant
accordingly was stripped of every thing & left pennyless.
Genl Long's Widow is now living somewhere upon the coast; Long married her at Natches
& spent her fortune & then went on this adventure. He was a Dr at Natches and
lived extravagantly.

From 1813 up to the settlement of the above mer‑
in 1819, a period of more than 5 years, Nacogdoches had
been entirely abandoned; not a single individual lived in the
place, the old maid house stood mouldering into ruins
in silence & solitude never broken except by travellers &
traders passing thro on their way to Natchitoches, or thence
to the prarieRegularized:prairie. In consequence of Long's treatment to
the trader above mentioned, the money subscribed at Natchitoches
about 100 dollars to out fit the expedition was with held. Like
Falstaffs army they had but one shirt, & as for his purpose & intent
the prospect of pay or plunder suited not their schemes; & so when the spaniards
came they scattered without the fire of a gun.


The troops of the Govt. against the Texas people
were all Mexicans from Mexico but commanded
by Spaniards from Old Spain.

When the americans & natives took possession of
Fort Labardee they immediately procured large
quantities of Corn and Salt, nearly all in the town.
During the Siege which lasted longer than was
expected, they had an abundant supply of these
articles; They had to procure meat in the best way
they could; the usual plan was to cross the Span‑
sentinels at night & collecting a drove of cattle
rushed them furiously through the line of
cautiously and forced them into the fort. This always
produced a general engagement but always proved
successful.— The Spaniards weary of so long a
siege resolved at length to take the fort at all
hazzardsRegularized:hazards; they gathered large quantities of moss
of which they made large round bales; each soldier
having one extending flat on the ground and rolling
these balls before them the army moved toward
the fort; the americans suffered these to app‑
pretty near when unexpectedly to the
Spaniards they rushed like a torrent from the fort
the Spaniards retreated & the moss made good
bedding for the soldiers in the fort. They propagated
a sinister expedition to scale the walls of the fort
with ladders, which made good fire woord for the


My Journey Continued See page 123

I left Nacogdoches Tuesday 28th July 1835 proce
in company of a man named Frank Adams living near St Philipe.
I left in extremely bad health, coughing blood & burning with
the bilious fever; the weather extremely hot; my sufferance
was excessive; about 18 miles we reach a house (Mr Costleys) where
I was so entirely overcome that death seemed to be upon me;
I took cup of Tea, & late in the evening proceeded to
Mr Joseph Dust's; where I lay for 6 days with a burning fever
taking tartar Calomel & other medicine all the while until
I became almost helpless. I found Mr. Dust an open
independent man with a good show of intelligence, who imparted
to me much useful & interesting information. He treated me
with the politeness & Kindness of a gentleman; and on expressing my
determination to make an effort to proceed on my journey, he
promptly tendered me the loan of his Jersey waggonRegularized:wagon to
carry me to another Stand about 21 miles, which I with
gratitude accepted. One of his negroes rode my mare, and
Mexican hired by Dust drove the waggonRegularized:wagon which I lay stretchedstre‑
in the bottom burning with the fever. About 3 OclkRegularized:o'clock
we reached Mr McClanes my destined point. I asked
the driver what I should pay him for his trouble; he
replied nothing; but as he had been very attentive to me in
sickness I gaive him 2 dollars a pr of martingales & a spur.

Mr McClane I found to be a snug farmer, well
fixed, good man, but a most self conceited dunce, who
had read some newspapers about 10 years ago & thought he


himself master of the politics of the world. I attempted
occasionally to urge some of my own views in opposition to
his, but I never could so express myself as to be understood.
I have frequently been placed in this situation where I
completely failed in every effort to render myself intelligible. I
went to McClanes with the expectation remaining some time
until I should improve in strength & health; but I found him
so little enclined to enquire into my wants & volunteer assistance
that after one day's & 2 nights' intolerable suffingRegularized:suffering I bid adieu
to him and set off for Mr Master's where I was informed
that I would be recdRegularized:received with politeness & treated kindly; the
distance was twelve miles only, but so scorching was my
fever this morning, & so debilitated was I by the medicine taken
the day before, that I liked to have died on the way; I
succeded however in reaching the place, where I am at
this moment, penning this memorandum.

The lands from Nacogdoches to this place, may
be pronounced generally of the medling second quality, very
seldom except one water course rising above it and often
falling below it & rising into barronessRegularized:barrenness On the east west.
sides of Between the Angeline & the Naches 16 or 18 miles we
pass thro some prarieRegularized:prairie, poor & like all prairie without water.
From the Naches to Master's the country gradually improves a little; and
here we find good land; we strike into the black prairie; &
bid adieueRegularized:adieu, a final adieu to all good water.

From Nacogdoches to this place, though represented as


of the first class of land, yet it will sustain a population
sufficiently dense for an agricultural people Though it have
much barronRegularized:barren land it has a great deal of 2nd quality and some
of the first fertility.

From the Sabine to the Attoyac I would say aboun‑
in the best lands, best water, & would admit of the most
dense population of any of the country that I have yet passed
over; From the Attoyac to this place I would say
was of varied quallities, now good deal of it barren some little very
fertile, but the large portion of it either of second quality or
running into barronessRegularized:barrenness. How the CountyRegularized:Country from the Sabine which I
call the woodland country to the place where Trinity will compare
with the prairie which commences after crossing Trinity and terminates I know not where
I shall yet have to see. The Prairie begins at Mr Hunters &
I am told indians as are proceed either towards the sea coast of to
the mountains
From Nacogdoches to the Angelina I call it 22 miles
from thence to the Naches 16 miles; thence to McLean's 7 miles; thence
to this place Mr Master's 14 miles; making in the whole 59 miles.
From here to the Trinity I am told it is 36 miles; the lands
better than what I have passed over from Nacogdoches. with some—
We pass thro' the mustang prairie a few miles winter only

See 224

In Georgia we cannot judge of the country generally by
the lands on the road, for the roads are usually run on the high
and most barren country ridges; but here there are no high ridges
to select for good roads, for the whole face of the county is gently
undulating & so uniform, that a road in one place is as good
as an other; the country thro'Regularized:through which they pass is usually a fair speci‑
of the country for some distance on either side—


The Comanchas

See page 88

The ComanchasRegularized:Comanches are warlike and fight on horseback; they
drill themselves & horses on the prairie; their mode of fight is to
form a circle round their enemy, & Keep riding round & round
like circus riders, constantly drawing nearer the enemy, until
they get in shot of them; they then draw their arrows and com‑
attack, still keeping up their circular gallop; narrowing
or widening the circle as they are successful in the fight or are
repelled by the encompassed enemy. They have some
thing which they intend as a shield wearing it on the arm pre‑
to the enemy. It is made of leather lightly stretched like a
tamborineRegularized:tambourine and covers covering the shoulder & side & which they mainly im‑
will turn the balls of the foe. The horses are well trained
to this mode of combat; they go into battle & perform their part without
the necessity of the bit; performing just as well by having a simple
rope tied round their mane & used by the rider as a bridle.

A traveller who had been amongst them told me that on
one occasion when the news had reached the village where he
tarried, that two of their popular Captains had been slain in war
they a large band of them gathered with their various instruments
of music & approached the tent in which he lay, and played at the
door many mournful & truly affecting airs, the women singing at
the same time & thus proceeded to every tent in the village. Notwith‑
his apprehensions for his own safety the traveller says he
could not refrain from weeping at this ceremony requimRegularized:requiem of the
dead. By the same individual I am informed that their
tents are made of BuffaloeRegularized:buffalo skins tanned or dressed perfectly white,


They sew together a number of hides, making a long roll of it.
When they wish to pitch a tent, they form a circular frame work
of forks & hickory [Illegible: niffs] around which they wrap this roll of skins
beginning at the ground and winding round until they reach
the top leaving a small hole for the escape of the smoke;
the entrance into the tent is a small hole just large enough for
a man to creep through; thus forming a habitation very much in
its outward configuration resembling a hornet's nest, and having in‑
very much also of the hornet-temperament & severity—

In hunting BuffaloeRegularized:buffalo, about a hundred will turn out
and after surrounding them they set the dogs on them & get
them greatly confused, then pouring a shower of arrows among
them, they call off the dogs & all retire; leaving the wounded
animals to themselves; the wounded portion of the herd
growing sick, are anxious to lie down; and it is then that
ComanchasRegularized:Comanches come upon them again & make easy prey of them.
After wounding them, if the fight be kept up, the animal becomes
enraged and will make hot war upon their pur‑
, or run entirely off; but if left alone immediately after
being wounded, they lie down, grow sick, & become incom‑
for fight or flight. The Indians prefer to drive them
between mountains if practicable. Sometimes they hurry large
droves over tremendous precipices, & kill killing hundreds of them
falling pell mell & are dashed to death on the rocks below.

Being a wandering people, they are entire stran‑
to the feeling so ardently cherished by other tribes, and


I may say by the human race: viz attachment to country.
They know nothing of the passion; where game abounds
there is their home; and it matters not whether it be
upon the luxurientRegularized:luxuriant & expansive prairie or
among the stupendous precipices & rocks of a realm of
mountains. With the mustang & the buffaloeRegularized:buffalo no country
is to rugged; and without them no fertile plains, no
smiling, no genial skies are at all inviting. All the
the beauties and blessingsof nature, all the blessings of industry; all
that the luxuries that God and art have contributed to place within
the reach of man, despised and unheeded by this
iron race who seem to have no aim ambition or
desire beyond the Steed they ride and & the beast
they feed on, to eat, to drink, to sleep to toss their strong
& flexileRegularized:flexible limbs in the uncouth wildness of native liberty
& unrestrained lisenceRegularized:license. How different from this is it
with the Creeks & the Cherokees. Their attachment to the
land of their fathers seem to increase, as the blessings of the
land decline. After game has fled; after all which is
to them desirable have passed away; their towns depopu‑
; their huts destroyed; their hunting grounds circum‑
; when indeed every thing which was congenial
to their feelings, and character or associated with their habits,
customs & pleasing recollections, have been extirpated by the
gradual invades of civilization, yet still they cling to the
spot of earth that affords them a scanty subsistance where
they must ever find no friend their rights are not regarded


their inferiority is felt, without friends to alleviate distress
or justice to afford protection, in prefferenceRegularized:preference to removing to a coun‑
freely offered them suited to their habits, where game
abounds and individual & national prosperity may be revived
as in the brightest period of their hystoryRegularized:history. Are they told
that they are friendless here, that their lands are in the hands of
strangers, that their hunting grounds are torn by the ploughshare?
Are they told Are they told that they will have snug valliesRegularized:valleys
in the west, where the buffaloeRegularized:buffalo are as numerous as the leaves
on the trees, where they can hunt the deer in freedom &
catch the wild horse like herds of cattle, it is all in vain — they
but cling to their native haunts the closer; these but
bind them to their native hills the more—


In Texas the people seem to have but little disposition
to exert themselves. Indeed they say themselves that they are
the laziest people in the world, but they seem not able to
account for it; it can be accounted for on my material
primareily. Man will not toil hard for the mere lux‑
& ornaments of life. Necessity will drive them to labor
for competence, but their their industry ends, unless they
are stimulated to further efforts by some principle as strong
as necessity. This is to be found in ambition, pride, the love
of distinction & when these are to be obtained by extra labor
it will be readily given. But place a man in a
community where his importance & power is neither diminished


by extreme poverty or increased by surplus wealth, he will
not toil for that superfluity merely to secure some of
the conveniences & luxuries of life which are so easily done
without. This is the reason that people in Texas have
not been an industrious people, &C. As to wealth they have
been but little distinction among them, all being what we
would call poor; the production of the county being great, very
little labor seemed a corruption, and all being on equality the
never sighed for moneRegularized:money, for moneRegularized:money brought them neither supe‑
of standing or power.

The natives of Mexico, when invaded by
Cortez was in a much higher state of moral and
intellectual cultivation than is usually supposed. They
were ignorant of the arts & customs of other countries, but they possessed
much useful & true Knowledge among themselves, appa‑
derived from no civilized nation, but entirely the
growth of their own country. This is manifest from the
stupendous works of arts and monuments of in‑
which were destroyed by the above brutal &
ferocious invader who treated this people as an ignorant
race, himself however not knowing a letter in the alphabet.
Besides this their system of religion was pure and uncor‑
by superstition or human depravity; they taught
that there was but one God, whose Emblem was the Sun,
and the golden precept was the foundation of their creed that all
men were brethren & that we should do to one another as we would be done by.


See page 115

From Masters' I proceeded to Mr Aldridges,
about 20 miles, passing thro'Regularized:through land varingRegularized:varying much in its quality
but the poor predominated; after leaving Aldridges I a few
miles I passed thro'Regularized:through the Mustang Prairie, a large beautiful
Prairie standing alone surrounded by woodland, the soil good; 12
miles further brought me to the Trinity, making the distance
from Masters to this river 37 miles, making by my computation
nea 96 miles, but I should say it was fully 100 the distance generally
stated. From Masters' to the river the country is about equally
divided between prairie & woodland; and such I presumed it is
all the way down to the bay on the left & far into the country
up the river. The lands on the Trinity are good; first rate,
but much of the bottom lands subject to overflow. It is the
best navigable stream in the territory; being capable of Keel‑
navigation with certainty for 6 to 9 months in the year, and
by a great many it is said that it is as good the red river for
Steam boats. non. A I left Dusts Tuesday 4th Augt reached McCl‑
's that night; left there Thursday morning, reach Masters about 12 OclkRegularized:o'clock the
same day; left Masters Monday 10 reached Aldridge's same day; left
there next morning reached Robbins at the Trinity 11. departed next mor‑
which was Wednesday 12 Augt.

Whilst at Mr Masters' I was treated with extreme
kindness both by himself, his lady & family. To one of the
daughters I made a present of a fine cable chain for which
I gave $40. The present was so rich & beyond her notions of
liberality that I really believe she thotRegularized:thought that I was practising
a fraud & that the chain was only brass. I gave it her incon‑


of her attention to me in sickness, being the first
young lady that had paid any regard whatever to my
suffering. I felt afterwards that the gift was not an
appropriate one; a few yds of Callico & such like articles of
dress to the tenth part of the value would perhaps have
pleased her better; and besides I was forcibly reminded of
the unsuitableness, by seeing her afterwards sitting on
the same bench with one of her fathers strapping negro fellows,
in high converse with him. My feelings of this would
have been most horribly shocked if I had not previously noticed
the equality that existed in the family between the blacks &
the whites, the former having an equal if not superior author‑
. Here too I was most kindly treated by Major Lewis, a
merchant just opening a store. He paid much attention to me,
ministered to my wants, promoted my comforts; and made
me a fine present of a pair of green spectacles silver framed.
He left for Nacogdoches on Sunday & I for the Trinity on
Monday. At Aldridges nothing worthy of remark; At
Robbins on the Trinity, I met a company of 25 or 6 men
returning from an expedition after the Indians. Robbins
himself was one of the number. They had proceeded far enough
to ascertain that it was prudent to go no further & returned
without reaping any laurels, which perhaps they regretted
less than the loss of the expected plunder. See 124

Joseph Dusts' see 113. Whilst at Dusts' there stopped
two or three more who were from Alabama after the McGhee's
fugitives from justice who had murdered two young lads


and fled to this county; a large reward had stimulated these
men to make an effort to bring them to justice ; but they seemed
to me not qualified for the undertaking, wanting especially in
prudence & secrecy. There tarried also a Dr whose name I
know not & desire never to know, who said he was no practising phy‑
but was a tolerable master of efficient in the old system and
a perfect master in the new. What he meant by the old
new systems I was curious to know, when he informed
that the one was the mineral & phlebotomizing system; that is the puking
purging & bleeding method; and the latter was the more recent
& infalible plan of steaming roasting boiling & baking. He was
in fact either a calomel doctor or a steam physician and
kindly proffered me his assistance in either system I might
prefer to be treated. I politely declined his services by telling
him that I had just calomized myself pretty profoundly;
& as for his steam, I would rather prefer the furnace a Shadrich
Meshac & Abednigo. He was of all men I ever met with
the damned fool and the most everlasting talker. He told
a story about his curing one of his own children of some cuta‑
sores by steam, in the absence of his wife who he said
would never let him try it when at home. The process through
which he carried the child, & its excruciating pangs & heart rending
screams under the operation, as he discribed, made me look
upon him in the light not only of a fool, but as a heartless
demon, who should, for this very act, be condemned to the
Penitentiary the ballanceRegularized:balance of his life.


On the east side of the Trinity at Robbin's ferry
there is a large prairie, the extreme fertility of which attracted
my attention, about 4 miles across. I found on enquiry that the
whole tract was subject to inundation, and that they sometimes
have to ferry entirely across it. The lands on the Trinity are
chiefly taken up; very little good land unsurveyed within ten
miles of the river. I am told the stream unlike the Colorado
has a rocky foundation and firm banks; the channel
of consequence is not subject to those changes & fluctuations of
the Colorado which is loose & sandy and often varying its
channel. the Trinity is said to be navigable up to what is called
the Three Forks about 50 miles by land above where I crossed
it. From Robbins I proceded 9 miles to an old man's house
(Larison's) passing thro'Regularized:through poor land; thence 15 miles to Simms
land still poor, most of it prarieRegularized:prairie. Arrived at Simms Wed‑
12; rained next day so that I could not travel;
left Simms Friday 14th arrived that forenoon at the Sulp‑
Springs 21 miles. the Sulpher Spring affords water
nothing different as far as I could perceive by the taste
& smell, from the Indian Springs in Geo. It is situated
near a Creek called rocky Creek; which is the only run‑
water I have met with from Nacogdoches to this
place, distance upwards of 140 miles, with the exception of the
Trinity river. This Creek heads about 7 miles above the Sulpher
Spring, breaking from some pine barren hills; the water hath
nothing of lime or salt in it but is clear cool free stone water;
& this is the cause of its being perennial. Just before I


crossed this Creek I passed through a large swamp, the
first of any magnitude I had seen in the country, with a large
Creek through it called CeaderRegularized:Cedar Creek, now entirely dry. The
Swamp is not heavily timbered or difficult of clearing, the
growth being principally small stunted CeadersRegularized:Cedars; the Soil is of the
richest possible Kind; I was told that it occasionally overflows
but very seldom. After crossing this fertile swamp & passing about
a quarter of a mile over barren sandy land, I came to the
beautiful stream just mentioned Rocky Creek, which seems to
run parallel with the other. I arrived at the Sulpher Spring
about 12 OclkRegularized:o'clock pretty much exhausted with fatigue; I drank
some of the water which greatly increased my appetite so that
when dinner came on I played altogether too active a part
with the Knife & fork, which soon threw me into a bur‑
fever. I found no accomodations at the Spring, only
one family being there, who furnished provisions to the vis‑
but had no lodgings or horse-feed. I had accordingly
to decamp in the evening; and going about 3 miles tarried
with a Mr. Whitaker burning up the livelong night with fever.
I took medicine about nine OclokRegularized:o'clock in hopes of being able
next morning to proceed on my journey, but morning found me
with a violent headachRegularized:headache & an exhausted frame. In the eve‑
however late I left Whitakers in company with a young man who
like myself was sick & proceeded to Mrs Bomans 8 miles. The
young man had on the left temple near the eye a horrible scar,
which I was told he recdRegularized:received about a year ago, in the following manner:
viz - about 15 miles from this point, whilst travelling he


stopped at a branch or brook to refresh himself, and as he
was stooping down, drinking in the stream, he recdRegularized:received a dreadful
blow on the head which laid him for a few minutes senseless; his
pockets were rifled, & he left for dead, but he recovered in time
to see the villian who had struck & robbed him; mounting his
horse the young man flew to a neighboring house, told his
story & the villian was immediately pursued & apprehended; but
soon afterwards made his escape it is supposed by
bribing the connivance of those in whose custody he was placed. His name was
Scott and is thought to be a bright mulattoeRegularized:mulatto passing for a white
man; it is further suspicioned from several circumstances that he
had murdered his master & thereby came into possession of
fine clothes that he sold because he could not wear them, and
of the effects which is supposed to have purchased his release.
He is now about San Antonio—

The party apprehending Scott, took his effects divided them
amongst themselves & then one of the party affecting to be his
friend pretended to have contrived a plan for his escape;
it was in this way that Scott fled; but he has since
sued for the recovery of his property & for damages; the young
man has not indited Scott for the assault; but will highly
probably wait until Scott recovers his three thousand
dollars from his apprehenders & then receive half the
sum not to commence action; this is the way they usu‑
settle affairs here.


Left Whitakers Saturday evening 15 and proceded to
Mrs Boman's 8 or 10 miles; tarried all night and went
next morning Sunday to Washington 18 miles. Left Washington
Monday morning 11th and went to Dr Hoxey's 18 miles in
what is called Coles' Settlement


give an account of the little colony of
french people who settled in 1818 on the Trinity
and after on Galveston Island.

Give some acctRegularized:account of LafiteRegularized:Lafitte the pirate—
He resided on Cat Island before he came to Galveston.—

The people are remarkable here for swearing. Old
Mr Capell a preacher says that he is disposed to excuse it
because it is constitutional with them—

The infernal Chinches & MusquitosRegularized:Mosquitos

The sands on the Nueces good as on the
other rivers, & similar in soil & well timbered; the
rot marginable; the most of the lands still open to
entry. This is now the best prospect for emigrants to get
good locations—

The herbs & as well many of the vegitablesRegularized:vegetables grow well in
country, lettuce, sillaryRegularized:celery &C

On the Brazos lower part there is an abundance
of Live Oak; and the undergrowth is composed mainly
of the wild peach which bears a small berry not much
larger than a pea, tasting like a peach carmel; it grows
as large or larger than the crown on peach tree, its leaves resem‑
it and tasting like them— The peach indicates good

The box elder, the wood of which carpentry rules &
surveying seals are made, grow on the Brazos as well
as on the other streams. It is beautiful wood, but the grain
is less fine than that which comes from—


Information derived from Col.Regularized:Colonel Cole

When Stephen Austin attempted to carry his
father's project into execution he applied to the chief visroyRegularized:viceroy
of this Country who was to act as Commissioner in putting
the emigrants into possession of their land but the viceroy or
Govt. refused to do anything, saying that a revolution had
taken place in Mexico & that he as an officer of Spain could
do nothing; but he advised Austin to proceed to Mexico &
confer with the Govt. there; Austin was young inexperienced
& could not speak a word of the Spanish language, yet
he proceeded to Mexico & arrived there whilst the Congress
was in Session, to which he made an application for a renew‑
of his father's contract Grant; Congress renwed it accor‑
, but Austin perceiving that the Govt. was on the eve of
another change that congress would be displeased & an Emperor
crowned, he prefered to wait the anticipated change & also make
application to the new authority. The change accordingly took
place & Iturbede was crowned Emperor. Austin then
applied to Iturbede, who appointed a committee to in‑
the matter; that Committee reported the Govt.
Colonization Law now in force; Austin was still not satisfied
apprehending the dethronement of the Emperor, which did ac‑
soon take place. Congress then again renewed its
powers & with the consent of the people organized itself
into a Convention for the purpose of Framing a Constitu‑
for the country; they accordingly proceeded to the task
and passed the present Constitution; and instead of


of adopting introducing any section in that instru‑
regulating colonization or the disposition of public
lands, they adopted the Colonization law as it was
framed by Iturbede's Committee without any
alteration as a part of the Constitution; and this was the
such is the hystoryRegularized:history of the Colonization Act, first drawn
up & sanctioned by imperial act of Iturbede & afterwards
adopted by the Convention as the fundamental law

In about two years Austin returned to his colony
the colonist during which time had heard nothing either
from him or concerning him; various conjectures about
his fate &C.

Whilst the Colonization law was in discus‑
before Iturbede, the grant to Moses Austin was changed.
The contract with Moses Austin was that each family
was to receive such a number of acres for the head of the
family, such a number for the wife, so many for each child
& so many for each slave; but that amt. seemed to
Iturbede too large but such was the ignorance of the
Mexicans about the extent of an acre that they
summoned Austin before them & told him that
the contract gave too much land & wished to know
of him if the Colonists would not be satisfied with
a league of land. Austin replied they would be
satisfied with whatever the Govt. thought proper to give;
a league was accordingly fixed upon for each family;
which was a larger quantity than would have fallen


to almost any family with a few exceptions, under
the arrangement with Moses Austin. Such was their
ignorance of acres. Austin left for Mexico on first Febry 1822
and got back to Texas in the latter part of August 1823. All the
changes took place in the Mexican Govt. during that time.

On Austin's return Whilst in At the time Austin
obtained his grant or rather he also was commissioned
by the Govt. as Lieutenant Colonel of the Militia & Judge of the
colony, with powers to pass such laws & regulations as were
necessary; thus was he complete monarch of the colony
with all legislation, judicial, executive & Military powers.
In his return he proceeded to enact several salutory
regulations aided by Col.Regularized:Colonel Cole; these laws were circulated
in manuscript there being no press in the province. Austin
continued his administration with grant satisfation to the
people; he was extremely popular; the people would
have died for him; this forms almost the first instance
where man could be trusted with absolute power without
abusing it; he deserves notice for it; he still retains the
undetered affections of all who were under his adminis‑
. Austin continued his powers until 1828 when he
resigned them all inconsequence of the introduction of the
state Govt. in Texas.


When the Constitution was adopted, Sa-gineDon Erasmo Seguin Segon, a
representative in the Convention from Texas, urged in
that body the policy of making Coahuila a Separate State
& Texas a Territory, urging that if united as one State
Coahuila which has all the population & the people all
Mexicans, the people of Texas will never have any
voice in Legislation. The legislation must be partial.
Texas however was united to Coahuila with a proviso viz
The Congress that formed the Constitution before it assu‑
Conventional powers, passed in to congressional
character certain laws which are called "Constitution
acts". passed previous to the constitution They are sometimes
called acts of confederation. When the constitution
was formed it recognized these acts as a part of
the constitution. Now among the in these Constitution
acts it is expressly stated that Texas shall be
admitted into the Union separated from Coahuila as soon as she shall be
able to support a State Govt. of her own. Another part
of the Constitution prescribes that when a territory wishes to become a State it shall petittion to Congress & the question
be put to the confederation & if three 2 thirds are in favor
of it, it is admitted. But no territory has been admitted
upon this plan, but all admitted have been by virtue
& in accordance with the Constitution Acts which which simply
says that a territory may become a state when it feels
"able to figure as such". San a Lore [Illegible: waxed]& sanovaRegularized:Sonora & Sinaloa


like Coahuila & Texas formed one State when the
former Sanalora acquiring sufficient strength formed a State
Govt. & was admitted under the Constitution acts. Now
it was in conformity with this arrangement that Texas
in April 1833 proceeded to form a State Govt. A conven‑
was held & a Constitution adopted; Col.Regularized:Colonel Austin
Don Erasmo Seguin & Dr Miller were appointed
a committee to carry constitution to Mexico & lay the
matter before the Govt. Dr Miller a timid man was afraid to go
and Seguin also declining, Col.Regularized:Colonel Austin proceeded alone. It was
desirable for Seguin to have went in as much as he
was the author of the Constitution act in favor of the admiss‑
of Texas. On Austins arrival at Mexico & making
known his mission, he was at first well recdRegularized:received and there
seemed to be no obstacle to the attainment of his object; but
soon he was summoned before the authority and informed
that the passage of this Constitution was not an act of the
people of Texas; that the people were opposed to it;
that it was the act only of a desperate factor and designed
as a revolutionary measure; And in confirmation of
all this he was shown the various remonstrances of the
Ayumentos in Texas.Austin was thrown into prison as a
These Ayumentos are looked upon in Mexico
as the State Govt. & worthless as they are erroneous & still
worse their, they the only channel thro which the people can
speak to the Central Govt. The opposition of Coahuila better
measure was a matter of course; but the false representation


Ayumentos was unexpected & confounded Austin. He
could do nothing more; he was at his vows end. He
wrote a letters back to Texas stating the state of affairs;
and recommended Texas to look to herself for her own
safety; that Mexico he believed was on the eve of a
desperate & long reolution, & it behoved Texas to form a
Govt. of her own. These letters were published in Texas
and reached Mexico shortly after anytime had taken his
departure from that City; but he was pursued, overtaken
at Montarie Monterey a city 2500 unhesitantly and
taken back & thrown into prison as a rebellRegularized:rebel. Austin
was soon released, but from some cause unknown
has not yet returned. When he first set out for
Mexico Pedrassa The city was in confusion about the president.
The contention was between PedrassaRegularized:Pedraza & GurerraRegularized:Guerrero when Santa
Anna stepped into the chair himself. The lion & the
unicorn fighting for the crown, up jumps the little black dog & nocksRegularized:knocks them both down. Peter Jack & Martin
see Tale of a Treb

Prior to the convention of 1833 that passed the con‑
, another had been held the year previous, 1832.
This convention was called in consequence of some warlike
events which had taken place in the province. The
Central Govt had without any approval even estab‑
several military posts in the country. Gen Terran
Teran, Commander in Chief of the Eastern internal
had ordered these posts. One was Nacogdoches, Anahuac.


TenoxtitlandRegularized:Tenoxtitlan on the Brazos, and at the mouth of the
Sabaca. Some of the Citizens b of AnnahuacRegularized:Anahuac being
imprisoned by the Commandant of that state; the
people demanded their trial by the laws of the country; Brad‑
the commandant expressed a willingness and desired
their confinement until he could fr make out his charges
against them. With this understanding the people, many
living some distance from AnnahuacRegularized:Anahuac , returned home sa‑
; some few remaind for the purpose of hearing the
trial. W The next day instead of surrendering the prisoners
or bringing them to trial, Bradburn fired a Cannon upon
the company who had remained to witness the trial,
but Killed none. The news flew throRegularized:through the country; the
people gathered five hundred strong; Bradburn alar‑
, sent to Nacogdoches for assistance, the Command‑
there sat out to his Succor, but having of the
number of militia who had turned out deemed it prudent
not to proceed. A negociationRegularized:negotiation took place between the
people & the Commandant of Nacogdoches that the
prisoners should be released without trial & that
Bradburn should be dismissed from office remanded from that place; the
first part was executed, but the matter Bradburn relieved
them from the other by cutting [Illegible: list]; he ran away to N. Orleans

[Illegible: Thakl] This was on the Trinity; the people on the Brazos
hearing of it & wishing to and join their friends on Trinity
against Bradburn, abt but deeming it imprudent to leave
their families & property exposed & defenseless, applied


to the Commandant of the Garrison at Valasco to
know whether he would protect their property & families
in their absence & also to know whether he would permit them to pass the fort in a [Illegible: wepal] to carry a cannon to the americans; to which he replied that he was under
Bradburns order & would have to obey whatever he
said. The people indignantly then turned on him,
a severRegularized:severe battle of seven hours ensued in which
perhaps seven 10 of our men Killed & 16 wounded; 30 of the
Enemy Killed & 20 wounded; the Garrison was su‑
on condition that the soldiers
should retain their arms but all the surplus arms
in the fort should be given up; they marched
to San PhilipRegularized:San Felipe & thence to San Antonio by order of the
Political Chief. The people now became alarmed at
what they had done and fearing serious difficulty with
Govt thought bethought them what excuse to make;
fortunately the news of Santa Anna's being President
reached them & they hoisted his flag and assigned that
they were fighting under his banner & for the security
of his power. Shortly after this ensued the diffi‑
at Nacogdoches, where they also assigned similar
reasons for their conduct.

This led to the convention of in the fall 1832 which was held for
the purpose of making explaining to Santa Anna and
making over more fair weather. This convention in a
long address, represented their the grievances of the people
here; the attempts of the military to rule the country


and finally most hypocritically lyingly & cowardly &
disgracefully stated that they had heard by way of
Vera Cruz of the policy of Santa Anna & that they ap‑
it & were friendly to the accomplishment of his disgrace.
See page 177

From the time Austin left for Mexico to carry the
constitution of the State, nothing has occurred in Texas
but all gone on harmoniously & peaceably until [Illegible: we]
this year 1835. The Colonization law does not permit
The legislature passed a law authorizing the Sale of
four hundred leagues of land, and two of the members
together with another individual bought the whole.
Grant a permanent member bought 100 leagues
Dust a member 100 more and Williams the other
200. When the Central Govt heard of this it immediately
annulled the Sale and sentordered a military force to apprehend
the Govr. They The Govr apprehending molestation
consulted with his friends who advised him to leave
the Seat of Govt in Coahuila and proceed to Texas where
he would be protected & he yielded to the advise
& his friends set out with him on his escape to guard
him & protect him, and to make their flight secure they
took an unfrequented road but to their great aston‑
they were met at the erroding mount on the Colorado by an armed
force stationed for their apprehension & all were taken pris‑
; they afterwards made their escape with the
exception of the Govr who is still in [Illegible: the cu ] a


prisoner in the custody of the Mexican Government. In the order
for the apprehension of the Govr several american
citizens were included (some of these were among
the number captured with his Excellency) who
immediately on their return home attempted to
excite the people to a rescue for of the Govr & for this
purpose held various meetings; the Ayuntaments
at San PhilipeRegularized:San Felipe met and he maed making a public
call upon the militia, passed a decree that all who
were summoned & refused to march to the rescue
of the Govr should be fined 2 hundred dollars &
furthermore they decreed that the soldiers acting
under the order might press into their service horses,
cattle & other private property of Individials (especially
of those who did not sanction the were known to dis‑
of this course) for the public service benefit.
This order was disregarded; but violent as it was it
seemed to awaken no indignation in the inseethed and
outraged people. If the Judges of the Inferior Courts of
County were to arrogate such power in Georgia I know
not what punishment the wrath of the public would
deem there; but here it passed off without comment,
& may notmight have been carried into practice with equal indifference
to the Taxonomy. The fate of the Govr is not
known & the order for the apprehension of the
other reblelsRegularized:rebels is still out against them. The Political
Chief was base & timeserving enough to


publish the order & call upon all the authorities and
the Good people to apprehend the fugitives.

The Govr before he attempted to escape had called
on the Texas for 300 militia to protect the Civil author‑
at the seat of Govt which had been threatened by the
military, but the call being unattended to, his friends
then advised him to the course he took; he removed
under the law that grants to the Executive the power
to locate the seat of Govt when he pleases; and his
confidential friends assisted in his escape in order
to get him to Texas where he might sign the
act authorizing the sale of the lands — the four
hundred leagues — but being apprehended unexpec‑
he never signed the act & accordingly it never
became a law, yet the land was sold nevertheless &
the Govt became purchasers —

Among the proscribed is Zavallo who was
had been sent as Minister to France, but hearing
the conduct of Santa Anna his disapprobationhe wrote a letter resigned his mission & wrote Anna
became known at Mexico a long letter branding him a usurper he left France landed
at New York & is now supposed to be in this Provinceresiding near Galveston Bay.
Santa Anna pretends that he only wants him to re‑
to the Mexican Govt the issue of his mission
but Zavallo thinks there is something beyond this
address to make his appearance at the Dictators

the proscribed individuals, thoRegularized:though in no


danger of being given up by their fellow Citizens
are still preaching up "war" and are anxious to ex‑
the people into immediate revolution. They
holding meeting in various places; & the people are
now divided into the peace & war parties —
I attended one of their meetings held at Wash‑
on Monday the 21st of August, where I mingled in
the discussion — The meeting was all compassion;
the people knew nothing of what they had assembled
for & retired as ignorant as they came; they are
damned stupid & easily ruled by Demagogues &

I tarried in Washington Monday & Tuesday,
& left there on Wednesday morning & went about
13 miles on the San Philipe road & staidRegularized:stayed all night
at a house Lawrences where I fared worse than at at any
place since I have been in Texas. Thursday
morning I proceeded 7 miles to a Mr Foster's where
I am at this time; here I stopped for the
purpose of attending a camp meeting in the neigh‑
. Page 141

Whilst the Legislation at Mountclover was progressing with the land sale,
Santa Anna heard of the speculation & wrote to them to desist; the Legislature
still went on; Santa Anna then ordered a military force against that body; the
members became alarmed for their safety & dispersed in haste & confusion. The
Govr stood to his post for a while & called upon Texas for three hundred soldiers
to protect him; but the call not being answered, he attempted to escape, but had
delayed it too long; Santa Annas forces had been planted at the various
crossing places & succeeded in apprehending his Excellency. The Legislature
dispersed in April 1835. They fled like Trojans.



They prefer to crawl where they are walked with
a lion heart.

The sea the tree that no longer bears fruit for them;
The buffalo may boast of his strength; but the
Boa winding his way unseen & silently until
within reach where twisting his folds around the
strong animals throat he brings him to the ground —
Like the eyes of the Cockatrice that

Page 140. Foster was an old man, not intelligent but honest and hospitable; his
wife a fine woman; they live better than any almost any
person I met tarried with in my travels. — Saturday 9th I visited the
Camp Ground; the assembly small 100 people; good in
appearance and behavior; and the preaching verytolerably good. On
Sunday morning 10th left Fosters for San PhilipeRegularized:San Felipe , but took the
wrong end of the road and travelled 7 miles on the back
tract to a man by the name of Beaucham, a poor man
but industrious and better fixed for living comfortably than
any man in his neighborhood; his situation is a fine one and
well improved, all done by himselfeRegularized:himself; here I staidRegularized:stayed until Wednesday
morning when I set out once more for San PhilipeRegularized:San Felipe and traveled
in the forenoon 20 miles to dinner at Mr Edwards', passing
over a very extensive prairie, the largest I had passed through
of poor soil almost an" entire sandbed. In the after noon I
continued my ride to San PhilipeRegularized:San Felipe , 12 miles miles swum one creek and reaching
this grand Metropolis at sunsetof Austin's Colony about Sunset;
making the longest days ride thus far, 32 miles; Wednesday 9th —


See page 144

Among the animalsinsectsreptiles peculiar to Texas is the
SantaopedeCentipede a worm of 4 to 6 inches in length shaped like the earwig with many
legs 50 odd and a forked tail, a sting in each foot at the
point & one in each fork of the tail; this reptile when pro‑
darts out every sting which may be seen & distinctly
heard scratching on the wood as he crawls along. It is said
to be more vvenimousRegularized:venomous than the bite of the rattle Snake; this
I have doubted, but that their sting is poisonous to a great
degree is proven by a recent case where one had crawled up the
sleveRegularized:sleeve of a negro and apparently without intending to sting
crawled back again, but left in the his tract a poison which
caused the arm of the negro to inflame & blister. The boy is
said to have felt no pain at the time moment, but shortly
afterwards a sensation like the sting of a bee; he was cured by
a plant known here by the name of the rattle snakes' master
without experiencing much inconvenience —

Among the wild animals & beasts is the prarieRegularized:prairie wolf
a small differing from the rest of the tribe only in his
diminuitive size; also the LowrierRegularized: [Illegible: Lowrie] similar to the common
wolf only much larger & more ferocious. See page 147. The prarie dog
is a small animal that burrows in the ground like an
salamander & looks like a fox by in figure re‑
a very small otter more than any other canine.

The [Illegible: Pracura] Pecary or Mexican Hog is still a greater curiousity; it is
a small compact animal resembling a opossum in figure
as much as the grunting tribe, the largest of them weighing
about 50 pounds. They have long thick bushy wollyRegularized:woolly hair,


and where a tail ought to be there is none but long hair
falling over a musk bag, from which when provoked they
rub against each other until it emits a offensive polecat
like odour offensive to any kind of antagonist that attacks
them. They are armed with 4 sharp tusks, pointed and
keen as a spring back knife & being as active as almost
any animal they are extremely dangerous to encounter.
All of the beasts of prey pass by him without molestation;
the bear so ready to sieze upon the domestic hog
& devour him alive views him this warlike little devil with trepadationRegularized:trepidation and
flees his presence. They are have the combattiveRegularized:combative principles
in them, ready at any moment for offensive or defensive war and two
rips with their sworddirk like weapons which they flourish with
the skill & dexterity of good swordsmen, is usually enough
to quarter a wolf dog, wolf, bear or any assailant coming
within their reach. Their tusks do not project outwardly
like the boar's but are concealed in their mouth, & when
called to use them on a foe, they do it by throwing
the nether jaw one side. They are fierce, ready for fight
and chomp their teeth together in wrath with the ferocity of a hungry

the Leopard Cat is very like the Mexican leapord
only smaller, not being much larger than the catamount,
which is also here — The Mexican leopard is sometimes found here.

The antelope is found in the upper part of Texas
it is a beautiful animal larger than a deer colored on the
back like one, with white sides & a white stripe across

See page 146


from P.85

One method of taking the wild horse is to mount
a good courser equipped with the LaraetteRegularized:lariat and take
after him until you overtake him and then lazooRegularized:lasso him
that is throw your rope round his neck & bring him
to the ground. The horse on which you are mounted
must be well trained to the business otherwise the
rider & steed will both stand a fair chance to have
their necks broke, for one end of the LaraetteRegularized:lariate being fastened
to the saddlebow & the other round the neck of the mustang
it is obvious that if the pursuing horse should continue his
speed & run ahead of the mustang; or should he be too suddenly
checked himself & suffer the mustang to run in full
speed ahead of him, the like dangerous consequences would
ensue the rider steed & courser & mustang could might all be
brought in such violent conjunction with the the
earth as not to have any with the ability of rising—
But a well trained horse will avoid this danger. He knows when you throw
the rope and then slacking his gait will keep in near the
side of the side of the mustang, permitting him to gradually
to advange to go ahead until the LaraetteRegularized:lariate begins to choke
him & finally bring him exhausted to the ground,
when he is so hampered by halters as to prevent his escape
this is one method (see page 85

Tarantula. Their bite is said to be fatal. He is a large
insect of the spider kind as large as a small saucer colour black covered
with hair Body & legs, small head like a spider with two large fangs
in his wide mouth — They boroughRegularized:burrow in the ground and are mostly found in
the prairie.


Fenesses The Cochineal lives on Prickly pareRegularized:pear

In many of the Mexican States on land just like
this in Texas the prickly pareRegularized:pear grows to a most enor‑
size one pareRegularized:pear being as large as a barn door and
so numerous as to form an impassible barrier wherever
they spread; I am told that there is scarce a leaf that
has not a rattle snake under it; the mexicans often
in traveling cut off their heads & eat the body. Now
why will not these pareRegularized:pear grow to an equal size in
Texas, and if they will, why no will they not an‑
for a fence in the upper part of the country when
timber is scarce? I am told by those who have seen
it growing that it will answer this purpose as well
as the Cherokee rose; the Plant is found in Robinson's
colony of not many in abundance & often of very large
size. In building a fence out of it we can dispence
with the rattle snake which is said to be such a
certain dweller in its shade, although these reptiles
themselves might make pretty formidable barrier
against the [Illegible: innards or uncertainty] for horses & cattle & instead of being eaten by our negroesgracing our trenches as a dessert
might be holesomeRegularized:wholesome food for the hogs. Why not then introduce the
prickly pareRegularized:pear for fencing; leaving the snakes to be brou‑
or left as person's taste may incline them?

The national emblem of Mexico stamped on the coin is an eagle presented
on these Prickly paresRegularized:pears with a rattle snake plucked from beneath a
leaf. The bird has him in his beak & talons —

The paresRegularized:pears are have been used to lie flat on the ground
these grow up edgewise & like a tree or stalk See page 146 —


his forheadRegularized:forehead & over his eyes. This hair is extremely
coarse & long, stout almost as a small straw. They
have no tail. They are fleet as the winds; they
do not eat the grass grazing in the lower part of
Texas; in the upper part about 50 miles above
Cole's settlement a different king of grass fills the
prairie called Musket grass, a fine grass
on which cattle & horses can feed in the & fatten
in the winter season. The mustang & Buffalo
feed all winter on this grass. There are several
species of it, all equally good for winter ranger —

See page 143
The snake is intended to represent the Spaniards in the hands of the Mexicans.
See page 145. Some say that the emblem of an eagle
with a snake in his mouth perched on a prickly as we
see it stamped on the coin was adopted inconsequence of
the extraordinary growth of this plant and the abundance
of the rattling reptiles under their [Illegible: their] leaves; the interpre‑
where of is that the excessive fertility of the soil is
is seen exhibited in the production of the first, whilst the Eagle tearing
the snake represents the strong will & ability of the Govt to destroy any
whatever malignant foe who may be dispensed to its of its malignant and
dangerous foes. The Eagle was suggsted by the US and the snake by represents the Spaniards. Others again say that the adoption of the
pareRegularized:pear was adopted inconsequence of the army of General
Hidalgo having subsisted for many days entirely upon
this plant it; but as to the Eagle & Snake they say nothing —
the true hystory however of this I believe to be this. An old tradition says the Eagle was suggested by the U.S. & the snake by representing the Spaniards
A third account however is more probable than either of the forgoing


King of a indian King, having a beautiful daughter
who was courted by the King of another tribe, but his
the parent now feeble old & a widower discontinued his
address were [Illegible: discontinued] by the parent [Illegible: from the]
[Illegible: union] now feeble old & a widower from an unwillingness
to be separated from at such a distance from his only child.
The father was unwilling to follow his daughter, and the
lover was unwilling to leave his own tribe to dwell
with another people. The daughter became unhealthy
fading away and would shortly be lost to both if
the affair was not brought to a speedy conclusion adjutant. They
finally came to the conclusion that they would watch
for some sign in the heavens which should indicate the
course they should pursue. Presently an Eagle came
flying immediately over their heads with a snake in
his beak & tallonsRegularized:talons. They followed him the bird in his flight
and saw him light on a large prickly growing in a lake—
The parties all agreed to drain the lake & settle there; and this is the
site on which Mexico stands — Such is the tradition earliest
account of the foundation of that vast & populous
city and it is said that the National Emblem on the coin
was adopted in conformity with that traditionaryRegularized:traditional ascent
see page 150

PriarieRegularized:Prairie dog is a small dog of a beautiful bay color with
white face, breast & belly, formed like a lap dog, and burrows in the ground,
living probably on grass. They live in herd in towns together; the male
& female look alike, the former a little larger than the latter. They are all coloured
exactly of the same alike. It is said that owls & Rattle snake swell
with them in their holes — Where ever you find a dog town, you find also
orioles. The dog is ever offensive; they will run out of their holes & bark fiercely at
travellers as they pass by but flee if you approach them.
They weigh about 8 pounds.


Edward, Burnet & Hunter

From page 98

The Grant now known as Burnette's, Robbin's & Squavallo's was first granted
to Edwards; but the Legislature took the Grant from
Edwards; in anticipation of this course by the legislation, Austin
petitioned that in the event the Grant should be taken from Edwards
that his friend Burnet might revive it as causerie — It was in
this way that Burnet obtained his Grant. Edwards and his
brother became exasperated at this, abused the legislature
for taking such a step without hearing professing some
charge against them and then give them a hearing him a trial; but
that that body had accused tried & condemned him without a hearing.
In consequence of this conduct they joiined Austin in his
madcap career. The grant to Edwards Extended from the Sabine to the

Baron de Bastrop.

The Baron was a nobleman of Holland who fled
to this country during the invasion of that country it by the
French, bringing with him great wealth, the most
of which on his arrival in the U.S. he laid out in the
purchase of lands. He bought large quantities among
the mountains in Virginia which never was & probably
never will be of any value. He afterwards obtained
from Louisiana Empire grant on the WashitaRegularized:Ouachita which he
afterwards lost from some cause. His family became discontent & returned to Holland. He came to Texas
many years ago; Was austin's the first land Commis‑
to Austin's colony; and did at San Antonio about
10 years ago at a in San Antonio, when he had resided nearly 40 years at the very advanced age of 80 or 90 leaving to his heirs
his lands in Virginia & vast possessions in Texas with
Col Austin and some other person as Executor —
in the U.S.. His family returned to Holland shortly after their arrival


Bastope obtained his grant

Mosquito, this is a spanish word and retaining Span‑
orthography. It means Mascou, (a fly) & changing its termination into
quito makes it a little fly; — he is, but damnd severe —

of Nacogdoches

The principle productions of this dept cotton, corn, Sugar
from the maple tree— the grape grows in abundance—
The face of the country presents but 2 aspects; level and
broken — the level extends from the coast 70 miles north
and covered with timber in abundance for building & other pur‑
, such as pine, ceaderRegularized:cedar cypress, pine oak. The broken
running up to Red River, in water pasturage & timber,
the soil occasionally gray and sandy, but generally of deep
iron complexion all fertile. Iron, fosileRegularized:fossil coal, salt, salt
peter and such many other geological productions — Commerce in
this dept is fully 5 hundred thousand dollars; the
otter and Beaver skins, and Cattle — There is but little
money in circulation, the trade is carried on chiefly by
an excahnge of commodities and not to any extent throRegularized:through
the medium of coin. The money of the county is U.S.
& N. OrleansRegularized:New Orleans Bills and what are Known here as hammardRegularized:hammered
dollars and Sand dollars, the first being Spanish dollars
with the Kings head stamped on them beaten out, in
indignation of the Spanish Govtt during the revolution;


and the latter are dollars cast or moulded in sand
(called provincial dollars) under a law permitting any
individual to cast money — The rains usually set in
about November & continue till the month of June,
hena the plant corn planted late in February stands the
best chance to make a good crop.

Prickly pareRegularized:pear

See pages 146. 147. 145 — The prickly pareRegularized:pear grows in several of the
Mexican states like a cabbage only very large as a tall bush. it
bears on its leaves, pareRegularized:pear as large as a peach and shaped as a fig which are frequently
eaten as fruit & often to quench thirst in that dry country.
It grows in great abundance in some places the whole face
of the large prairies are covered with it. The pareRegularized:pear I have
been told will make good brandy. The mexicans horn the
pricklys off the leaves & the stock are as fond of it as corn
See page 170

The MuskitRegularized:mequite tree is a species of locusts it
bears a fruit resembling in flavor but not in appearance
the common locust. The tree It is low scraggly & thorny, with wide
spreading zig zag limbs and a trunk seldom straitRegularized:straight and
still less seldom above 6 feet long tall enough to get in
part of 6 feet in length. The Mexicans make fences of
this tree by planting post about 4 feet high & 4 feet apart,
& then filling up the spaces by weaving the branches of the tree.
They call this — A fence made thus will last longer
ceaderRegularized:cedar or cypress.



Texas is situated between 28.35 north latitude, be‑
17 & 25 west of Washington; bounded on the
north by the Arkansas Territory, East by Louisiana
on the South by the State of Tamaulipas on the
Gulf of Mexico, on the west Coahuila, Chihuahua
& the territory of New Mexico.

Settlement commenced the first of last century.
In 1806 there were more than one hundred thousand
head of cattle and 40 or 50 thousand gentle horses
chiefly for market; in 1810 the indians destroyed the
most of the settlements at a distance from the large towns
and took nearly all the cattle & horses. From this irrup‑
may be dated the decline of Bexar, La Bahia,
Esperito Sauto (now called Goliad) and Nachodoches.
These were the only towns that withstood the shock
of this irruption.

After the Independence of Mexico, Texas was
a province of Kerbede as a province, under a mutinous
chieftain with title of Govt. The last that bore
this title was Col Don Jose Felix Trisphalacios.

When the Federal Constitution was formed of
Govt was adopted by the nation Texas & Coahuila
formed one State. The Legislature of this State
proceeded immediately to divide Texas proper it into three
Departments, and the Legislature of 1834 divided
Translated Holy Ghost Day


Texas proper into three departments, Bexar, Brazos,
& Nacogdoches, and the three Political Chiefs appointed
for the departments were Henry Smith for Brazos,
Rowage for Nacogdoches and for Bexar.

The land is generally low but may be
divided into 3 sections very distinctly; the first
is land; the second, undulating and the third mountai‑
The level part extends along the whole
length of the coast from the Sabine Bay to the river
Nucese, more than one hundred and thirty leagues in
length and from 20 to 25 leagues and sometimes not
more than 5 in breath. The undulating part
extends north to the Red River & west to the heads of the
Medina & the Colorado; the Third part or mountainous
part there continues and after passing this part
there continues extensive prairies that extend to the
borders of New Mexico & Chihuahua.

Texas is said to have valuable minerals lying
north of bexar in the country inhabited by the ComanchasRegularized:Comanches.
With regard to the vegetable or Botanical Country though the
vanity be great, I understand that Mr. Drummond naturalist from
Edinburgh in traveling through Texas observed that he had
met with some things new, but that the plants peculiar to
Texas were few; the most being found in the U.S.
He found many birds unknown in other country. I saw but few of the feathered
like myself but what I was familiar with. Hawks in abundance —


Texas is extensive, embracing 21 thousand square leagues.

The Gov A form It is contended by some that
the NuceseRegularized:Nueces is not the true line between Texas and
Coahuila as it is laid down on the maps;
but that the true line begins at the mouth Aransoso
and following that to its head, thence trike for the junc‑
of the San Antonio & Medina, following the eastern
bank of the Medina to its head and terminating at
the boundary of Chihuahua. According to this
line the Colony of McMullen would be subject to
the Department of Rio Grande, which is not the fact
as it evident within the Department of Bexar & has
all always been considered and was so intended by
the Govt that Granted the Colony to McMullen —

Boundaires of the Several
Departments & first
Bexar 10.000 Square leagues

The Department of Bexar is bounded on the South and
western by the NuceseRegularized:Nueces beginning at its mouth & foll‑
the stream up to its head where it form the boundary
of Chihuahua, which line becomes the
following said boundary as far as it extends in that
direction and thence to the utmost limits of Texas on
the west to New Mexico — The Northern boundary
begins at the river La Baia following the Western bank
up to Deuritt's colony, thence leaving the boundary


following the southern boundary and the southwestern boundary
of following the south east & south west boundary of
said colony to the road leading from Nacogdoches to
Bexar, thence northwardly to the Red River.

brazos 5.400 Square Leagues

The Department of Brazos is bounded on the South by
the Gulf of Mexico commencing at the Bolivar Point
and following the coast to the mouth of the Sabaca
and on the south west and west by the department
of Bexar already described; North by Red River on the
East beginning at Bolivar Point Galveston bay following
the dividing ridge between San Jacinto and the
Trinity to the head of San Jacinto thence following
the ridge or highlands separating the waters of the
Trinity & Brazos to the head of the Trinity, thence
north to Red River.

Nacogdoches 5.600 Square leagues

The department of Nacogdoches is bounded on the
one side by the line separating it from the Brazos
department, on the North by Red River, east by the
Sabine and South by the Gulf of Mexico.


A statement of the population of Texas, from Almonte's Travel

Department of Bexar
Bexar 50002400
Goliad 1400 700
S. Patrick 600
Department of Brazos
Gonzales 900
San Felipe 2500
Columbia 2100
Matagorda 1400
Mina 1100
Department of Nacogdoches
Nacogdoches 3500
St. Augustine 2500
Liberty 2000
Jonesboro 2000


The Towns of Bexar

The town of Bexar in 1834 contained 2400 inhabitants
It is situated between two hills near the head of the San Antonio
river. It was founded in 1718 by an officer and 50 troops
sent by the Spanish Govt to establish a military post.
About 1730 sixteen families consisting of 47 persons of
both sexes came from the Canady Walls and
settled there. The houses are generally good, being
built of unburnt brick and without wooden floors,
the floors are of dirt; it now wears the aspect of
decay. Its situation could not be better for the establishment
of Manufactory. Goliad formerly called La Bahia
is situated on the eastern bank of the San Antonio
river 38 leagues below Bexar. The houses
are like those of Bexar. The word Goliad is anagramatised from the
word Hidalgo, the H being omitted in Goliad because it has no sound in Spanish. Hidalgo
is a Knight or nobleman; Hidalga the feminine of Hidalgo, pronounced Edalgo or ga
Goliad stands on the brow of a hill, the site not elligible for a town.

Gaudalape Regularized:Guadalupe Victoria pronounced vulgarly "Wawloopy"
is situated on the river GaudaloupeRegularized:Guadalupe 27 miles from
Goliad and 30 from the coast— it is in all in Master's De Leon's Colony
The houses of wood — Population 700. 300.

St. Antonia . Immorality of the inhabitants. The neious state
of morals — the general indugeanceRegularized:indigence of concubinage instead of marriage & the
loose habits of the women, one reason why the Mexicans generally have
not advanced farther in arts & sciences of civilization. In St Antonio they are
far below the lowest — indians — There is an unfinished Cathedral, there
of magnificent structure; it was commenced nearly Century ago; never finished — No schools


St. Patrick in Spanish San Patricio

Capital of the colony situated upon the River Nueces about 40 miles from Goliad Victoria
and 15 miles from the coast. It is in the capital of McMullen Grant, settled entirely
almost by Irish emigrants, ignorant bigoted CatholicksRegularized:Catholics whose brutality
is disgusting and whose violence refrell retards the settlement of the colony by Americans
or any other than their own swinish & superstitious race. The houses
of wood. FoundeRegularized:Founded in — Population . McMullen the
man after whom this town was named & the founder of the colony, proposed
to turn a part the waters of the Rio Del Norte into the Nueces; he
proposed also to the Legislature of Tamaulipas to change the Rio Del Norte
so as to disembogue into the Bay Brasa Santiago. The water is deep enough
in the bay to admit vessels, but at the mouth of the river (Bravo) there is a
Bar that cannot be crossed — a canal of 20 or 3 miles will turn the river into
this bay by which will boats then can then fly from the bay upto Mata
. Population 600.

San Felipe. San Fa-le'-pe

San Felipe de Austin, situated on the west bank of the Brazos,
100 yds from the river, situation somewhat elevated back of the town
is an immense Prairie with totally destitute of timber; distance from the
mouth of the Brazos by land 100 miles; from Brazoria 75; from Mataporda 100;
from Bexar 156; from Nacagdoches 210; from Harrisburgh 30; from Gal—
45. Founded in 1824. Population 300 souls

Fifteen miles leading to Gonzales is found in the river St. Bernardo
a bitunimous spring in the center of the current, in which
Almonta a mexican who has lately published his travels in this country
says he bathed & that the water was so hot that he could not remain
in it one minute— Floating on the surface of the eddy part of the stream
below he thinkssays that probably quantitity of pitch might be gathered.
See 170



Situated on the same side of the river Brazos with San PhilipeRegularized:San Felipe ; 25 or 30
miles from Velasco at the mouth of the river by land & 45 by water; situated on the bank of
the river surrounded by timber for several miles and the most fertile soil;
this renders the roads through it extremely muddy in wet weather;
the musquitoesRegularized:mosquitoes more awful than at San Felipe where they are bad
enough this season. From 1829 to 32 this town flourished on account
of the trade carried on there, but Matagorda, Velasco and Columbia springing
up have checked its growth & prosperity as well as the supposed unhealthy
the situation — FoundeRegularized:Founded in 18— population 500. During the great
inundation of 1833 the whole town was covered with water overflowed
the water rising in the houses from 3 to 4 feet deep. This is
never know Regularized:known to overflow before or since — Brazonia was named after the river
Brasos de Dios which in Spanish signifies Arms of God. Founded by Genl Ins
Austere (now dead) in 1828 — Population 500.


Situated near at the mouth of the Colorado on the Eastern or left
bank, and about a short distance from the Matagorda Bay; its topographical
situa position is favorable for commerce having perhaps the second
best harbor on the coast. Population 300.


A new place, situated 10 miles belowabove Brasoria on the
west side of the Brazos — Population 200.


Harrisburg .

Situated 15 miles above Buffalo bayou 20 miles from Galveston Bay; it
There is pine timber in the neighborhood a very rare article in
Texas; a stream saw mill is established there. Population 300.


Situated on the western Bank of the GaudaloupeRegularized:Guadalupe — Capital
of De Witt's colony. Population 340.


Situated on the road leading from the Nacogdoches to
Bexar. It stands on the west side of the Colorado; its
prosperity has been retarded in consequence of the hostility
of the neighboring Indians — It is now improving slowly — It
was formerly called Bastrop. Populaion 3 to 400.


Is situated at the mouth of the Brazos. Population 200 70—
The point & all the surrounding country is open prairie without timber. The
prospect is boundless; mosquitoes infernal. Valasco lies on the east
side of the river and Quintana on the west. Quintana has but one house &
McKinne & Williams. This isthe only mercantile house in the two places.
Velasco was named after a Mexican Genl; Quintana after a private in‑
living in the interior with whom some of the early settlers of
Texas used to trade. It was named probably by Mr. Grass in honor of his
friend —



Situated in latitude 31.40 — 60 or 70 miles west of the Sabine
river; 150 from the Bay of the same Sabine Bay; 210 from
San Felipe; 240 from Bexar; — It stands between two
small creeks, the largest called Nana, the other Banito
(Ban-ye-to) the one meaning a fishing stream and the other a small bathing
place — The site is picturesque level, and the surrounding coun‑
picturesque for this country Texas. It was founded in 1778
In 1819 it was completely destroyed during the revolution by the
Spanish troops; the inhabitants were dispersed & many families
took refuge in Louisiana near Natchitoches where Its repeopling com‑
1822 & 3. The houses are chiefly wood; some very good
ones — there is one of stone — but the most of the houses are of
logs or of mud walls like in the old style of spanish building—
the town has the appearance of delapedation & decay —
Population 400 whites — 100 Mexicans —

St. Augustine

Situated in a fertile section of country called the red land & sometimes Ayi‑
Bayou on the road leading from Natchitoches to
Nacogdoches distance from the former
and from the latter 36 or more miles. It is a new town &
is more growing rapidly; its trade is considerable for
so small a place; its population 4 or 5 hundred; the coun‑
around is of fertile soil and thickly populated.


Tenoxtitlan. Te-nox-ti-tlan. Named after some a
tribe of Indians in some of the interior states.
Situated on the Brazos 8 miles above San Felipe. Population
Formerly a military fort, butuntil the troops were withdrawn in 1832.


Situated on the Eastern bank of the Trinity 30 miles above at the point
where the road leading from Opelousas to San Felipe
crosses their river. Its situation not the most favorable
30 miles from Galveston and 150 from Nacogdoches
Population 50 souls


Situated on the west bank of Red River 32 miles
above Pecan point. This town tho'Regularized:though within the
limits of Texas, is claimed and held by force by
the Territory of Arkansas and will probably so
remain until the boundary between Texas & the U.S.
is finally established —

Anahuac — the mexican pronounciation
An-ah-wah; the Americans, some An-a-whack
It is named of probably after a tribe of Indians of
that name, or probably after a peak of the Cordilleras
pronounciation Cor-de-ya-ras. Situated 3 miles
from the mouth of Trinity on the eastern bank


its situation rather picturesque appearance than other‑
. It is nearly abandoned since the military
have been driven off — it may never be a place of any
consequence — Founded by Col Jno. Davis Bradburn of the Mexican
Army in 1831 situated on the bay of Galveston. Population 200. Bradburn
was driven from the place for his infamous tyranny; he fled to N. OrleansRegularized:New Orleans


Situated in the fork of the of the Angelina and the
NachesRegularized:Neches ; it is not making much progress at present
but may in time become of some importance when
Snow River shall be navigated —


Named after Genl Miguel de Mier ay Teran, Com‑
Genl of the Eastern internal States, under
Bustamante. After his defeat at the battle of
near Matamoras in which his fortunes were involved,
he committed suicide by falling on his sword in
the manner of the Romans — This town is situated
on the Naches above Beville; about 40 or 50 miles from
Nacogdoches. It was a military post & since the removal
of the troops it is nearly depopulated & going to decay —



35 miles North East of Nacogdoches creek situated
Tanaha Creek, once noted as a place of refuge for those
who had fled from the U.S., but now it is rapidly improving in
society as well as in population & prosperity. It is in
the red lands —


Situated on the Brazos River at junction of the Navisote and the old crossing place
La Bahia (vulgarly called Sabardee) crossing place. Population 100.

Viesca de Texas — pronounced Te-has.
Is situated at the Falls of the Brazos in what is called
the Nashville colony or Robison's Colony.


A new town recently laid off on the Colorado at the
point where the river is crossed by the road leading
from San Felipe to Bexar; distance from the for‑
place about 45 miles. Its future prospects
I know not; at present it contains only one or
two houses; There are other towns of the same name in
other parts of Texas. I am guided by a recent map com‑
by Stephen F. Austin.



Sabine; Trinity; NachesRegularized:Neches ; San Jacinto;
BuffaloeRegularized:Buffalo Bayou; Brazos; Colorado; San
Bernardo; Caney; Navidad; La Baca;
GaudalupeRegularized:Guadalupe ; San Antonio; San Marcos; Blanco;
Nueces; Navasoto; Medina; San Saba;
Rio Frio; Angelina; Atoyac ; and Snow river
which is formed by the junction of NachesRegularized:Neches & Angelina.


Sabine; Galveston; Matagorda; Aransaso;
Copano; Espiritu Santo;

Sab-ene; San-hah-sin-to; Buffaloe By-o;
Braz-os; Col-o-ra-do; San Ber-nar-do; Ca-ne;
Nav-i-dad; La-Bac-ca; Gau-da-lu-pe;
San-An-to-ne-o; Blan-co; Nu-a-ces; Nav-a‑
so-to; Me-de-na; San Sab-a; Re-o Fre-o;
Auk-a-lene; Al-to-e-ac; Snow, Trin-e-ty.
Gaudelupe is vulgarly pronounced Gau-lu-pe

The Bar at the mouth of the Brazos will not admit
vessels drawing more than 5 to 6 feetwater; this difficulty can be easily remedied
by cutting a short canal from East Reunion Creek at the mouth of
the river to Oyster Creek, thence to the Oyster into the waters of Galves‑
Bay, a distance in all not more than a mile or mile & half.
Thus any small vessel will be able to reach the mouth of the Brazos
that can enter via the Galveston bay either at the coast part or galveston
inlet. The Bar at the mouth of the Brazos is constantly changing; it is
believed that there is always some point at which the Bar might be crossed
but the breakers are generally so high that small boats cannot venture
out to sound the Bar to discover the supposed channels.



The Judiciary, as well as every other branch of
Government is in a state of confusion. They Debts
however still continue to collected debts and sometimes
to punish offenses occasionally punished; but I believe neither is done in
conformity with the ceremonies of the law, but gen‑
by a more summary process. The Judiciary
was revised and reworded during the legislature
of 1834; but no court has been held by the Supe‑
Judge under the new organization. This is
owing to the public indignation which prevails aga‑
the individual elected to the Office; the populace
will not permit him to preside; and an attempt to open
court would only be one step toward bringing himself
as a prisoner to the Bar. The cause of opposition to him
is to be found in the reprehensible means by which
he obtained the Situation. The last Legislature,
which you must bear in mind is composed
almost entirely of Mexicans from Coahuila, was
disposed to grant to Texas almost any thing that
could be constitutionally extended. Amongst other pe‑
this province prayed that laid in one for a system of Judicature
more consistent with the education and habits of the
american population might be extended to the country.
The petition which was readily granted, but the members
of the Legislature, familiar with no system but their own,
were at a loss to devise one which would be likely prove


adequate to the wants and suited to the genius of the
people. The members from Texas were ignorant &
unable to frame a system. A member of the Bar of
some intelligence who had been acting in a Judicial ca‑
, happened at the time to be at the metropolis;
he was accordingly consulted as to what would be alteration in the
Judiciary was desired & would be acceptable to the people
He told the Body that with their permission he would draw up such a
law as he knew would be acceptable to the people; &
accordingly drafted the system which is now the law
of country. He subsequently boasted that every line & word was his own;
that it passed the Legislature just as it came from his
pen. Never did a occurred to a young man a better opportunity
of doing essential service to his fellow citizens & his country
than this occasion presented. But the temptation which
it held out for the accumulation of wealth and the personal & power
aggrandizement was too great strong for his integrity. HeSeeing
saw that so soon as the new system should be adop‑
, that he could enter the field for the Judgeship without
competition; it is believed, that, in framing the system
which was immediately adopted he had one eye di‑
more to his own interest than to the public good,
for he suceeded in arranging the matter so that there was to be
but one Superior Judge throughout all Texas, and he that
Judge, with a salary for the first two years of
Two hundred and sixty six thousand, six hundred and forty
acres of land and afterwards three thousand dollars per annum for life.


The evident prostitution in this affair of public confidence to private capacity and
ambition was so glaring that on his return home
when he was received with disgust by his fellow citizens
and when called upon to hold his court was driven
from the Bench by the overwhelming force of public

An outline of the Judiciary may be
conveyed by specifying some of the leading powers
of the several officers. The Ayuntamenta is a body
composed of an Alcalda — a Sindico-procurator &
Regidors in porportion to the population & seige of
the municipality or what we would call county. This
body has no Judicial power. It is similar to our
courts of ordinary, but embracing a greater
variety of duties, none of which except two or three are of any
of any great importance. They superintend all
county matters; relative to roads, public buil—
. They also order elections &
preside at all for municipal officers; as also at
the Election for the Electors that choose the Governor
and Members of the Legislature; rising a little
higher in power they have the right when
a Judge of the "first instance" has to be chosen
to make out a list of 4 names the names of 4
persons to nominate 4 persons, a list of whose
names they present to the Political Chief whose
duty it is to select one of the number, the one


selected is the "Judge of the First Instance". Thus
is this Officer chosen; and thus you perceive that
the duties of the Ayuntamiento are chiefly is very
little else than a kind of "city council" to or "alderman"
to the municipality. The Alcalda is president of the
body & presides at their meetings but has no vote ex‑
in cases of tie. He is Mayor to the council; but
he has other powers also of a Judicial character; for
all it is thro him that you get access to the court
of the first instance. If you wish to send bring an act‑
in that court you must first go apply to the Alcalda &
whose duty it is to summons the contending parties
before him & propose a settlement by arbitration. If either
object of them object, signifies the same to the higher court
Judge and the door of admission to the court is then
open. This practice however is so useless & producion of fraught with
unnecessary delay that the lawyers have rendered it
obsolete by agreeing not to take any exception at the
trial of cases, for the want of this formality-- The Regi-
dors Sindico-procurador and Regidores are peace
officers to notice all breeches of order & law and re—
the same to the meeting of the Ayutamiento
who the same to the authorities before whom the case is corrigable --
under the Mexican Govt the Alcalda was the highest
Judicial Officer known; and the Ayuntamiento the
only channel between the people & the Govt The alcaldar
has also sitting sits also as a Judicial officer can give Judgment


The "Judge of the first instance" is in every
respect like our Circuit or Superior Court Judge, with
the exception that he is confined to one Municipality
& does not travel a Circuit like ours. His powers
are the same, embracing every all cases civil & criminal
with the like officers; but two thirds of the jury
determining the verdict instead of a unanimity as is
required of ours — I have already told how he is
appointed. He holds his office for one year —
cases in this court are triable the first term, may
be continued by consent of parties etc., and its decision appealed
from to the Superior Court of Texas.

The Superior Judge is elected for life; he
holds his court every alternately in one at the capital
of each Department, Bexar, Brazos & Nacogdoches.
This is a court of appeals, and is held every 4 months.
But its decisions are not final, because cases decided
by it may be carried the Hall of Justice at Bexar
the Seat of Govt
to the "Third Hall of the Supreme
Court of Justice;
" and what the divilRegularized:devil that is I
cannot tell.

The Commissario is a Justice of the peace
who can hear & Determine cases as high as $10 from whose
decision there is no appeal—


An extensive article exportation is the Cochineal. This
insect (if it be one). "It adheres to the called Opuntia,
& sucks the Juice of the fruit, of a crimson color. It is from
the Juice that the Cochineal derives its value which con‑
of in dyeing all sorts of the finest colors scarlet, crimson
purple" It is computed that the Spaniards annually export
no less than 900000 pounds weight of this commodity. — Now I have
been informed that the Cochineal is also found on the Prickly
pareRegularized:pear — See page 150 —

Minerals; Springs, mines, curiosities, Birds, Beasts
Insects etc. etc. — There is it is said high up among
the mountains, a petrified BuffaloeRegularized:Buffalo, standing in a
clear salt lake. The Comanches give an account of
it; they say that he went to on the ice an fell thro'Regularized:through
froze & pitrefiedRegularized:petrified as he stuck in the bottom; they say
he has been there time out of mind — I heard that a
company from New York or Philadelphia had went in search
of it for the public museum, but found it not — The whole
may be only a cock & Bull story — Flesh can't petrify

The Platina Block spoken of by Mrs Holly —
A mineral spring on the Trinity one on CeaderRegularized:Cedar Creek
where I stopped —

Mexicans call it chicka, to the Americans Sea Coal
Panama Stone in great abundance on the beach at
the Mouth of St. Bernardo. There is small quantity to be found
all along the coast, but it is at Bernardo that it is found in abundance.

Also at the mouth of the St. Bernardo the as the the Brittany
stuff spoken of by Alrnouta, (or pitch or tar as dealt it) is found floa
‑ ting
on the water, large cakes of this tar increasing in size any
3 to 5 feet, and much larger in weather — when cold it is
hard when warm soft like pitch. I have inquired about Alrnouta's
hot spring in the Bernard & no one know aught about it.
See page 191. See page 157.


The Fight at Anahuac

The troops were landed in Feb 7 1835, between 40 & 50. They
were sent here under pretense of protecting certain officers —
Commanded Capt Sonoria. They were brought by the Montagonna
she left & returned in april, and there it was she took the Martha.
The Martha was carried to Matamoros — She had been taken
under the pretense that she had contraband goods; but
the American Consul at Matarroras on examination found
that she had no contraband articles; she was then sent released &
ordered back with her cargo to be restored to the owners, but many
had in the meantime been plundered & lost — few days
after the Martha had been thus taken, the schooner Colum‑
was taken, loaded with a rich cargo belonging to
McKinney & Williams, merchants at Quintana. She had anchored at night
near in Galveston waters, believing she was at the mouth of the
Brazos, early at daylight the Montagonna discovered
her hampered & after chasing her down to Valesco, captured her.
She was taken off condemned, and her cargo confiscated — The
people were indignant at this. Mary Jone had been lying out some
time, and now after this affair with the Martha & Columbia
she attempted to land some goods; a deficiency now insured
between the owner of the goods & the Custom House officer; the former refu‑
to pay duties unless the officer showed his authority to collect.
this the officer would not do; the military was then called
in; a citizen was shot by the soldiery, & Briscal the
merchant held as prisoner for several days — The Custom
Officer whose authority had been taken, had sailed with
the Montagonna — his wife was on the Columbia when taken
see page 174


The Thompson affair

Capt Thompson of the Courier by order of his Govt had brought
134 soldiers from Tampico and landed them on Copono
on the Anansassa Bay. He was ordered by his Govt so
soon as he landed the troops to return; but he was afterwards
ordered to emirgeRegularized:emerge in the waters about the Brazos, in
all probability for no other purpose than to capture the
San Felipe, and He declared the port in a state of blockade
and in his official proclamation offered reward of a thousand
dollars for TraversRegularized:Travis who had Commanded the Americans
at the taking of Anahuac & said he would hang him
in 15 minutes of the getting him — He kept sailing about the
bay here until the arrival of the San Felipe. When
on her first
arrival had she hoisted a flag for a pilot, but the people paying no
attention to her, she shortly disappeared, and after returned the first
of the month
on her return she captured the Brigg
Tremont lying at anchor in the Bay; The people seeing
this started in pursuit of Thompson & for the rescue of the
Tremont in the Steam Boat Laura. Thompson was
so pressed by the Boat that he could not carry off the Tremont. He
took her papers. The boat pursued Thompson; several fires
were exchanged between them, but with no effect. The
wood on Board of the Boat gave out; she returned to the Tremont
which was laden with the best of timber for this market.
The lumber was cut up for fire wood & now replenished with
fuel, the Laura was about starting in pursuit of Thompson
again when she secried a sail ahead. This proved to


be the San Felipe, the very vessel that Thompson was
most anxious to capture. So soon as Thompson discovered the
San Felipe he tached about, unwilling to lose his prize, and
advanced slowly toward her, evidently intending to wait until
night to attack her. The San Felipe came to anchor, and the
Steam boat took some of her cargo ashore to clear the
deck ready for action & did not return that until next morning. About 9 oclock Thompson came upon
the San Felipe and in about a quarter of a mile let one
sight powder loose; (he had 2 sight powders aboard) he had a small craft with him
manned with Eight men, which also commenced fire. The
two vessels fired several rounds before the San F. & Laura The San Felipe figured a retreat to lure
towards returned the fire Thompson one; it had the effect; Thompson came near & ordered
his men to board the San Felipe and now it was that the Americans
opened their fire upon him, and instead of his boarding the San
Felipe it was with great difficulty that the Crew of San Felipe could
be restrained from boarding Thompson — they wanted in
their anxiety even to band the artillery to board the Courier.
So soon as the americans opened their fire, every one of
Thompson's men rushed down into the hold, with the exception
of Thompson who lay flat on the deck & got slightly wounded,
and one other man, who true to his power remained & got
killed. He was the only one lost, tho'Regularized:though some got wounded.
At this central moment a negro of the San Felipe
became alarmed and abandoned the rudder altogether; The ropes
became entangled & the vessel unmanageable. The Capt wishing to
Continued page 175


[Note: from page 171]
When the people of San Felipe heard of these outrages
they held a meeting to raise volunteers to drive off
or punish the soldiers; they gathered some from that place
& some about Galveston & marched to AnawhackRegularized:Anahuac . Travers Regularized:TravisTravers
commanded. they told the Custom Officer that if he would
show his authority to collect dury, he should be obeyed for
that they did not wish to evade paying duties; but
that soldiers should not be employed in such a service,
& especially by one who seemed to have no authority to
collect. They then marched to the fort and ordered the Comt
to surrender or they would fire, he refused, one gun was
fired then by the americans & the fort capitulated. The soldiers
were disarmed, and ordered to San Felipe, where the Commander
still retained command, and the Political Chief issued orders
for their support or maintenance, which was done; they finding
of their own accord discharged
some are still at San Felipe
what became of but the Commander I know not went into the Interior the most of his men with him. the arms
had all been restored to the soldiers. —

The Earleys were aboard the Martha when taken, they
were carried to Matagorda & then released —


[Note: from page 173] show to Thompson a broad side, cried out to the helmsman
to loff, and then he found the state of his vessel. Thompson took
advantage of this delay & embarrassment to put off. he and his
accompanying vessel of 10 Ten made their escape
So soon as the
San Felipe had her helm fixed, she set out after them; a
debate ensued which they should take first, the small vessel
of 10 ton which was nearest or Thompson who was sailing
ahead; they concluded to take Thompson; but this debate had
allowed Thompson to looseRegularized:lose himself in the darkness of the night
& get off. The San Felipe crossed about all night but found
him not. In the morning nothing was seen of Thompson
of his accompanying vessel; a sailor was sent near top to look
out; he discovered Thompson a far off; The San F. pursued The
Laura now came to the San Felipe's assistance, being scarce of wood
was compelled to use the lumber of the San Felipe. The Boat took
the vessel in Two, and went in pursuit of Thompson; overhauled
him about halfway between St. Bernardo river and
Passacavallo — Fired one shot at him & he capitulated
The little schooner has not been heard of since; it is supposed that she
had been a crippled by a shot that she was afterwards lost — The
man killed on board Thompson's vessel was an american from Bal‑
; being american, he would not desert his post as had done the
Mexicans & lost his life like a hero — After this brave man was mortally
wounded & all his men below Thompson loaded & fired on sight powder
himself & loaded another, but was not able to fire it off as he straddled the
cannon, two balls came & wounded him the inner part of each thigh; he
then lay down & steered his vessel lying on his back — he is a good
soldier Thompson was carried to Orleans — he says that
he had orders from acted under the


On board of the San Felipe there was a lad 14 years old who
sat on the head of a flour barrel & fired 13 guns during the
engagement. He chose the top of the barrels instead of seeking safety
behind them. Son of Robt Wilson.

As one of Thompson's men a sergeant was about to go below,
Thompson called him & observed that he thought that he was a
brave man & would not fly; the other replied, because a
man is brave need he die like a fool; in that american
you had better follow me. The fellow as he went below
his hand still holding to the top hatchway, a ball carried off
a part of his hand. Better that thought he than his life.

Padreda and Gurrero were rival candidates for the
presidency; Padreda was elected by one vote over his
antagonist, whereupon the latter disputed the Election &
appealed to anew. Gurrero he was the Genl of the South
born & raised in Acapulco. Bravo espoused the cause
of Padreda and some hard fighting ensued in which
Gurrero was triumphant, who forthwith banished his
competitor from the Country. Padreda travelled thro'Regularized:through the U.S. & after returned
to Mexico. Gurrero's reign as president was short for he
was decoyed by his enemies into a brig, carried up the
coast & shot without a trial. Bustamenta the new president
then assumed the presidency. It was Bustamenta's party that
assassinated Gurrero. Bustamenta's reign like his
murdered predecessor's was of brief duration; for Santa
Anna then a popular Genl commanding at Veracruz published what


is known as the Veracruz plan and hoisting his flags
against the presidential encumbent marched for Mexico
carrying the hearts of the people with him and spreading terror
to his foes. He succeeded in putting Bustamenta down and assu‑
the presidency himself. The succeeding Congress made him
Dictator for four years; and in doing in a year or two
more was chosen by a Council of the Clergy & others of his own
selection Dictator for life — all this transpired in the short
period of 10 years; the Election between Pedreda & Gurrero
being in 1825 and the proclamation of perpetual Dictatorship in
1835 — Thus rose from the lowest walks in life to imperial
power a man without character and with principle who
had once been condemned to a public scourge in the streets
of San Antonio — See the letter of Comodore Porter addressed to
Santa Anna dealing an invitation to dine with the Genl Porter
seemed to understand Santa Anna's character & made no bones in
catering it — The letter I believe was written in 1827.

See page 136. Ugartechea, comt at Velasco, a
fortnight before the battle took place, had dined with many
of the citizens in the nieghborhood & about Brazoria. After the
Battle, he visited the same families; and it was a matter
laughter with him that he should have to dine & fight the
same people in such rapid succession. He was a brave
& faithful officer. He stated that he had no disposition to
fight, but that he was ordered to it by his superiors & if he
had not obeyed, he would have been decapitated by his Govt.


His men were still less desirous of a difficulty than
himself & several had to be flogged before they would fight.
Old Maldoon, an Irish Catholic priest, a spy, villain
and drunkered debauchee residing at Brasoria was the
secret carrier that bred most of the heartburning between
the americans & the Commandant of the fort, Ugartachill
disclosing some of the lying letters were from Maldoon
this audacious hypocrite took french leave of Brasoria &
fled for life. He has written back since his arrival in
Mexico & states that he is the friend of Texas and that
any suit which this country has to urge upon Santa Anna
will be backed & sustained by him. This influence he
says is not very trifling as he is confessing priest to his Majesty
but report says that his Majesty has since dismissed
him inconsequence of his holiness becoming rather
too interested with some of the Royal females

The fort of Velasco was strong having walls
of 12 to 15 feet thick of logs & sand. The americans atta‑
it about midnight; the Mexicans came out slyly &
unperceived; & lying down in the ditch surrounding the fort
done all their mischief; the americans over them of the
fort. When day began to dawn, & they were discovered,
then came it their turn to suffer. Many were killed in
the attempt to get into the fort over the wall. When enforted
the americans had to shoot them thro'Regularized:through the portholes; the con‑
was that the most of the killed were shot in the face.
Being afraid to show themselves on the walls to load the


artillery, they lay on their backs to do it, and as they
raised their arms to use the rauisser, their arms were fired
at & broke — See small book P. 13

Arrived at San PhilippeRegularized:San Felipe Wednesday 9th Septr. StaidRegularized:Stayed a
day or two at Johnson's tavern; but fairing badly, I re‑
to Mrs Peyton's and fared a great deal worse. Attended
dinner given to Austin. Got Joseph Baker to read Almonta's
book to me. Left San FilipeRegularized:San Felipe Monday Tuesday 8th Thursday 24th arrived Friday 25th
passed Marion, Columbia, Brazoria, and arrived at
Velasco, on 26th Sept Saturday. Tarried there. At Brown's.
Mrs Brown a dam'dRegularized:damned hansomeRegularized:handsome woman, & sensible enough.
Brown himself morose, selfish, & inclined to dictatorial violence—
I liked him not. Hawkins, barkeeper who married an
older sister of Mrs Brown, I liked better. The female por‑
of the family treated me with much neglect. Kept damdRegularized:damned nas‑
table & as scanty in variety & quantity as it was filthily pre‑
— A pretty woman to keep a dirty table! Oh! hell!
The lady did not like the boarders of "low degree" tho'Regularized:though they
paid their dollar a day, to eat too much of the stinking beeffRegularized:beef;
as for butter & milk & such things, scarce as hen's teeth—

After subscribing $5.00 to erect a fort at ValascoeRegularized:Velasco ,
I left the place in the boat Laura, & arrived at Brazoria on
Thursday 8th OctrRegularized:October Thursday. 20 miles by land. Stopped at
the public tavern, but the fare so horrible , that I left for Mrs. Long.
She keeps superb house.

Whilst at Valasco, I started by water for N.O. Regularized:New Orleans got sick crossing
the bar & returned— Took an excursion in the steam boat to Bernard
for oysters; found few small ones. Several ladies on board, I spoke to
none— none that I wished to speak to—


The dead Caddoe

______"and dreamed again
The visions which arise without a sleep

I had heard so much about war, pestilence and
famine— Indian, scalping-knives, and tomahawks,
that I began instinctively to place my hand upon me
head every morning, to ascertain whether I had lost
or still retained my scalp. From the report every where
abroad, about the ferocious CaddoesRegularized:Caddos lurking in the
swamps, like prowling wolves, to let fly their poisonous
arrows at the solitary wanderer on the high-waysRegularized:highways,
my mind became so filled with the idea of fright,
fright and flight, that I would often mistake the
tread of my horses heels for the approach of an
enemy, and the snap of a cane for the twang of his
bow; and yet the occupancy of these matters in
my mind, proceeded not from any apprehensions
of danger; for I felt none, and was wholly incred‑
to the stories of death and peril that alarmed
so many travellers less scepticalRegularized:skeptical than myself. In‑
I was quite too unwell to indulge in fear,
even if there had been any real danger; for the
blood, raging every day like a boiling current in
my veins, permitted me to think of little else than
than of cooling water. I wanted something to quench
the consuming fire within. Fever was praying upon
my vitals, and frequently rose to such a height as to
destroy the equilibrium of my understanding. Some
have told me, that, I was occasionally became "non compos


mentis", but having no knowledge of the Greek and
Hebrew languages, nor any copy of the Dictionary
of Quotations, I could not distinctly ascertain what
was meant by such phraseology, but concluded that it must be something
very ominous and fearful. It was in one of these
high paroxismsRegularized:paroxysms, that I stopedRegularized:stopped at Mrs Borman's, a
plain widow of 30, social and lively, with a very
good sense and very great kindness. The hospi‑
lady offered everything in her power to mitigate
my sufferings. But all in vain. The fever still in‑
. I tried a cup of water; it doneRegularized:did no good—
then a cup of coffee; it made me worse— walked
in the open air; but the wind felt warm; and fi‑
after flying from one expedient to another
without any satutaryRegularized:salutary effect, I bethought me that
nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep, might possibly
be won by patience and composure, and according‑
I began a search for comfortable lodgment, but
finding nothing but beds arranged on an inclined
plain with the head downward; and feeling that
this might not by the most be the most favorable
position for one whose skull was hourly threatened
with explosion, I signified to my accomodating
landlady a preference for a palateRegularized:pallet, which was has‑
prepared, and down I tumbled, rolling, grun‑
and complaining until after midnight, when
I found a short respite from my suffering in the


arms of Morpheous. Brief as was the respite, it was
however greater that it might have been, had I laid
on a bed which would have pointed my heels to the
zenith and my head to the nadir.

I said that my respite was short; and so
it was. I could not have been asleep more than one
or two horus, when a Kennel of dogs opened fiercely at
something, which I thought might be a belated trav‑
; but the increasing fury of the vociferous pack
led me to the conclusion that they must be repelling
the intrusions of some ferocious wild beast. For
awhile they ceased their deafening clamours, and
I indeavoredRegularized:endeavored once more to compose myself to rest,
but breaking forth again with Cerberean vociferation
as if that might have awakened old Odin from
his sleep, I suddenly rose up in my palateRegularized:pallet &
looked around to discover the object of their exces‑
aversion. At first I could perceive nothing;
but presently I discovered some object not very
distant from me, moving slowly among the
chequered shades of the grove which threw such
obscurity around as to prevent my discerning with
distinctness its figure and proportion. The moon,
that glorious and lovely orb, appointed by God
to rule by night, had risen in the fulnessRegularized:fullness of its
beauty, and spreading abroad her rich mantle of
light, she threw silvery lustreRegularized:luster thro'Regularized:through the branches of the


trees and gilded every leaf with splendor. But the
phasforousRegularized:phosphorous brilliancy that tipped the leaf also threw
the shadow of the leaf upon the ground, imparting
to the grove a pleaseing mixture of light and shade
which, however delightful to the eye, is calculated to
perplex the vision in the discernment of the forms of
things. It was owing to this that I did not at first
recognize the terrific CaddoeRegularized:Caddo who was stealing si‑
& slowly through the dim shadows of the
grove to fall like an unexpected thunderbolt upon his
prey victims in the midst of their slumbers. I
am not superstitious, but the thought came ath‑
my mind, that fate had directed thither this
most unwelcome visitant as a punishment for
the derision which I had cast upon the just fears of travellers
upon this road, and for the scorn with which I had treated the
a recent expedition against this tribe, believing
that not a solitary CaddoeRegularized:Caddo was lingering in two
hundred miles of the Brazos. My palateRegularized:pallet had been
spread in the open piazzo on the front of the building,
and having lain down under the idea of perfect safe‑
, not dreaming for a moment that ought human
or anything more formidable than a chinch or
or musquitoRegularized:mosquito would disturb me through the night,
I was more than surprised at finding myself
exposed in a few hours to the sanguinary vengean‑
of a demon, whose very name was now a terror


to the citizens of the country and doubly so to me.
I confess that his appearance cured me of the fever
but it gave me an ague. I knew not what to do;
I knew not what course to pursue, whether to lie still
and depend upon the dogs keeping him at bay, or
whether it was better to awaken the family to a
knowledge of their danger and let them that we
might all work out our salvation together with fear and
. All that I could hope to gain by giving the
alarm would be the assistance of the widow, herself
for with the exception of herself and her small
children, the only inmates of the house were her
mother, too feeble for flight, and her father, too
blind for fight. Undecided as to what was best to
be done, I lay silently and still, waiting for some‑
, I knew not what, to occur which would force
me into action.

I noticed that when the dogs would fly
out fiercely at him, he would halt, and would re‑
motionless and almost breathless until the
animals became quieted, and some little time al‑
for the recomposure of such of the family as
might have been awakened by the barking; and
then when all was still, he would advance slilyRegularized:slyly
and cautiously looking around and behind at alm‑
every step he took. In this way he kept en‑
upon by slow degrees upon the house


until finally he advanced so near as to render
it necessary for me to take some decisive step for
my safety. Further delay was certain death.
And yet for my life, I could devise no possible
means of extrication. My invention and my
courage were both gone. If I attempted flight
or should give the alarm, I was within the
reach of his arrows and should be transfixed
at the very first movement. What should I do?
The more I gazed upon the enemy, the more
alarmed I became. His size was gigantic,
not so tall as but bulky and muscular, exhibit
a breadth of face that almost amounted
to deformity and a high body, the very weight
of which was sufficient to crush every bone in
a frame like mine. Lying in the open piazzo
I was able to see and watch narrowly all of his
movements; and I wondered much that he had
not discovered me. But I was satisfied that he
had not; and I drew courage from the fact. He
took a few more steps from toward the place
where I lay — the dogs barked furiously — the
CaddoeRegularized:Caddo stopped. I expected every moment,
and was waiting the event, for some of the
family to come to the door to learn the cause of
this canine uproar; but none making their ap‑
, it behooved me promptly to make some


a movement of some kind or other, and so draw‑
my Saddle bags to me as noiselessly as possible,
I searched to the bottom of both ends before I
succeeded in finding my well finished and well
loaded rifled-barrel pistol. My courage which like
Bob Achles's had been gradually oozing out at
the end of my fingers, now began to revive a
little. I will not philosophize upon the point, but
the battle itself is never so alarming as the few
hours that precede the conflict. The individual
who trembles at the contemplation of war, is often
found to be the freest of fear in the field. I
certainly felt my own courage strengthen, as I
began my preparation for battle; and when I
I laid my hand on my pistol, my heart heart beat
less audibly, and I breathed fuller and freer than
I had during any moment since the dreadful Cad‑
first broke upon my sight. As yet he had

As yet he had not discovered me.
Near the piazza where I lay, stood a large Post
Oak tree, which if I could gain unobserved, I thought
I should stand some chance for my life, armed as
I was with a rifle pistol of true blue which I knew
would not fail in its duty if its master would not
in his. Rolling over slowly a few times on the floor
until I got the tree immediately between me and
the enemy, I arose and approach it as cautiously


as possible and succeeded in gaining it unpercei‑
. But no sooner had I planted myself behind this wall of
defense, than a confounded ludickerousRegularized:ludicrous and ridiculous circumstance
occured which excited alike my laughter and my
fears; for a gust of wind came sweeping by, &
spread out the nether extremities of a nameless
garment like a banner in the breeze; and there
I stood under the full impression that I was betrayed
to the observation of the foe; and I felt like one
whose flag of war was hoisted before he was ready
for the fight. But I was however still fortunate;
the CaddoeRegularized:Caddo saw me not. It was my intention to
remain behind the oak until he should advance
so near that it would be impossible for me to miss
my mark. Onward he came as fast as he could
venture without alarming the watchful crew, that
still sent forth their obstreperous and threatening
voices at the crack of a stick or the turning of a
chip. his course was in the direction of the tree
behind which I was enforted; and now that I
was prepared for combat, and had screwed up
my courage to the sticking point, I felt that I
did not like to looseRegularized:lose the chance for an adven‑
, and desired as much as the CaddoeRegularized:Caddo him‑
that the vigilance of the dogs might by eluded; I wanted
him to advance that my suspense might be
terminated at once by a decisive blow.


A few more steps would bring him within the reach
of pistol shot. My heart throbbed with anxeity,
and yet not without some misgivings that I might pos‑
fail in the enterprize. I cocked my pistol;
it was a good weapon — trustworthy in the hour of
danger and I had made up my mind to
bring it to bear upon the prowling CaddoeRegularized:Caddo as soon as
he should reach a particular spot where the light
of the moon would fall full upon him. I felt as
if the CaddoeRegularized:Caddo was a doomed victim. Two more
steps would bring him to the fatal spot. He
soon took these
It is useless to say that he
soon took them & now it is equally useless to offer any
apology for the course which I was evidently
forced to pursue. From the Judgment of one
who knows me so well as yourself, I I have
nothing to fear. You are aware that I would
not for all the world, burden my conscience
with the blood of a fellow creature, except un‑
the most dire necessity. Certainly I have
none of that destructive principle which de‑
in human misery and loves to riot in
in human blood. A necessary act incures no
blame; and he who wars only in defense of life
must certainly be accounted guiltless. Surely
mine must be a case of self preservation if
there ever was one; and yet I would freely


surrender all the wealth that ever glittered
in fairy land to avoid the necessity of homo‑
even under these or stronger circumstances.
And do you ask me if I reproach myself for
what I have done — whether I am laboring
under the inflictions of an accusing conscience?
The sequel of my story will unfold it all.
I doubt whether there ever was a man who
killed another, that did not feel a sudden
impulse to recall the deed act. It is a deed
at which nature must and will shudder.
Even when driven to it by the highest neces‑
, the heart that is not made of impen‑
stuff, will often feel a deep regret;
and ever and anon, an accusing spirit will
whisper in a still small voice that there is
possibly something wrong. Has a Savage
monster fired your dwelling at midnight
and wet the hearth stone with the brains of
your bright eyed boy? Vengeance is
your due. And yet if you take it — if you
steep your hands in the blood of the acc‑
murderer, his dying vissageRegularized:visage will
often meet you in your solitary rambles by
day and in your dreams by night and
prove a more unwelcome guest than


than the most hateful of your living foes.
And how is this? Why should an act which
nature prompts and reason justifies recoil upon
the heart and plead against its peace, with such
disturbing and condemning eloquence? It is must be be‑
God has said that "vengeance is mine". But
without pretending to answer the question, you
can find in the fact, the cause of my restless‑
after the affair with the CaddoeRegularized:Caddo. In
the fury of sudden revulsion of feeling, I sent
my pistol as far as I could hurl it; and retired
conscience stricken to my palate to compose my
agitated bosom. But I found no rest. I felt like
Macbeth that I had murdered sleep. All
was in commotion within. My mind, harrowed
and bewildered, run riot in all the mazes
of violent and contradictory emotions; at one
moment cursing myself for as a murderer;
at another drawing consolation from the
reflection that I had only acted only in self defense
Nature could hold out no longer. The excitement
was too great for physical energy and I sank
at last into a state of oblivion and insensibility.
In the morning when I was awakened by the
gentle beams of the sun falling up on me thro'Regularized:through


the branches of the surrounding grove, I
felt a little revived and rose from my patch.
I shuddered as I turned to look to look upon the
dead CaddoeRegularized:Caddo — his body was removed. I
went in search of the weapon which I
had thrown away — that too was gone.
Yet still so vividly was the whole transaction
pictured upon memory - so indellibly was
it stamped upon the the brain and heart, that
it was not until I had long bathed my
head in a basin of cold water, that the
fact began to dawn upon my mind,
that the CaddoeRegularized:Caddo might have been a coraRegularized:kore
and that the whole scene of the night was only one of the wild
hallucinations of fever.

See page 170 & 157. Mr O'Connor informs me that on an
island among the lagoons leading into the SaransasRegularized:Aransas Bay
he rose one morning and found under the matress a Snake
about Eight inches long, with two heads. It was dead