Title: Egypt and the Sûdân; handbook for travellers [Electronic Edition]

Author: Baedeker, Karl
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Title: EGYPT AND THE SÛDÂN

Author: Karl Baedeker
7th remodelled ed.
File size or extent: cxc, 458 p. fold. front., illus., maps (part fold.) plans (part fold.) 17 cm.
Publisher: K. Baedeker
Place of publication: Leipzig
Publisher: C. Scribner's Sons
Place of publication: New York
Publication date: 1914
Identifier: From the collection of Dr. Paula Sanders, Rice University.
Description of the project: This electronic text is part of the Travelers in the Middle East Archive (TIMEA), developed by Rice University.
Editorial practices
The text has been encoded using the recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. All electronic texts have been spell-checked and verified against printed text. Quotation marks have been retained. Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. No corrections or normalizations have been made, except that hyphenated, non-compound words that appear at the end of lines have been closed up to facilitate searching and retrieval. Footnotes have been moved to the end of the paragraph in which they are referenced. Images exist as archived TIFF images, one or more JPEG versions for general use, and thumbnail GIFs. Tables are not contained within paragraphs; this produces a validation error with some parser, but is consistent with the TEI guidelines. Note: This electronic text is missing several maps, including Map of the Nile from Cairo to Beniḥasan (1: 500,000) ; Map of the Nile from Beniḥasan to (Baliana) Nag Ḥamâdi (1: 500,000) , Map of the Nile from Nag Ḥamâdi to Assuân
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Taxonomy LCSH Library of Congress Subject Headings
Origin/composition of the text: 1914
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  • English (en)
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Keywords: (Library of Congress Subject Headings)( Library of Congress Subject Headings )
  • Egypt -- Guidebooks.
  • Sudan -- Guidebooks.
Revision/change: March 2006
Statement of responsibility: LMS
ed.
Spellchecked, corrected tagging errors, verified and enhanced metadata. Reworked divisional structure so that main geographical area (e.g. Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt) is a top-level div.

Egypt and the Sûdân; handbook for travellers [Electronic Edition]


Contents







EGYPT



EGYPT
AND
THE SÛDÂN

HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS
BY
KARL BAEDEKER

WITH 22 MAPS, 85 PLANS, AND 55 VIGNETTES
SEVENTH REMODELLED EDITION
LEIPZIG: KARL BAEDEKER, PUBLISHER LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN, 1 ADELPHI TERRACE, W.C.
NEW YORK: CHAS. SCRIBNER's SONS, FIFTH AVE. AT 48TH ST.
1914



‘Go, little book, God send thee good passage,
And specially let this be thy prayere
Unto them all that thee will read or hear,
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call,
Thee to correct in any part or all.’


MONEY TABLE.

(Comp. pp. xv, xvi and Tables at end of the book.)

Approximate Equivalents.

ARABIC NAME Egyptian Money British Money French Money American Money
Piastres Millièmes Shillings Pence Frances Centimes Dollars Cents
Gold Coins.
Gineih Maṣri (Egypt. pound, £ E) 100 = 100 20 25 90 5
Nuṣṣeh Gineih (half £ E) 50 = 500 10 3 12 95 2 50
Silver Coins.
Riyâl Maṣri 20 = 200 4 5 18 1
Nuṣṣeh Riyâl 10 = 100 2 ½ 2 59 50
Rub‘ Riyâl 5 = 50 1 ¼ 1 30 25
Kirshein (double piastre) 2 = 20 5 52 10
Ḳirsh 1 = 10 26 5
Nickel Coins.
Kirsh (great piastre; Kirsh ṣâgh) 1 = 10 26 5
Nuṣṣeh Ḳirsh (small or half piastre; Ḳirsh ta‘rîfa) ½ = 5 13 2
2 Millièmes 2/10 = 2 ½ 5 1
1 Millième (milyeim) 1/10 = 1 ¼ ½
In COPPER there are pieces of ½ and ¼ milliéme.

Weights and Measures.

1 Dirhem = 3.12 grammes = 48.15 grains troy; 1 Uḳîya (12 dirhem) = 37.44 grammes = 1.32 oz. avoirdupois; 1 Roṭl (12 uḳîya) = 449.28 grammes = 15.85 oz. (just under 1 lb.); 1 Oḳḳa (400 dirhem) = 1.248 kilogrammes = 2.7513 lbs. (about 2 lbs. 12 oz.); 1 Ḳanṭâr = 100 Roṭl = 36 Oḳḳa = 44.928 kilo-grammes = 99.0498 lbs. (about 99 lbs. ⅘ oz.).
1 Rub‘a = 8.25 litres = 1 gal. 3 qts.½ pint; 1 Weibeh = 4 rub‘a = 33 litres = 7 gals. 1 qt.; 1 Ardebb = 6 weibeh = 198 litres = 43 gals. 2 qts.
1 Dirâ‘ beledi = 0.58 mètre = 22.835 inches; 1 Ḳaṣabeh = 3.55 mètres = 11 ft. 7.763 inches = 3.882 yds. — 1 Square Ḳaṣabeh = 12.60 square mètres = 15.072 sq. yds.; 1 Feddân = 4200.83 sq. mètres = about 5024 sq. yds. = 1.038 acre.
In all official transactions the metrical system of weights and measures is employed.

Official Time.

East European Time (i.e. that of 30° E. long.) has been officially adopted in Egypt and the Sûdân. Egyptian time is thus 1 hr. in advance of Central Europe time (Italy, Switzerland, Germany) and 2 hrs. in advance of Greenwich time.

PREFACE.

Ever since the attention of the civilized world was redirected to Egypt at the beginning of the 19th century, the scientific investigation of its innumerable monuments has pointed with ever-growing certainty to the valley of the Nile as the cradle of history and of human culture. At the same time Egypt, like other Eastern countries, possesses high natural attractions, in the peculiar charms of its oriental climate, the singularly clear atmosphere, the wonderful colouring and effects of light and shade, the exuberant fertility of the cultivated districts contrasted with the solemn desert, and the manners, customs, and appearance of a most interesting and most diversified population.
The HANDBOOK TO EGYPT, of which the present is the seventh edition, is founded on the combined work of several Egyptologists and other Oriental scholars. Among the former must be specially mentioned Professor Georg Steindorff, of Leipzig University, who has edited the German Handbook since the year 1897, and has also supervised the preparation of the English editions. The Editor gratefully acknowledges also the information received from numerous correspondents and official sources which has often proved most useful; any further corrections or suggestions will be highly appreciated.
The contents of the Handbook are divided into FOUR SECTIONS (I. Introductory Matter, Approaches to Egypt, pp. i-cxc and 1-6; II. Lower Egypt, pp. 7-198; III. Upper Egypt, Lower Nubia, Upper Nubia and the Sûdân, pp. 199-436; IV. General Index, pp. 437-458), each of which may be separately removed from the volume by cutting the gauze backing visible on opening the book at the requisite pages. Linen covers for these sections may be obtained through any bookseller.
The Editor hopes, that by confining himself to essential points and by carefully arranging his material, he has succeeded, within small compass, in supplying the traveller with the necessary information regarding the country and the people he is about to visit. An attempt has been made to indicate clearly the most important among the bewildering multiplicity of the monuments of antiquity, and the descriptions of these have been so arranged that, assuming the traveller to have previously read at his leisure our account of the origin, history, and significance of a particular temple or tomb, etc.,

he will find adequate guidance on the spot in that portion of our description that is printed in larger type, while those who have time and inclination for a more thorough examination will find additional particulars in small type.
The MAPS and PLANS have been the object of the Editor's special care, and all have been carefully revised by Prof. Steindorff, with the aid of the most recent publications. Nine maps and plans, several new ground-plans, and a representation of Egyptian coins have been entirely redrawn or appear for the first time in the present edition. The spelling of the names on the maps of the Faiyûm and of the Nile from Cairo to Assuân (3 sheets) follows the official French transliteration of the ‘Recensement général de l'Egypte du ler juin 1897, whereas in some of the new maps the spelling of the Egyptian Survey Department (comp. p. cxc) has been adopted. At the end of the volume will be found a key-map indicating the ground covered by the special maps of the volume.
HOTELS, etc., see p. xviii. Hotels which cannot be accurately characterized without exposing the Editor to the risk of legal proceedings are left unmentioned.
To hotel - proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards travellers is the sole passport to his commendation, and that no advertisements of any kind are admitted to his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are warned against persons representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks.
Abbreviations.
Pl. = plan. S. = south, etc.
R. = route: room. E. = east, etc.
B. = breakfast. W. = west, etc.
D. = dinner. hr. = hour.
pens. = pension (board and lodging). min. = minute.
ca. = circa, about. M. = English mile.
comp. = compare. ft. = English foot.
r. = right. yd. = yard.
l = left. £ E = Egyptian pound comp. p. xv.
Dyn. = dynasty. pias. = piastre
N. = north, northwards, northern. mill. = millième
The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before the principal places on railway - routes, steamer - routes, and highroads indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route.
Asterisks denote objects of special interest or imply commendation.

CONTENTS.

Page
I. Preliminary Information xiii
(1). Plan of Tour. Season. Expenses. Money. Equipment. Travelling Companions xiii
(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House xv
(3). Conveyances: Steamers. Railways. Narrow Gauge Railways. Cabs. Donkeys xvii
(4). Hotels xviii
(5). Post and Telegraph Offices xix
(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice xx
(7). Egypt as a Health Resort. Medical Hints (by Dr. Leigh Canney xxi
(8). Intercourse with Orientals. Dragomans xxiv
(9). Arabian Cafés, Story Tellers. Musicians. Singers. Shadow Plays. Baths xxvi
(10). The Egyptian Dialect of Arabic (by Dr. C. Prüfer) xxviii
II. Geographical and Political Notes xlvi
a. Area and Subdivisions of Egypt (by Captain H. G. Lyons) xlvi
b. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians (by Prof. G. Schweinfurth) xlviii
(1). The Fellahin li
(2). Copts liv
(3). Beduins lvii
(4). Arab Dwellers in Towns lix
(5). Nubians lx
(6). Sûdân Negroes lxi
(7). Turks lxi
(8). Levantines, Syrians, etc. lxi
(9). Armenians and Jews lxii
(10). Europeans lxii
c. The Nile (by Captain H. G. Lyons) lxiv
d. Geology of Egypt and Notice of the Desert lxviii
e. Agriculture and Vegetation lxx
(1). Capabilities of the Soil lxx
(2). Irrigation lxxi
(3). Agricultural Seasons (Winter, Summer, and Autumn Crops). Agricultural Implements lxxiii
(4). Farm Produce of Egypt lxxiv
(5). Trees and Plantations lxxv
f. Climate of Egypt (by Captain H. G. Lyons) lxxvi
III. El-Islâm (by Prof. C. H. Becker) lxxix
Remarks on Mohammedan Customs xciii
Mohammedan Calendar. Festivals xcv

IV. Outline of the History of Egypt xcviii
I. Ancient History (by Prof. G. Steindorff) xcviii
a. From the Earliest Times to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 B.C. xcviii
1. Prehistoric Period xcviii
2. Earliest Period of the Kings xcix
3. Ancient Empire xcix
4. Middle Empire c
5. New Empire ci
6. Period of Foreign Domination civ
7. Late-Egyptian Period cv
b. Græco-Roman Period (332 B.C.-640 A.D.) cvii
1. Alexander the Great and the Ptolemaic Period cvii
2. Roman Period cx
3. Byzantine Period. cxii
II. The Middle Ages cxiii
Egypt as a Province of the Empire of the Caliphs cxiii
Egypt under Independent Rulers cxv
III. Modern History cxx
Turkish Domination after 1517 cxx
The French Occupation cxx
Mohammed Ali and his Successors cxx
V. Hieroglyphics (by Prof. G. Steindorff) cxxvi
1. Phonetic Symbols cxxviii
2. Word Signs cxxix
3. Determinatives cxxx
4. Frequently recurring Cartouches of Egyptian Kings cxxxiii
VI. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians (by Prof. G. Steindorff) cxl
List of the chief Egyptian Deities and Sacred Animals cxlix
Representations of the most important Deities cliii
VII. Historical Notice of Egyptian Art (by Prof. G. Steindorff) clvii
1. Architecture clvii
2. Sculpture and Painting clxxi
VIII. Buildings of the Mohammedans (by Franz-Pasha) clxxviii
Mosques clxxx
Tombs clxxxii
Dwelling Houses clxxxiii
IX. Works on Egypt clxxxviii
Route
1. Approaches to Egypt (Steamship Lines) 1
Lower Egypt.
2. Alexandria 9
3. From Alexandria to Cairo 31
4. Cairo 35
5. Environs of Cairo 104
6. The Pyramids of Gîzeh 123
7. The Site of Ancient Memphis and the Necropolis of Saḳḳara 142
8. Baths of Ḥelwân 167
9. From Cairo to Manṣûra viâ Belbeis and Zaḳâzîḳ 170
10. From Ṭanṭa to Damietta viâ Manṣûra 174

11. From Port Sa‘îd to Cairo or Suez viâ Ismâ‘îlîyeh 177
12. The Suez Canal from Port Sa‘îd to Suez 181
13. Suez and its Environs 187
14. The Faiyûm 190
Upper Egypt.
Preliminary Information 200
15. From Cairo to Luxor by Railway 205
16. From Cairo to Assiûṭ by the Nile 224
17. From Assiûṭ to Girgeh and Baliana (Abydos) by the Nile 235
18. Abydos 237
19. From Baliana to Ḳeneh (Dendera) and Luxor by the Nile 244
20. Luxor and its Environs: the Site of Ancient Thebes 251
21. From Luxor to Assuán by Railway 332
22. From Luxor to Edfu by the Nile 341
23. From Edfu to Assuân by the Nile 348
24. Assuân and its Environs. Philæ and the Nile Dam 353, 362
25. Routes through the Eastern Desert 372
26. The Western Oases 378
Lower Nubia.
Preliminary Information 383
27. From Shellâl (Philæ) to Kalâbsheh 387
28. From Kalâbsheh to Korosko 393
29. From Korosko to Abu Simbel 399
30. The Rock Temples of Abu Simbel 404
31. From Abu Simbel to Wâdi Ḥalfa 410
Upper Nubia and the Sûdân.
Political Summary. Climate. Preliminary Information 415
32. From Wâdi Ḥalfa to Kharṭûm 419
33. From Suez to Kharṭûm viâ Port Sudan 423
34. Kharṭûm and Omdurmân 426
Longer Excursions to the Southern Sûdân 432
Index 437

Maps.

1. Map of the Delta (1: 1,000,000), before the Title Page.
2. Map of the Environs of Alexandria (1: 125,000), with (3) Map of the Mareotis District (1: 1,000,000) 25
4. Map of the Immediate Environs of Cairo (1: 75,000), with (5) Map of the Road to the Pyramids (1: 125,000) 105

6. Survey Map of the Environs of Cairo (1: 250,000; showing Extent of Special Maps) 119
7. Map of the Suez Canal (1: 500,000) 185
8. Map of the Gulf of Suez (1: 150,000), with (9) Map of the Springs of Moses (1: 50,000) 187
10. Map of the Faiyûm (1: 500,000) 190
11. Map of the Nile from Cairo to Beniḥasan (1: 500,000) 205
12. Map of the Nile from Beniḥasan to (Baliana) Nag Ḥamâdi (1: 500,000) 231
13. Map of the Nile from Nag Ḥamâdi to Assuân (1: 500,000) 244
14. Survey Map of Thebes (1: 50,000) 254
15. Map of the Environs of Assuân (1: 100,000) 353
16. Map of the Island of Philae (1: 3030) 364
17. Map of the Nile Valley from Cairo to Assuân (1: 5,000,000; the Western Oases) 378
18. Map of the Nile from Assuân to Wâdi Halfa (1: 1,000,000), with (19) Map of the Environs of Wâdi Ḥalfa as far as the Second Cataract (1: 250,000) 387
20. Map of the Environs of Kharṭûm and Omdurmân (1: 500,000) 426
21. Map of the Southern Sûdân (1: 10,000,000) 432
22. General Map of Egypt (1: 10,000,000, showing Extent of Special Maps), after the Index.

Plans.

1. Section of the Step Pyramid of Saḳḳâra clxix
2. Arabian Dwelling House: Ground Floor clxxxiv
3. Arabian Dwelling House: First Floor clxxxv
4. Plan of Alexandria (1: 18,000), with (5) Plan of the Inner Town (1: 10,000) 9
6. Plan of Ancient Alexandria, 100 B.C. - 100 A.D. (1: 58,800) 12
7. Plan of Ancient Alexandria in the 3rd - 5th cent. after Christ (1: 58,800) 13
8. Catacombs of Kôm esh-Shuḳâfa 17
9. Graeco-Roman Museum at Alexandria 22
10. Plan of Ramleh (1: 40,000) 25
11. Plan of Cairo (1: 12,300) 35
12. Mosque of El-Ashar (Arabian University, 1: 1250) 57
13. Mosque of El-Muaiyad (1: 1500) 60
14. Arabian Museum at Cairo 63
15. Mosque of Sultan Hasan 67
16. Mosque of Mohammed Ali 69
17. Mosque of Ibn Ṭulûn 72
18. Egyptian Museum at Cairo 81
19. Plan of Old Cairo (1: 7150) 106

20. Church of Abu Sergeh, at Old Cairo 108
21. Plan of the Tombs of the Caliphs (1: 12,300) 111
22. Tomb Mosque of Sultan Barḳûḳ 112
23. Tomb Mosque of Ḳâït Bey 114
24. Plan of the Pyramids of Gîzeh (1: 13,560) 123
25. Section of the Great Pyramid of Gîzeh 127
26. Section of the Second Pyramid of Gîzeh 132
27. Section of the Third Pyramid of Gîzeh 134
28. Valley Temple of Khephren 136
29. Plan of the Ruins of Memphis (1: 20,000) 143
30. Plan of the Pyramids and Tombs of Saḳḳâra and Abuṣîr (1: 25,000) 145
31. Scrapeum at Saḳḳâra 148
32. Maṣṭaba of Ti 150
33. Maṣṭaba of Mereruka 160
34. Maṣṭaba of Ke-gem-ni 162
35. Maṣṭaba of Ptahhotep 164
36. Plan of Ḥelwân (1: 25,000) 169
37, 38. Plans of the Harbour and the Town of Port Sa‘îd (1: 50,000 and 1: 25,000) 177
39. Plan of Suez (1:25,000) 187
40. Family Tomb of Amenophis IV 217
41. Plan of Abydos (1: 14,500) 238
42. Temple of Sethos I. at Abydos (1: 1476) 239
43. Temple of Hathor at Dendera (1: 685) 246
44, 45, 46. Crypts of the Temple at Dendera (1: 685) 248, 249
47. Plan of Luxor (1: 10,000) 251
48. Temple of Luxor (1: 1967) 258
49. Temple of Khons at Karnak 263
50. Sketch Plan of Karnak (1: 4000) 264
51. Temple of Ammon at Karnak (1: 1364) 265
52. Plan of the Necropolis of Thebes (1: 19,000), with (53) Plan of the Tombs of the Kings at Bîbân el-Mulûk (1: 10,000) 281
54. Temple of Sethos I. at Ḳurna 282
55. Tomb of Ramses IV 286
56. Tomb of Ramses IX 287
57. Tomb of Amenephthes 287
58. Tomb of Ramses VI 288
59. Tomb of Ramses III 289
60. Tomb of Sethos I 292
61. Tomb of Thutmosis III 296
62. Tomb of Amenophis II 297
63. Tomb of Thutmosis I 297
64. Temple of Deir el-Baḥri 299
65. The Ramesseum (1: 1200) 306
66. Tomb of Rekhmerē 310

67. Tomb of Sennofer 310
68. Tomb of Amenemheb 311
69. Tomb of Nakht 314
70. Temple of Deir el-Medîneh 317
71. Tomb of Huye 318
72. Tomb of Queen Titi 320
73. Tomb of Prince Amen-her-khopshef 321
74. Tomb of Nefret-ere Mi-en-Mut 321
75. Temple of Medînet Habu (1: 2300) 322
76. Rock Chapel of Gebel Silsileh 339
77. Temple of Horus at Edfu 344
78. Temple of Kôm Ombo 350
79. Plan of Assuân (1: 25,000) 353
80. Temple of Isis on Philae (1: 1005) 365
81. Temple of Kalâbsheh 390
82. Temple of Gerf-Ḥusein 394
83. Great Temple of Abu Simbel 405
84. Temple of Hathor at Abu Simbel 409
85. Plan of Kharṭûm and Omdurmân (1: 60,000) 426

Vignettes.

1. Egyptian Coins xvi
2. Mohammedan Postures of Prayer lxxxvii
3. Cartouches of Egyptian Kings cxxxiii-cxxxix
4-23. Mythological Illustrations cliii-clvi
24-30. Art Illustrations clviii-cix, clxiv, clxxii
31, 32. Water Carriers (Saḳḳa, Ḥemali) 48
33. Public Kitchen 49
34. Arabian Barber 49
35-54. Reliefs in the Maṣṭaba of Ti, at Saḳḳâra 151-158
55. Hypostyle Hall at Karnak (reconstruction, after Maspero) 269

xiii

I. Preliminary Information.

(1). Plan of Tour. Season. Expenses. Money. Equipment. Travelling Companions.

PLAN. The intending visitor to Egypt may make an outline of his tour at home with as great case as for any of the countries of Europe. A glimpse of the country may be obtained in 4 or 5 weeks (exclusive of the journey out) as follows: 2 days may be devoted to Alexandria and the journey thence to Cairo — travellers landing at Port Sa‘îd should take the first train to Cairo, as the town is uninteresting — 10 days may be spent in Cairo and its neighbourhood (pp. 35 et seq.), 12 days suffice for the railway-journey to Assuân and back (or 20 days by a tourist-steamer), and 3 days may be given to Assuân (p. 353), while a few days must be set aside for resting. An excursion to the Faiyûm (R. 14) or to the oasis of Khârgeh (p. 379) takes 3-4 days. — An expedition to Upper Nubia (from Assuân to Wâdi Ḥalfa and back) requires 7 days by tourist-steamer (see p. 384); but if the quicker government steamer (p. 383) is used and the railway from Wâdi Ḥalfa, the excursion can be extended to Kharṭûm (p. 426) within almost the same period. A month should be allowed for the steamer-trip from Kharṭûm to Gondokoro (Rejaf) and back (p. 434), and 4 days for the return from Kharṭûm to Suez vià Port Sudan (R. 33).
SEASON. The best time for a tour in Egypt is between Nov. 1st and May 1st, Jan. to March being the most crowded period. In Alexandria stormy and rainy weather very often prevails from December to March, but in the interior of Egypt, to the S. of a line joining Damanhûr, Tanṭa, and Manṣûra, the case is considerably altered. Even in the Delta, however, marked falls in temperature (sometimes to 43° Fahr.) occur between the end of November and the end of March, and rain-storms, rendering the roads almost impassable, are not infrequent. In Cairo December, January, and sometimes February are distinctly chilly, which is the more inconvenient as there are no adequate heating-arrangements in the houses; but November and March are very fine, as also usually are October, April, and May, especially for travellers who do not object to a little heat. In Upper Egypt, from the beginning of November till the middle or end of April, the prevalent weather is that of a delicious spring or moderate summer. Those who intend to winter in Egypt should spend November in Cairo, move on thence in December, on the approach of cold weather, to Upper Egypt (Luxor, Assuân), and return to Cairo in February. — In summer prices are naturally much lower, but most of the larger hotels are closed.
EXPENSES. The cost of a tour in Egypt, and in oriental countries generally, is greater than that of a visit to most parts of Europe, and the traveller should estimate his average daily expenditure at

not less than 25-30s. (Steamboat and railway fares are of course extra; pp. 1-6.) The traveller whose time is very limited, or who is accompanied by ladies, will require also the services of a guide, or ‘dragoman’ (p. xxv; 5-10s, per day). With modest requirements, however, it is possible to live more cheaply.
MONEY. A small sum of money for the early part of the journey may be taken in English or French gold, but large sums should always be in the form of letters of credit or circular notes. These are issued by the principal London banks and by Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son. Travellers proceeding to Upper Egypt may deposit these notes in Cairo and have supplies sent after them, as required, by money orders. European bankers in Alexandria and Cairo, see pp. 10, 37. The National Bank of Egypt has branches or agents in most Egyptian towns and also in Kharṭûm, Suâkin, and Port Sudan. The cheques issued by the American Express Companies, the American Bankers' Association, and the International Navigation Co. are convenient also. — For Money Orders, see p. xix.
EQUIPMENT. For all ordinary purposes a couple of light tweed suits, a few flannel and soft cotton shirts, a supply of thin woollen socks, one pair of light and easy boots, one of shoes, and one of slippers, a moderately warm ulster or long travelling cloak, a pith helmet and a soft felt hat or a straw hat, together with the most necessary articles of the toilet, will amply suffice. Evening dress is usually worn at dinner at the principal hotels. Riding-breeches and gaiters are convenient for excursions. All articles should be new and strongly made, as it is often difficult to get repairs properly executed in Egypt. Few travellers walk in Egypt, except for very short distances, but sportsmen should add a stout pair of waterproof shooting-boots to their equipment.
Among the most important extras to be brought from Europe are a drinking-cup of leather or metal, a flask, a strong pocket-knife, a thermometer, a pocket-compass, a field-glass, and an electric, acetylene, or magnesium lamp for lighting caverns and dark chambers. — Photographic materials, dry plates, films, etc., can be obtained in Cairo, but it is preferable to bring a good stock carefully packed (films in air-tight tin cases) from home, taking care to attend the customs examination in person. On account of the climate photographs should be developed as soon as possible; but the traveller should be chary of entrusting his negatives (particularly in the case of films) to small photograph dealers.
COMPANIONS. The facilities for travel in Egypt are now such that even the inexperienced traveller will have little difficulty in managing an independent tour, without recourse to the assistance of tourist-agents or of dragomans (p. xxv), which add considerably to the cost. — In spring and autumn TOURIST PARTIES are organized for a visit to Egypt and the East by the tourist-agents Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son (Ludgate Circus, London) and the Hamburg & Anglo-American Nile Co. (15 Cockspur St., London, S.W.), programmes of which, with full information, may be obtained free on application. Travellers who join such parties are enabled to inspect the principal

points of interest with the minimum expenditure of time and trouble, but must naturally surrender, to a great extent, both their freedom of choice of companions and the disposal of their time. The expenses are not below those of an independent tour.

(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House.

COINAGE (comp. the illustrations on p. xvi and the tables before the title-page and at the end of the book). The Egyptian Pound (‘Livre Egyptienne’; £ E) is worth 20s.d., and is divided into 1000 Millièmes or 100 Piastres. The Arabic name for the piastre is Ḳirsh (pl. Ḳurûsh; pronounced in Cairo 'irsh, urûsh), but the European name is everywhere current. Travellers should note the distinction that is still frequently made between the ‘great piastre’ (ḳirsh ṣâgh), worth 10 millièmes, and the ‘little (or half) piastre’ (ḳirsh ta‘rîfa), worth 5 millièmes. — Egyptian gold coins are seldom met with, their place being taken by the British sovereign (Gineih inglîzi = 97 pias. 5 mill.) and the French napoleon (20 fr.; Biniu = 77 pias. 2 mill., but regularly reckoned at 77 pias.), both of which are legally current, and by the banknotes of the National Bank of Egypt (for 50 pias., £ E 1, £ E 5, £ E 10, £ E 50, and £ E 100). At Alexandria and Suez, and a few other points, reckoning also in francs is still common. Where British influence is strong, and especially in Cairo, the word Shilling is used for the Rub‘ Riyâl, which is equivalent to about 1s.¼d. Copper coins (comp. p. ii) are met with only in dealings with the natives. All the Egyptian coins are minted at Birmingham.
A liberal supply of small change is more essential in the East than anywhere else (comp. pp. xxiv, 37). When obtaining change, travellers should be on their guard against counterfeit or depreciated (i.e. worn or perforated) pieces, which are common enough.
PASSPORTS are not absolutely necessary; and one's visiting-card practically serves all its functions in the interior. Bankers, however frequently require strangers to establish their identity by some such document; and the countenance and help of consuls also must depend upon the proof of nationality offered to them by the traveller. — Travellers who intend to proceed to Turkey must be provided either with a passport visé by a Turkish consul at home or with a tezkereh (travelling permit) to be obtained through a consul.
Passports may be obtained in Great Britain direct from the Passport Department of the Foreign Office (fee 2s.) or through any of the usual tourist-agents. — In the United States application for passports should be made to the Bureau of Citizenship, State Department, Washington, D.C.
CUSTOM HOUSE. Tourists' luggage is subjected to a custom-house examination at the port of entry. The objects chiefly sought for are tobacco and cigars, on which a somewhat high tax is levied (20 or 25 pias. per kilogramme or 2⅕ lbs.). Unused articles are subject to an ad valorem duty of 8 per cent, at Alexandria an additional½ per cent is charged for quay and paving dues. A similar duty is levied on motor-cars, cycles, type-writing machines, and firearms
>EGYPTIAN COINS
Silver Coins

20 piastres (riyâl maṣri; ca. 4s.)

10 piastres (nuṣṣeh riyâl; ca. 2s.

5 piastres (rub‘ riyâl; ca. 1s.)

2 piastres (ḳirshein; ca. 5d.)

1 piastre (kirsh ṣâgh ca. 2 ½d.

Nickel Coins

1 piastre (ḳirsh sâgh; ca. 2 ½d.)

½ piastre (ḳirsh tarîfa; ca. 1d.)

2 millièmes (ca. ½d.)

1 millième (ca. ¼d.)

On the reverse of all the coins is the name of the sultan in ornamental flourishes.

(p. 418), but the amount is refunded if the article is re-exported within a year, on production of the customs receipt (certificat du payement de droits en dépôt). The duty is paid at the port of entry or in the Bonded Warehouse in Cairo. In case of difficulty or dispute one of the higher officials should be appealed to.
Good, though somewhat expensive, cigars may be obtained in Cairo and Alexandria. The importation of one's own cigars is attended with so much trouble as hardly to be worth while. The traveller is recommended to content himself with cigarettes (comp p. 41). Tobacco (Dukhkhân) should be purchased in small quantities only, as it gets dry very soon.

(3). Conveyances.

Steamers. The necessary information about the steamer-lines between Europe and Egypt is given at pp. 1-6. For the Nile steamers to Upper Egypt, see p. 201; to Lower Nubia, see p. 383; in the Sûdân, see p. 417.
Railways. The official time-tables are published in the Indicaleur des Chemins de Fer de l'Egypte, which is sold for 10 mill. at the chief railway stations, at the Cairo central telegraph office, and at the booksellers’. Time-tables are exhibited also in the larger hotels. The railway-carriages resemble those of France or Italy. First-class passengers are permitted to take a reasonable quantity of small luggage with them into the carriages. The second-class carriages are comfortable enough for day-journeys on the main routes (Alexandria to Cairo, Cairo to Manṣûra, Cairo to Port Sa‘id or Suez, Cairo to Assuân), especially by the express-trains; and their use effects a saving of 50 per cent in fares. But on branch-lines all travellers should take first-class tickets, especially at night. The third-class carriages are quite unsuited for Europeans.
The trains are not much slower than in Europe and are very punctual. The traveller should be at the station in good time, especially as heavy luggage must be booked¼ hr. before the departure of the train. The luggage-tariff is somewhat complicated. Hand-luggage up to 55 lbs. is free. The cloak-room charge is 5 millièmes each package per day. Passenger - fares are calculated on a zone-system, applicable to both express and slow trains (1st cl. 5 mill. per kilomètre up to 50 kil.; 51-100 kil., 4½ mill. per kil.; above 250 kil., 2½ mill.). Passenger-tickets are printed in French and Arabic; luggage-tickets in Arabic only. A reduced tariff and cheap return-tickets are in use on the Lignes de Banlieue or suburban lines (between Cairo, Ḳalyûb, and the Barrage du Nil; between Cairo, Maṭârîyeh, and El-Marg; between Suez and Suez Docks; between Alexandria, Ramleh, and Abuḳîr). Return-tickets at a reduction of 5 per cent on the double fare are issued to and from the larger stations, but are valid for 4 days only. — In hot weather the dust, which penetrates the carriages even when the windows are closed, renders railway travelling in Egypt exceedingly unpleasant. At the chief stations on the express-routes there are Railway Buffets

(no hot viands). At other stations refreshments are brought to the carriage-windows (bargaining necessary; 2 oranges½ pias.). The water offered for sale should be abstained from. In most of the express-trains there are dining-cars (B. 10, lunch 20, D. 25 pias.).
Narrow Gauge Railways. The Egyptian Light Railways cover the Delta and the Faiyûm (p. 190) with a network of lines, which, though of little importance to the ordinary tourist, enable the business man, the explorer, and the specialist to reach various remote points with comparative ease.
The Cabs (sing. ‘arabîyeh) in the large towns are generally very good. The official tariffs are exhibited in the vehicles and are advertised in the ‘Indicateur des Chemins de Fer’ (see p. xvii). At Alexandria and Cairo there are also Taximeter Cabs and Taximeter Motor Cabs. The latter are not adapted for drives outside the city except on good roads. The cab-drivers (comp. pp. xxiv, 39) are unable to read the names of the streets, while many of them know the various points only by names of their own. The hotel-portier should therefore be employed as interpreter. The traveller should keep his eye on the direction taken by the cab, as sometimes the cabman drives straight ahead in complete ignorance of the way and requires to be guided, e.g. by being touched with a stick on the right or left arm according to the turning, or with the words yemînak (to the right), shimâlak (to the left), dughri (straight on). The cabs usually drive rapidly, so that their use saves time and strength.
Donkeys (sing. homâr) are found everywhere. The better ones belong to a finer race than the European breed. In Alexandria and Cairo they are, however, not used by Europeans for riding within the town. In the towns the donkeys are generally well bridled and saddled; side-saddles are not always obtainable, and when they are an extra charge of 5 pias. is sometimes made for them. The proclivities of the donkey-boys for prodding the animals with pointed sticks and urging them to gallop should be sternly repressed. When a slower pace is desired the rider shouts ‘ala mahlak or ‘ala mahlakum; if a quicker pace is wanted, yallah, yallah, or mashshî, or sûk el-ḥomâr; if a halt is to be made, ‘andak, hush, or the English word ‘stop’ (comp. p. xxiv).

(4). Hotels.

In Cairo and its environs and at Luxor and Assuân (comp. pp. xxi, xxii) there are hotels quite of the first class, though perhaps not equal to the most modern establishments in Europe and America. There are good hotels also at Alexandria, Port Sa‘îd, and a few other places. They are managed according to international methods; the waiters and chamber-maids are chiefly German or Swiss, while the ‘boots’ are generally Nubians (Barâbra) who in most cases understand one or several European languages. As on the American system a fixed sum daily is paid for lodging and board, the latter

consisting of breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. Wine, beer, and other liquors, which are extras, are dear, the cheapest wine costing 10-15 pias, per bottle and British and German beer 5-6 pias. The waiter's fee should be calculated at about 5 per cent of the bill. At PENSIONS the average charge is 30-50 pias, per day, or £ E 7-10 per month. The hotel-laundries are somewhat expensive (tariff at the hotels); the Arab ‘washermen’ are very good and much cheaper.
In other towns the hotels are much inferior. They are mostly kept by Greeks, some (in the Delta) by Italians; the charge for a night's lodging is 8-10 pias. A café or bar is frequently connected with the ‘hotel’ but no restaurant, so that meals have to be taken in a neighbouring eating-house.

(5). Post and Telegraph Offices.

The Egyptian Postal System (pp. 10, 37) is well organized not only in all the principal towns but also in the smaller towns of the Delta and Upper Egypt. The addresses of letters destined for Egypt should always be written very distinctly, particularly the initial letters. They had better be directed to the hotel at which the traveller intends to stay, or they may be sent to the head post-office (Post Office, Poste Restante) in Cairo, in which case the traveller should inform the officials at the Bureau de Renseignements by letter of his local address, and his letters will be forwarded thither. On leaving for Upper Egypt travellers should notify the postal authorities at Cairo, so that letters may be punctually forwarded; passengers by the Nile steamers may have their correspondence looked after by the steamboat-company. — Registered Letters are not delivered to the addressee unless he has a passport or gets a resident or the consular kavass (p. xx) to testify to his identity. Registration fee 5, for foreign countries 10 millièmes. The Postage for letters not more than 30 grammes in weight within a town is 3 mill., within Egypt 5 mill.; letters not exceeding 20 grammes to Great Britain and its colonies and to Italy 5 mill., to other countries in the Postal Union 10 mill.; domestic Post Cards 2 mill., foreign 4 mill. — Parcels not exceeding 11 lbs. in weight may be sent to the countries of the Union, and must be accompanied by two declarations (in English or French). An export duty of 1 per cent ad valorem is charged on parcels of more than £E 1 in value. Parcels not exceeding 3 lbs. may be sent from England vià P. & O. steamer for 1s., from 3 lbs. to 7 lbs. 1s. 9d., from 7 lbs. to 11 lbs. 2s. 6d.; vià France and Italy the rates are 2s., 2s. 6d., 3s. Within Egypt parcels under 2⅕ lbs. cost 20 mill., under 6⅗ lbs. 30 mill., up to 11 lbs. 40 mill. — Money Orders up to 40l. may be sent to Egypt from most European countries. In Great Britain they are issued at the following rates; for sums not exceeding 2l., 6d., 6l., 1s.; 10l., 1s. 6d. The rate of exchange is taken into account. Within

Egypt money orders cost 3 mill. per £ E 1 (up to £ E 100), to the Sûdân 5 mill. (minimum in either case 10 mill.). — Further particulars will be found in the official Guide Postal Egyptien, obtainable at any post-office for 30 mill., in the Indicateur des Chemins de Fer (p. xvii), or in the Government Almanac (p. xcv).
Telegrams. There are two telegraph - systems in Egypt, the Egyptian and the English. Messages within Egypt may be sent only by the former, which has over 300 stations, of which at least 30 are open day and night. The tariff is 20 mill. for 8 words or less, and 5 mill. for every two additional words. The charge for urgent telegrams is three times as much. Telegrams may be sent in any European language, except from the smaller stations, where Arabic messages only are accepted. — Telegrams to Europe and America should be sent by the English Eastern Telegraph Co., viâ Malta and Vigo. To Europe each word (not exceeding ten letters; if longer, it counts as two words) costs 48 mill. from Lower Egypt, 53 mill. from Upper Egypt, 63 mill. from the Sûdân. — A telegram from Great Britain to Alexandria costs 1s. per word; to other parts of Egypt 1s., 1s. 1d., 1s. 4d. — Further particulars will be found in the Telegraph Guide (2 pias.), which may be had at the office of the government telegraph system in Cairo.
Telephones. There are exchanges in most of the larger towns, and at Cairo and Alexandria there are public call-offices also. Charge for 3 min. conversation 50 mill., 6 min. 100 mill.

(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice.

Public Safety. The authority of the Khedive is so well established throughout Egypt that travellers are as safe as in Europe. Weapons for self-defence are an unnecessary encumbrance. — For information concerning firearms and ammunition, see p. 418.
Consulates. Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of exterritoriality as ambassadors in other countries. On public occasions they are attended by kavasses, or armed consular officers. A distinction is sometimes made between professional (‘consules missi’) and commercial consuls; and there are consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, possessing various degrees of authority. In Egypt the diplomatic representatives of the powers are known as consuls general. In all cases of emergency the traveller should apply for advice to the nearest consul of his country.
There are no consuls within the Anglo-Egyptian Sûdân (p. 415).
Courts of Justice. In place of the exclusive consular jurisdiction to which foreigners were formerly liable, a system of Mixed Tribunals was established in 1875. The judges consist of natives and foreigners (the latter generally appointed by the Khedive from qualified officials nominated by the Great Powers), who give their verdicts in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of France

and Italy. Even cases in which the Khedive himself and the Egyptian government are concerned are tried before this tribunal, which includes courts of first and second instance. The courts of the first instance are at Caîro, Alexandrîa, and Manṣûra, and there is a delegation at Port Sa‘îd. The appeal-court is at Alexandria. Lists of qualified barristers are exhibited in the anterooms of the courts. — Important civil cases between natives, and all criminal cases, are tried by the Native Courts (Central Tribunals), established in 1883, situated at Cairo, Alexandria, Benisueif, Assiût, Keneh, Tanta, and Zaḳâzîḳ These form also the tribunals of second instance for the petty misdemeanours and civil suits dealt with by the Summary Tribunals (47 in number). In addition there are 108 District Courts (Markaz Tribunals), which deal with civil actions and with criminal cases not involving more than 3 months' imprisonment or a fine of more than £ E 10. The appeal-court for important cases is at Cairo (at the Bâb el-Khalḳ); about half the number of its judges are Europeans. The procedure is based upon the Code Napoléon.

(7). Egypt as a Health Resort. Medical Hints.

By Leigh Canney, M. D. (Lond.), F. R. Met. Soc.
The beneficial influence of the climate of Egypt (comp. p. lxxvi) has been known since the Roman period at least, and of late years an increasing number of visitors have flocked to the Nile to enjoy the benefits of its remarkably dry winter-climate. Phthisis (if not too far advanced and if the patient has a sound heart and little or no fever), asthma, chronic bronchitis, Bright's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and diseases of the kidneys are some of the most important ailments that are at least alleviated by a visit to Egypt. Invalids should remember that a stay of a few weeks only is not sufficient, and should remain from the beginning of November to the end of March. In deciding which of the health-resorts in Egypt a given case should be sent to, the physician must of course consider whether or not warmth must be secured along with dryness of air, whether purity of air alone or also a bright stimulating climate is to be specially sought, and whether cold winds and blowing sand are harmful or not. It is advisable in all cases to secure the advice of the physician resident at the spot selected.
Cairo itself cannot properly be considered a health-resort. The presence of a large city with its noise and bustle, the higher relative humidity, owing to the N. wind and the neighbourhood of the Delta, and other causes, all combine to compel those who seek health from the climate of Egypt to look to other stations. There are, however, excellent health-resorts in the immediate vicinity of the capital, such as the Mena House Hotel, the Oasis of New Heliopolis, and Helwân. Luxor and (still better) Assuân, in Upper Egypt, offer still more favourable climatic conditions.
Mena House Hotel (p. 36), 8 M. to the W. of Cairo, stands near the Great Pyramid of Gîzeh, on the verge of the Libyan Desert. The mean maximum temperature is 69° Fahr. in Dec., 66° in Jan., 72° in Feb., 74° in March, and 80° in April. The mean minimum for the four months Dec. to March is 50°. The daily range of temperature is 21°. The relative humidity (i.e. the amount of moisture, in relation to the temperature at the time, that the air holds out of a possible 100 per cent) from Dec. to March is 58 per cent by day (8 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and 80 per cent at night (8 p.m. to 6 a.m.). Dew falls in winter on about two nights out of three. At both Mena House and Helwân the prevailing winds and the amount of rain are probably much the same as in Cairo. The purity of the air at both places is marked; the medical and sanitary arrangements are excellent. — The Oasis of New Heliopolis (p. 119), founded as a health-resort a few years ago, possesses similar advantages.
Ḥelwân (p. 167), 17 M. to the S. of Cairo and 3 M. from the cultivated land, is 115 ft. above the river. The mean maximum temperature is 70° in Dec., 67° in Jan., 73° in Feb., and 76° in March. The mean minimum for these four months is 50°. The daily range of temperature is here also 21°. The relative humidity from Dec. to March is 47 per cent by day, 66 per cent at night. — Ḥelwân has the advantage of being in the desert in a pure atmosphere. It also has warm sulphurated and saline springs, richer in natural constituents than the corresponding springs at Aix-les-Bains, Harrogate, Buxton, etc. The cases suitable for the baths here are such as would derive benefit from hydro-therapeutic treatment as carried on at Harrogate, Bath, Aix, etc.; of late years Ḥelwân has been especially recommended to sufferers from kidney - diseases, and suitable diet is provided at all the hotels and pensions.
Luxor (p. 251) is situated about 400 M. to the S. of Cairo, in the Theban plain on the right bank of the river. The prevailing winds are N.W. and N., as in the whole country. The mean maximum temperature is 76° in Dec., 74° in Jan., 78° in Feb., and 85° in March. The mean minimum for these four months is 50°. The relative humidity is 41 per cent by day, 64 per cent at night. — In addition to the advantage of its warm and dry climate Luxor has an almost inexhaustible interest in its numerous antiquities, temples, and tombs. — The temperature is 7-9° warmer than at Mena House and Ḥelwân. The importance of the extra warmth of Upper Egypt must not be lost sight of, in cases where it is imperative that the action of the skin should be at its highest level — especially as with this warmth a bracing effect is obtained from the dryness of the air.
Assuân (p. 353), situated at the First Cataract, also on the right bank of the river, is the dryest of the Egyptian health-resorts and may be specially recommended in winter, when N. Egypt is often decidedly chilly. The prevailing winds are, as at Luxor, N.W. and N. in winter. The mean maximum temperature is 78° in Dec., 74½°

in Jan., 82° in Feb., and 91° in March. The mean minimum for these four months is 55°; and the relative humidity is 35 per cent by day, 49 per cent at night. — Assuân is more under the immediate influence of the desert; the air is bracing, although about 5° warmer than at Luxor. The beauty of the surroundings lends a peculiar charm to Assuân. — The accommodation for invalids is very good.
Patients should not leave Upper Egypt until the middle of April, on account of the cold N. wind. They will find at Athens, Corfu, Sicily, and Capri and other points near Naples admirable transition-stations in spring.
Medical Hints. Revaccination is a safeguard to travellers in Egypt, if not already performed within six years. Special care should be taken to avoid eye-trouble, and it is inadvisable to allow one's field-glass to be used by strangers, especially natives, for fear of infection. Those, too, who come into contact with natives should avoid rubbing their eyes with their hands. A useful precaution is to bathe the eyes regularly with boracie acid lotion (3 per cent), especially on dusty days or after excursions. Visitors to Upper Egypt should have spectacles with grey glasses. — Against sunstroke, which, however, is rare in the winter months, the best protection is afforded by broad-brimmed hats, sunshades, or cloths tied round the hat so as to fall down over the back of the neck. A pith helmet with a large flap to protect the neck may be recommended also. The remedies for headache resulting from sunstroke are rest and shade; the clothing should at once be loosened and cold applications made to the head and neck.
Colds are frequently followed by fever or by diarrhœa, which is apt to develop into dysentery. Cold or iced drinks should be avoided, also unpeeled fruit and green salads. Water and milk should never be drunk unboiled, for fear of typhoid. In cases of diarrhœa meat should be avoided and a simple farinaceous diet adopted; the beverages should be milk and soda-water. There are European doctors at Cairo, Alexandria, Ḥelwân, Luxor, Assuân, etc., also on board most of the tourist-steamers.
Sprains are most effectually treated with cold compresses, while the injured limb should be tightly bandaged. — The sting of a scorpion is relieved by immediately applying ammonia; strong doses of alcohol may be administered internally.
Travellers should be careful to pay attention to the daily changes of temperature (p. lxxvii), particularly at sunset in cultivated districts, when the air cools very quickly and clods are easily caught. Warmer clothing or a cloak is useful till 11 a.m., then lighter clothing till nearly sunset, when the cloak should be resumed. The hour for returning to the hotel varies with the place and the month, being earliest in Jan. and latest in March and April. If the traveller be guided by the relative humidity, it would be earliest at Mena House, say about sunset; a little later at Ḥelwân; at Luxor still

later, 6 p.m. (except in Jan.), and 8 p.m. in March; and latest of all at Assuân, — it being always understood that precautions as to extra clothing have been taken. — Those who are not invalids, and in some cases invalids also, may sleep with the windows open with safety.
Those who wish to take a small Medicine Chest with them, a proceeding strongly recommended to anyone making long independent excursions, should consult their physician at home as to the best medicaments with which to stock it. The following suggestions may, however, be useful: for fever, Quinine in pills or something of that nature; for chronic constipation, castor-oil; for diarrhœa (or dysentery), first an aperient then Bismuth (in cachets); for inflammation of the eyes, an Eye Lotion (made from a doctor's prescription) and a glass for dropping it in; for stings, Ammonia; for external injuries, Cotton Wool for bandaging, Sublimate Pastilles and Iodoform as disinfectants, and Collodion.

(8). Intercourse with Orientals. Dragomans.

The average Oriental regards the European traveller as a Crœsus, therefore as fair game, and feels justified in pressing upon him with a perpetual demand for bakshish (baḳshîsh), which simply means ‘a gift’. The number of beggars is enormous, but they are not nearly so importunate as those in Italy and elsewhere. Travelers are often tempted to give for the sake of affording temporary pleasure at a trifling cost, forgetting that the seeds of insatiable cupidity are thereby sown, to the infinite anoyance of their successors and the demoralization of the recipients themselves. Bakshish should never be given except for services rendered, or to the aged and crippled; and the Government appeals to the tourist by public placards not to encourage the habit of begging. A beggar may be silenced with the words ‘al Allâh or Allâh yeḥannin ‘aleik (God have mercy on thee!) or Allâh ya‘ṭîk (may God give thee!). The best reply for more importunate cases is mâ fîsh, mâ fîsh (I have nothing for you) or mâfîsh baḳshîsh (there is no present), which will generally have the effect of dispersing the assaîlants for a time.
It is, of course, inevitable that coachmen, guides, donkey-boys, and the like should expect a gratuity in addition to the stipulated fee for their services, and the traveller should therefore take care to be amply supplied with small CHANGE at all times, and especially with pieces of half a piastre (comp. pp. xv, 37). Payment should never be made until the service stipulated for has been rendered, after which an absolutely deaf ear should be turned to the protestations and entreaties which almost invariably follow. Even when an express bargain has been made, and more than the stipulated sum paid, they are almost sure to pester the traveller in the way indicated. When no bargain has been made, the fees and prices mentioned in the Handbook, all of which are ample, should be paid without remark; and if the attacks which ensue are not silenced by an air of calm indifference the traveller may use the word rûḥ or imshi (be off!) or uskut (be quiet!) in a quiet but decided and imperative

tone. At the same time it must be admitted that the increasing number of visitors to Egypt tends to raise prices during the chief travelling season, so that a larger bakshish than is mentioned in the Handbook may sometimes be necessary.
While much caution and firmness are desirable in dealing with the people, it need hardly be added that the traveller should avoid being too exacting or suspicious. He should bear in mind that many of the natives with whom he comes in contact are mere children, whose demands should excite amusement rather than anger, and who often display a touching simplicity and kindliness of disposition. The native communities hold together with remarkable faithfulness, and the bond of a common religion, which takes the place of ‘party’ in other countries, and requires its adherents to address each other as ‘yâ akhûya’ (my brother), is far more than a mere name. On the other hand, intimate acquaintance with Orientals is to be avoided, especially with the dragomans, who sometimes presume on their opportunities of social intercourse (comp. below). In Lower Egypt travellers can usually make themselves understood in French or Italian; in Upper Egypt English is more useful. A good deal can usually be done by signs.
Notwithstanding all the suggestions we have ventured to offer, the traveller will to some extent have to buy his experience. In most cases the overcharges to which he will be exposed will be comparatively trifling; but if extortion is attempted on a larger scale he had better refer the matter to his consul or the police.
For the tours described in this book the services of a Dragoman (Arab. Turgumân) may easily be dispensed with, even by those less accustomed to travelling. They are useful, however, for those who wish to see as much as possible in a very short time. Only well recommended dragomans should be engaged, preferably those for whom the hotels assume some responsibility. They must be treated from the first as servants and all familiarity should be discouraged. The dragomans are with few exceptions quite uneducated, without the least knowledge of the historic or æsthetic significance of the monuments; and their ‘explanations’ of them are only too often merely garbled versions of what they have picked up from guide-books or from the remarks of previous travellers.
Those who wish to make long tours in the desert or hunting excursions are advised to consult residents learned in these matters. The tourist-agents also can sometimes give good advice, and the necessary outfit (tents, kitchen utensils, etc.) may be bought or hired through them. — For sporting and other expeditions in the Anglo-Egyptian Sûdân, see pp. 417, 418.
On the successful termination of the journey travellers are too apt from motives of good nature to write a more favourable testimonial for their dragoman than he really deserves; but this is truly an act of injustice to his subsequent employers. The testimonial therefore should not omit to mention any serious cause for dissatisfaction.

(9). Arabian Cafés. Story Tellers. Musicians. Singers. Shadow Plays. Baths.

Arabian Cafés (sing. ḳahwa) are frequented by the lower classes almost exclusively. The front consists of woodwork with a few open arches. Outside the door generally runs a maṣiaba, or raised seat of stone or brick, covered with mats, and there are similar seats in the interior. Coffee is served by the ḳahwágî at ¼-1 pias. per cup (fingân), and several nargîleh or shîsheh and gôzeh (water-pipes) are kept in readiness for the use of customers. The tumbâk (Persian tobacco) smoked in the gôzeh is sometimes mixed with the intoxicating ḥashîsh (hemp, Cannabis Indica), which has an unmistakable smell. The importation and sale of ḥashish are prohibited in Egypt; it is therefore smuggled in in the most artful ways.
Story Tellers (who in private domestic circles are generally women) are still a characteristic oriental institution. Wherever they make their appearance, whether in the public streets or the coffee-house, in the densely peopled alleys of the large towns or in the smallest country-villages, they are sure to attract an attentive, easily pleased, and exceedingly grateful crowd. The more sensational the tale, the better, and the oftener is the narrator applauded with protracted cries of ‘Aah’, or ‘Allâh’, or ‘Allâhu akber!’. — Most of the story-tellers belong to the so-called Shú‘ara (sing. Shâ‘ir), literally ‘singers’. They are known also as ‘Anâtireh (sing. ‘Antari), or Abu Zeidîyeh, according as their theme consists of tales and romances from the history of ‘Antar, a Beduin hero, or from that of Abu Zeid. Others again are called Miḥadditâti, i.e. narrators of history, their province being the recital in prose of passages from the history of Sultan Beybars (p. cxvii) and other historical heroes. The entertainments of the ‘alf leileh u leileh’ (thousand and one nights) are, however, no longer heard, as popular superstition has branded this collection of tales as ‘unlucky’. The themes of the whole fraternity are too often of an immoral character.
Musicians by profession, called Alâtîyeh (sing. Aláti), are indispensable on every festive occasion. The usual instruments are the riḳḳ or tambourine with little bells, the naḳḳâreh or semispherical tambourine, the zemr or hautbois, the ṭabl beledi or drum, the ṭabl shâmi or kettle-drum, and the darabûkeh, a kind of funnel-shaped drum (generally made of earthenware, but sometimes of wood inlaid with mother-of-pearl and tortoise-shell, with a fish-skin stretched over the broad end), which last is accompanied by the zummûra, a kind of double flute. A better class of instruments, used for chamber music, includes the nâi, a kind of flute, the kemengeh or two-stringed violin, the body of which consists of a coconut shell, the rebâbeh, or one-stringed violin with a square wooden body, the ḳânûn, a kind of zither with strings of sheep-gut, and astly the ‘ud, the lute or mandoline, the oldest of all the instruments.
The Egyptians consider themselves a highly musical people. The Egyptian sings when indulging in his keif (i.e. dolce far niente), whether sitting on his heels or stretched out on his mat, when driving his donkey, when carrying stones and mortar up a scaffolding, when working in the fields, when at the sâḳiyeh, and when rowing. He sings whether alone or in company, regarding his vocal music as a means of lightening his labour and of sweetening his repose. A peculiarity of the Egyptian songs, however, is that they have no tune, though they have a certain rhythm, which is always dependent on the text. They are sung through the nose on seven or eight different notes, on which the performer wanders up and down. The character of this so-called music is exceedingly monotonous and, to a European ear, displeasing. The songs (mawwâl or shughl) are generally of a lyrical, religious, or erotic description, though some of them extol the pleasures of friendship and rational enjoyment, or express derision of an enemy, or contempt for the rustic fellah. — Comp. ‘The Songs of an Egyptian Peasant’, by H. Schäfer (English edition, Leipzig, 1904).
FEMALE SINGERS (‘Awâlim, sing. ‘Almeh; i.e. ‘learned women’) of a good class are now very rare and perform only in the harems of wealthy natives. — Good FEMALE DANCERS, or Ghawázi (sing. Ghâîyeh), were formerly one of the chief curiosities of Egypt, but are now rare; the performances in the cafés chantants in Cairo are very inferior. — The SNAKE CHARMERS (Rifâ‘îyeh, sing. Rifâ‘i; p. xci) exhibit performances of a very marvellous character, as credible European residents in Cairo have testified; but the traveller will rarely come in contact with them except by lucky accident. The men and boys who exhibit small snakes in the streets or at the hotels must of course not be confounded with the Rifâ‘iyeh. — The JUGGLERS or Ḥuwâ (sing. Ḥâwî) of Egypt are similar to those of other countries. — The performances of the BUFFOONS (Ḳurûdâti or Moḥabbazi) are disgracefully indelicate.
Shadow Plays (Khaïyâl e.d-Ḍill), formerly among the most popular spectacles in Egypt, the history of which can be traced back to the 13th cent., are still to be met with, though seldom, in the larger towns, especially Cairo (comp. p. 42) and Alexandria.
The Khaïyâl man, with his little stage of wood and canvas, may be seen at the ‘mûlids’ (comp. pp. xcv, xcvi), important weddings, and in a few cafês. The plays, of which the most frequently performed are the Comedy of the Convent (li‘b ed-deir), and the Comedy of the Ship (li‘b el-markib), are rather coarse, or even slightly indecent, farces in artificial and long-winded verse. The figures are cut out of coloured translucent leather and, by means of small wooden sticks, are pressed against an illuminated cloth in front of the stage, so that their shadows are visible on the other side of the cloth. The entertainer, generally supported by several assistants and musicians, recites the text of the play while moving the figures about by means of the sticks.
Arab Baths. The baths of Egypt, with their hot-air chambers, are those commonly known as Turkish, but they are neither so clean nor so well fitted up as some of those in the larger cities of Europe. They are therefore seldom visited by Europeans. Those who wish to try them once should do so early in the morning, and should avoid Fridays, as numerous Moslems bathe on that day, which is their Sabbath. When a cloth is hung up at the entrance to the baths, it indicates that women only are admitted.

(10). The Egyptian Dialect of Arabic.

By Dr. Curt Prüfer.

The TRANSLITERATION of Arabic vocal sounds, so intensely different from our own, in the ordinary Latin alphabet is rendered additionally difficult by the varied international relations of Egypt. In maps and plans, in railway time-tables, and in other publications we find the transliteration differing widely according as the French or the English view has been adopted. In this Handbook we have transliterated the consonantal sounds so far as possible according to English usage (e.g., sh instead of the French ch). The pronunciation of the vowels and diphthongs is as follows: â as a in father, a usually as a in final; e as e in belong or as a in final; eh at the end of a word as a in final; i as ee in been, i as i in did, final i as ee in been; ô as o in bone, o as o in on; û as oo in fool, u as u in full; ai as i in ice; au as ow in owl; ei as a in lane; oi as oy in boy. Thus: emir, which is pronounced ‘emeer’; fulûs, pronounced ‘fulloos’; sheikh, pronounced ‘shake’ (with a guttural k), etc. — The l of the article is frequently unassimilated; e.g. el-râs instead of er-râs (comp. p. xxx).
Arabic belongs to the Semitic group of languages and has no relationship with the tongues of Europe. The classic language of the Koran is still regarded as the unrivalled model of literary Arabic, but side by side with it there have developed various colloquial dialects, differing widely among themselves, of which that spoken in Egypt is one. In the following brief sketch references to the classic literary language are avoided as far as possible; for that, recourse must be had to the accepted grammars (see p. clxxxviii). Even in Egypt there are variations in the dialects spoken, but the following remarks apply especially to the language as spoken in Cairo, which is generally understood throughout the country.
On p. xxix we give the Arabic Alphabet, with the sounds corresponding to the different letters so far as it is possible to represent or describe them to the English reader. — Arab writing runs from right to left. Long vowels are indicated by the letters Elif, Wau, and Yei (comp. p. xxix), while short vowels are often left out altogether or represented by special signs placed above or below the consonants.
QUANTITY AND ACCENTUATION OF VOWELS. Vowels with a circumflex accent (^) are long; other vowels are short. The accent falls on the last syllable when that contains a long vowel or a short vowel followed by two consonants. It falls on the penultimate (1) when that is long, (2) when it ends in a single consonant, and (3) when the preceding syllable is long or ends in a single consonant. In all other cases the accent falls on the antepenultimate. Diphthongs (ai, ei, au) must be reckoned as equivalent to long vowels.
The pronunciation of short vowels varies considerably according to the consonants adjoining as well as according to the culture of the speakers; e.g. for imta (when), emteh also occurs, for yiktub (he writes), yiktib, for ‘arûsa (bride), ‘arûseh.
Grammatical Hints.
PRONOUNS. ana, I intî, thou (fem.)
inta, thou (mase.) hûwa, he
ARABIC ALPHABET.
1. Elif, Alef ا ['] like the Greek soft breathing, accompanies an initial vowel, and is not pronounced except as a hiatus in the middle of a word. It is also the sign for.
2. ب b as in English.
3. ت t
4. Thâ ث t,s originally as th in ‘thing’, but now pronounced t or s..
5. Gîm ج g in Syria and Arabia like the French j (some-times also like the English j), but pronounced g (hard) in Egypt.
6. Ḥâ ح a peculiar guttural h, pronounced with emphasis at the back of the palate.
7. Khâ خ kh like ch in the Scotch word ‘loch’, or the harsh Swiss-German ch.
8. Dâl د d as in English.
9. Dhâl ذ d,z originally as th in ‘the’, but now pronounced d or z.
10. Rei ر r like the French or Italian r.
11. Zei ز z as in English.
12. Sîn س s
13. Shîn ش sh
14. Ṣâd ص emphasized s, like ss in ‘hiss’.
15. Ḍâd ض both emphasized by pressing the tongue firmly against the palate.
16. Ṭâ ط
17. Ẓâ ظ an emphatic z, now pronounced like No. It or No. 15.
18. ‘Ain ع a harsh and very peculiar guttural.
19. Ghain غ gh a guttural resembling the Northumbrian or Parisian r.
20. Fei ف f as in English.
21. Ḳâf ق pronounced by Syrians and by the natives of Lower Egypt (particularly by the Cairenes) in the same way as Elif (see above), but in Upper Egypt as g (No. 5).
22. Kâf كك k
23. Lâm ل l as in English.
24. Mîm م m
25. Nûn ن n
26. Hei ه h
27. Wau و w as in English. Also the sign for, and au.
28. Yei ى y as in English. Also the sign for f, ai, and ei.
hîya, she intum, ye or you
iḥna, we hum, they
The possessive pronouns are indicated by suffixes, added to nouns, verbs, or prepositions.
  • my, mine = -î (after a final vowel -ya, after verbs -)
  • thine (mase.) = -ak (after a final vowel -k); thine (fem.) = -ik (after a final vowel -)
  • his = -uh (after a final vowel -h); her = -
  • our = -
  • your = -kum
  • their = -hum
In the case of most feminine nouns ending in a or e (eh) a t is inserted before the suffix. When otherwise three consonants would come together a short vowel is inserted between the stem and the suffix. Examples: kalbî, my dog; kursîya, my chair; kalbinâ, our dog; shagaratkum, your tree; ḍarabnî, he struck me; misiktuhum, thou tookest them; ‘andî, beside me, i.e. I have; ‘andak, beside thee, i.e. thou hast; ‘aleikum, over you.
mîn, who? lei, why?
ei, what? izaïy, how?
enhû, which? (masc.) illî, which (relative)
enhî, which? (fem.) di or da, this (masc.) placed after the noun and its article
enhum, which? (pl.) dî, di, this (fem.)
kâm, how much? dôl, these
fein, where? whither? duk-ha, that
min ein, whence? duk-hamma, those
imta, when? kull, each, all
ARTICLE. El is the definite article for all genders and all numbers. Before words beginning with t, d, r, z, s, sh, ṣ, ḍ, ṭ, or n the l of the article is usually assimilated with such initial consonant; e.g. er-râgil, the man. There is no indefinite article (el-mu‘allim, the teacher, mu‘allim, a teacher), but it is sometimes expressed by uneducated people through the numeral wâḥid, fem. waḥdeh, i.e. wâḥid beit, a house.
NOUNS. Most feminine nouns end in a or e (eh); el-mu‘allima, the female teacher. The regular plural is formed by adding în to the masculine stem, ât to the feminine stem; el-mu‘allimîn, the teachers, el-mu‘allimât, the female teachers. But there are numerous irregular plurals that must be learned from the dictionary; e.g. beit, house, biyût, houses. The dual ends in ein for the masculine, tein for the feminine; kalbein, two dogs, kalbetein, two she-dogs.
There is no regular declension of nouns. The genitive case is expressed by the juxtaposition of the two nouns, the former always without the article, or by the use of the auxiliary word bitâ‘, bitâ‘et, plur. bitû‘; e.g. beit el-khawâga, or el-beit bitâ‘ el-khawâga, the house of the European. The dative case is formed by the use of the preposition li (to); lî 'l-khawâga, to the European. The accusative

(objective) is the same as the nominative. The vocative case is yâ khawâga, Sir!
ADJECTIVES. Adjectives are always placed after their nouns, with which they generally agree in gender; e.g. geneina kwaiyiseh, a beautiful garden, el-geneina el-kwaiyiseh, the beautiful garden. The verb ‘to be’ is omitted in the present tense; el-geneina kwaiyiseh, the garden is beautiful.
REGULAR VERBS. The pure stem of regular verbs is seen in the 3rd person singular (masculine) of the perfect tense; kasar, he has broken. This part is given in dictionaries instead of the infinitive as in most other languages.
PERFECT PRESENT AND FUTURE
I broke or have broken, kasart I break or shall break, aksar
Thou brokest or hast -, kasart Thou breakest or wilt -, tiksar
(masc.), kasartî (fem.) (masc.), tiksarî (fem.)
He broke or has broken, kasar He breaks or will break, yiksar
She broke or has broken, kasar She breaks or will break, tiksar
We broke or have broken, kasarnâ We break or shall break, niksar
You broke or have broken, kasartum You break or will break, tiksarû
They broke or have broken, kasarû They break or will break, yiksarû
IMPERATIVES: Break (sing.), iksar (masc.), iksarî (fem.).
Break (plur.), iksarû.
PARTICIPLES. Pres. Breaking, kâsir; Perf. Broken, maksûr.
So also: I have written, katabt I write, aktub
katabt, katabtî tiktub, tiktubî
katab, etc. yiktub, etc.
In the case of most verbs other tenses and moods are indicated by prefixing or interpolating letters; e.g. kasar, he has broken, in-kasar, he has been broken.
For irregular verbs the grammar (comp. p. clxxxviii) must be consulted.
To express a negative with verbs the separable form mâ … sh(i) is used, the verb being inserted in the middle (comp. Fr. ne … pas); e.g. mâḍarabsh, he did not strike.
NUMERALS.
1 (١) — wâḥid, fem. waḥdeh the first — el-auwal, fem. el-auwaleh or el-ûla
2 (٢) — itnein the second — tâni, fem. tâniyeh
3 (٣) — talâteh the third — tâlit, - talteh
4 (٤) — arba‘a the fourth — râbē‘, - rab‘a
5 (٥) — khamseh the fifth — khâmis, - khamseh
6 (٦) — sitteh the sixth — sâdis, - sadseh
7 (٧) — sab‘a the seventh — sâbé, - sab‘a
8 (٨) — tamânyeh the eighth — tâmin, - tamneh
9 (٩) — tis‘a the ninth — tâsē‘, - tas‘a
10 (١٠) — ‘ashara the tenth — ‘âshir, - ‘ashreh

11 — hadâshar 40 — arba‘in 600 — suttemîyeh
12 — itnâshar 50 — khamsîn 700 — sub‘amîyeh
13 — telatâshar 60 — sittîn 800 — tumnemîyeh
14 — arbaḥtâshar 70 — sab‘în 900 — tus‘amîyeh
15 — khamastâshar 80 — tamânîn 1000 — alf
16 — sittâshar 90 — tis‘în 2000 — alfein
17 — sabaḥtâshar 100 — mîyeh; before nouns, 3000 — telat âtâf
18 — tamantâshar 200 — mîtein [mît. 4000 — arbaḥt âtâf
19 — tiśatâshar 300 — tuttemîyeh 5000 — khamast âtâf
20 — ‘ishrîn 400 — rub‘amîyeh 100,000 — mît alf
30 — latâtîn 500 — khumsemîyeh 1,000,000 — malyûn
once — marra waḥda, marra, a half — nuṣṣ
twice — marratein [or nôba a third — tutt
thrice — telat marrât a fourth — rub‘
four times — arba‘ marrât three-fourths — talat irba
five times — khamas marrât a fifth — khums
six times — sitteh marrât a sixth — suds
seven times — saba‘ marrât a seventh — sub‘
eight times — taman marrât an eighth — tumn
nine times — tisa‘ marrât a ninth — tus‘
ten times — ‘ashar marrât a tenth — ‘oshr
Substantives following the numerals 2-10 are used in the plural those following numerals above 10 in the singular; thus: telâta kilâb, 3 dogs, but telâtîn kalb, 30 dogs. Educated people generally employ the dual form of the noun instead of the numeral 2: kalbein, 2 dogs.

Arabic Vocabulary.

  • Above, fôḳ.
  • Add, to, zâd. Add a little more (i.e. bid a little higher). zîd shwaiyeh.
  • Address, unwân.
  • After, ba‘d; afterwards, ba‘dein.
  • Afternoon, ‘aṣr.
  • Against, ḍid.
  • Air, hawâ.
  • All, el-kull, all people, kull en-nâs (lit. the total of the people).
  • Almond, lôz.
  • Always, dâiman or tamallî.
  • America, Amerîka. American, marakânî, malakânî, pl. marakân.
  • Anchorage, roads, mirsâ.
  • Angry, za‘lân. Do not be angry, mâ tiz‘alsh.
  • Apricots, mishmish.
  • Arabia, Bilâd el-‘Arab. Arabian, râgil ‘arabî, pl. ûlâd el-‘arab.
  • Arabic, ‘arabî. What is that called in Arabic? ismeh ei bil-‘arabî?
  • Arable land, ṭîn.
  • Arm, dirâ.
  • Arrive, waṣal. When does the steamer arrive, el-wâbûr yûṣal imta? Arrival, wuṣût.
  • Ask, to, sa‘al.
  • At, ‘and.
  • Aunt, ‘amma (paternal aunt), khâla (maternal aunt).
  • Austria, Bilâd en - Nimsa. Austrian, nimsâwî.
  • Autumn, kharîf
  • Awaken, to, ṣaḥḥâ. A wake me, ṣaḥḥînî.
  • Back, ḍahr.
  • Bad, baṭṭât.
  • Baker, farrân.
  • Bananas, môz.
  • Barber, ḥallâḳ, mizeiyin.
  • Barley, sha‘îr.
  • Basket, ḳuffa, pl. ḳufaf.
  • Bath, bath-establishment, ḥammâm.
  • Bazaar, see Market.
  • Be, to. The copula ‘is’ (are) is not translated; comp. p. xxxi.
  • Beans, faṣûlya. Broad beans, fûl. Haricot beans, lûbiyeh.
  • Beard, daḳn. Full beard, liḥyeh. Moustache, shanab.
  • Beat, to, ḍarab. Beat him, iḍrabuh!
  • Beautiful, kwaiyis or gamîl.
  • Bed, serîr.
  • Beduin, bedawi, pl. bidu, ‘arab, ‘orbân. Beduin sheikh, sheikh el-‘arab.
  • Bee, naḥla, pl. naḥl.
  • Beer, bîra.
  • Before, ḳabl (time), ḳuddâm (place).
  • Behind, warâ.
  • Below, taḥt.
  • Bench (of stone or mud), maṣṭaba, pl. maṣâtib (also used for certain kinds of tombs, p. clxviii).
  • Beside, ‘and, gamb.
  • Better, aḥsan, kheir.
  • Between, bein.
  • Bill, account, ḥisâb.
  • Bird, ṭeir, pl. ṭiyûr. Singing-bird, ‘aṣfûr, pl. ‘aṣâfîr.
  • Bite, to, ‘aḍḍ. It (she) has bitten me, ‘aḍḍetnî: it (she) will bite, [te‘uḍḍ
  • Bitter, murr.
  • Black, iswid.
  • Blacksmith, haddâd.
  • Blind, a‘ma.
  • Blood, damm.
  • Blue, azraḳ.
  • Board, lôḥ, pl. ilwâḥ.
  • Boat, felûka.
  • Boil, to. The water is boiling, el-maiyeh tighlî. Boiled, maslûḳ.
  • Book, kitâb, pl. kutub. Bookseller, kutbî.
  • Boot, gazma, pl. gizam.
  • Bottle, ḳizâza, pl. ḳazâiz. Waterbottle, ḳulla, pl. ḳûlal.
  • Box, ṣandûk, pl. ṣanâdîḳ.
  • Boy, walad, pl. ûlâd.
  • Brandy, ‘araḳî.
  • Bread, ‘eish. See also Loaf.
  • Break, to, kasar (trans.); inkasar (intrans.). Broken, maksûr.
  • Breakfast, fuṭûr.
  • Bride, ‘arûsa. Bridegroom, ‘arîs.
  • Bridge, kubrî, ḳanṭara.
  • Bridle, ligâm.
  • Bring, to, gâb. Bring the eggs, gîb el-beiḍ
  • Broad, ‘arîḍ.
  • Brother, akh (before suffixes and genitives akhû, as akhûnâ, our brother), pl. ikhwân.
  • Brown, asmar or aḥmar.
  • Bucket, gardal or saṭl, pl. garâdil, suṭûl.
  • Burn, to. The fire burns, en-nâr beyûla‘. The sun burns me, esh-shems (or es-sems) yiḥraḳnî.
  • Bury, to, dafan. They have buried him, dafanûh. — Burial, dafna.
  • Butcher, gazzâr.
  • Butter, zibdeh.
  • Button, zirr, pl. zirâr.
  • Buy, to. What dost thou wish to buy, ‘âuz tishtiri ei? Hast thou bought the eggs, inta ishtareit el-beiḍ? — See also p. 49.
  • Cab, ‘arabîyeh. Cabman, ‘arbágî. He is hailed with the expression uṣṭa.
  • Café, see Coffee.
  • Cairo, Maṣr.
  • Calf, ‘igl, pl. ‘igûl.
  • Call, to, nadah. Call the cook, indah lî'ṭ-ṭabbâkh.
  • Call, to = to name, see Name.
  • Camel, gamal (mase.), pl. gimâl. Riding camel. hegîn. Camel-driver, gammâl.
  • Candle, sham‘a, pl. shama‘. Candlestick, sham‘adân.
  • Cape (promontory), râs.
  • Care. Take care, khallî bâlak (of the luggage, min el-‘afsh), û‘â.
  • Carpet, siggâda; busâṭ.
  • Carriage, ‘arabîyeh (also a railway carriage).
  • Castle, ḳsṣr, pl. ḳuṣûr; serâyeh, pl. serâyât.
  • Cattle, baḳar.
  • Cause, sabab.
  • Cave, maghâra.
  • Cemetery, ḳarâfa; gabâna; madfan; maḳbara.
  • Chair, kursî, pl. kerâsî.
  • Change, to, ṣaraf. Change me a sovereign, uṣruf lî gineih. Hast thou changed the sovereign, inta ṣaraft el-gineih?
  • Cheap, rakhîṣ, pl. rukhâṣ.
  • Cheese, gibna.
  • Cholera, hawa el-aṣfar or kuleira.
  • Christian, nuṣrânî, pl. naṣâra.
  • Cigar, sigâra afrangî; zinôbya.
  • Cigarette, sigâra, pl. sagâyir; cigarette paper, waraḳ sigâra.
  • Class. 1st class (railway or steamer) berîmo; 2nd class, sekondo.
  • Clean, naḍîf.
  • Clean, to, naḍḍaf. Clean the room, naḍḍaf el-ôḍa. I have not cleaned the room yet, lissa mâ naḍḍaftish el-ôda.
  • Clear, bright, ṣâfî.
  • Clever (skilful), shâṭir.
  • Clothes, libs; hudûm. — The Arab costume includes: Fez, ṭarbûsh; skull-cap, ṭâḳîyeh; felt cap, libdeh; head-shawl, kuffîyeh; cord for fastening the kuffiyeh, ‘uḳâl; turban, ‘imma; trousers (wide), shirwâl; women's trousers, shintiyân; cloak, ‘abâyeh; dressing-gown, ḳuftân: long blouse, gallâbîyeh; girdle, ḥizâm; leathern belt, kamar; shoe, markûb; wooden shoe, ḳubḳâb; stocking, shurâb. — See also Coat, Trousers.
  • Clumsy, ghashîm.
  • Coat (European man's), sitra, pl. sitar; badleh.
  • Coffee, ḳahwa. Boy, bring a cup of coffee, hât fingân ḳahwa, yâ walad. — Café, ḳahwa, Café-keeper, ḳahwagî. Coffee-beans, bunn; coffee-pot, bakray.
  • Cognac, kunyâk.
  • Cold, bârid, fem. barda. Cold (noun), bard. It is very cold early in the morning, fiṣ-ṣubḥ el-bardeh shedîd. — To catch cold, khad bard. — I feel cold, ana bardân.
  • Collar, yâḳa.
  • Colour, lôn, pl. alwân. Coloured mulauwin.
  • Come, to. I came (perf.), geit; he came, ga; she came, gat; we came, geinâ; they came, or gum. (In the pres.: agî, yigî, tigî, nigî, yigû.) Imper.: Come, ta‘ála (mase.), ta‘âlî (fem.), ta‘âlû (plur.). Come here, ta‘âla hineh (masc.).
  • Concerning (prep.), ‘ala (with suffixes).
  • Confectioner, ḥalawânî.
  • Consul, ḳonṣul. Consulate, ḳonṣulâṭo. Consular guard, Kavass, ḳauwâṣ.
  • Content, mabsûṭ.
  • Convent, deir. Dervish convent. tekkîyeh.
  • Cook, ṭabbâkh.
  • Cook, to. Cook me a fowl, uṭbukhlî farkha.
  • Cost, to. What does this cost, di bikâm?
  • Cotton, ḳuṭn.
  • Country (fatherland), waṭan.
  • Cow, baḳara, pl. baḳarât.
  • Crocodile, timsâḥ.
  • Cup, fingán, pl. fanâgîn.
  • Customs, gumruk.
  • Cut, to, ḳaṭa‘.
  • Dagger, khangar, pl. khanâger.
  • Dance, raḳṣ.
  • Dark, ‘itim. Dark-coloured, ghâmiḳ.
  • Dates, balaḥ. Date-palm, nakhla, pl. nakhl (ât).
  • Daughter, bint, pl. banât.
  • Day, yôm or nahâr, pl. aiyám. Daily, kulli yôm or kulli nahâr. By day, bin-nahâr. To-day, ennahâr-di. Yesterday, embâreḥ. Day before yesterday, auwal embâreh. Day after to-morrow, ba‘deh bukra. — Days of the week, see Week.
  • Dead, maiyit.
  • Deaf, aḷrash.
  • Dear, ghâlî. That is very (too) dear, di ghâlî ketîr.
  • Deceitful, khâin, ḥarâmî.
  • Deep, ghamîḳ or ghawîṭ.
  • Delicate, tender, rafî‘.
  • Desert, gebel; khalâ. The Sahara, eṣ-Ṣaḥra.
  • Dialeet, laghweh.
  • Diarrhœa, ishâl.
  • Die. to, mât.
  • Difficult, ṣa‘b.
  • Dinner, see Evening.
  • Dirt, wasâkha or wasakh. Dirty, wisikh.
  • Dismount, to, nizil. We shall dismount here, ninzil hineh. Dismount (pl.), inzilû!
  • District, bilâd.
  • Do, to, ‘amal. He will do or he does, ya‘mil. Do not do it, mâ ta ‘milûsh!
  • Doctor, ḥakîm, pl. ḥukama.
  • Dog, kalb, pl. kilâb.
  • Donkey, ḥomâr, pl. ḥamîr. Donkey-boy, ḥammâr.
  • Door, Gate, bâb, pl. bîbân.
  • Doorkeeper, Concierge, bauwâb.
  • Dragoman, turgumân (see p. xxv).
  • Drink, to, shirib. Pres.: ashrab, lishrab, etc. Drink coffee, ishrab ḳahwa! Why dost thou drink nothing, ‘ashshân ei mâ betishrabshi ḥâga?
  • Driver, see Cabman.
  • Dry, nâshif or yâbis.
  • Duck, baṭṭa, pl. baṭṭ.
  • Dyer, sabbâgh.
  • Each (noun), kulli wâḥid; fem., kulli waḥdeh. Each man, kull insân. Each town, kulli medîneh.
  • Ear, widn.
  • Early, badrî.
  • Earth, ard.
  • East, sharḳ Eastern, sharḳî.
  • Eat, to, akal. I ate or thou atest, kalt. I wish to eat, biddî âkul. We wish to eat, biddinâ nâkul. Eat, kul!
  • Egg, beiḍa, pl. beiḍ. Boiled eggs, beiḍ maslûḳ. Baked eggs, beiḍ maḳlî.
  • Egypt, (bilâd) maṣr. Egyptian, maṣrî.
  • Embankment, gisr.
  • Empty, fâḍî.
  • England, Bilâd el-Ingliz. Englishman, inglîzî.
  • Enough, kifâyeh; bass; bizyâdeh.
  • Entrance, dukhûl.
  • Envelope, ẓarf. pl. ẓurûf.
  • Europe, Bilâd el-Afrang. European, afrangî, pl. ferang, afrank.
  • Evening, ‘ashîya; evening-meal (i.e. dinner) ‘ashâ.
  • Eye, ‘ein; the eyes (dual), el-‘einein. My eyes, ‘eineiya. Eye-drops (medicine), ḳaṭreh.
  • Face, wishsh.
  • Faithful, amîn.
  • Fall, to. I have fallen, wiḳi‘t. Do not fall, mâ tûḳa‘sh.
  • Far, ba‘îd. How far is it from here to …? Ḳaddi ei ba‘îd min hineh lî?
  • Father, ab, but before suffixes and genitives abû; e.g. abû Ḥasan, father of Hassan.
  • Fatherland, waṭan.
  • Fear, to, khâf. Do not fear, mâ tekhafsh. I was afraid of him, khufteh minnuh.
  • Feather, rîsha.
  • Fee, ugra; kireh.
  • Fellow, gada‘, pl. gid‘ân.
  • Festival, ‘îd; festival of a saint, mûlid.
  • Fever, ḥimma; sikhûna.
  • Field, gheiḷ.
  • Figs, tîn.
  • Filter, zîr, pl. azyâr.
  • Find, to, laḳâ. I can't find him, mâ alḳâhsh.
  • Fire, nâr. Conflagration, ḥarîḳa.
  • Fish, samaka, pl. samak.
  • Flag, bandeira.
  • Flea, barghût, pl. barâghît.
  • Flower, zahr, pl. ashâr.
  • Fly, dubbâna, pl. dubbân.
  • Fog, shâbûra.
  • Food, akl. Bring the dinner, gîb el-akl. Take the dinner away, shîl el-akl.
  • Foot, rigl (also Leg). The feet (dual), er-riglein. His feet, rigleih.
  • For (prep.), ‘alashân.
  • Forbidden, mamnû‘. Entrance forbidden (i.e. no admission), ed-dukhûl mamnû‘. — Forbidden by religion, ḥarâm; e.g. Wine is a thing forbidden by God, en-nebîd ḥarâm. (A thing permitted by religion is called ḥalâl.)
  • Foreign, gharîb.
  • Forget, to, nisî. Do not forget, mâ tinsâsh.
  • Fork, shôka.
  • Fortress, ḳal a.
  • Fountain, sebîl (a pious foundation).
  • Fowl, farkha, pl. firâkh. In Upper Egypt farkha means a young pigeon. Cock, dîk, pl. diyûk; chicken, katkût, pl. katâkît.
  • France, Feransa. Frenchman, feransâwî.
  • Freight, nâulûn.
  • Fresh, tâza.
  • Friend, ḥabîb or ṣâḥib, pl. ḥabâib, aṣḥâb.
  • Fruit, fakha; pl. fawâkih.
  • Garden, geneina, pl. geneinât. Gardener, genâinî.
  • Garlic, tûm.
  • Gate, bâb, pl. bîbân.
  • Gazelle, ghazâl, pl. ghuzlân.
  • Germany, Almânia. German, almânî. The German language, el-lisân en-nimsâwî.
  • Gift, baḳshîsh (also reward).
  • Girl, bint, pl. banât.
  • Give, to, adâ. She gave, adet. I gave, adeit. He gives or will give, yidî. I give or shall give, adî. I give thee five, adîlak khamsa. Give me the money, hât el-fulûs (hât give).
  • Glass, ḳizâz. Drinking-glass, ḳubbâyeh, pl. ḳubbâyât.
  • Go, to, râḥ. Go, rûḥ! I went out, ruḥt. Whither is he gone, hûwa raḥ fein? Go on, yallah. Does this train go to Cairo, el-ḳaṭr di râiḥ ‘ala maṣr? See Start and Travel.
  • Gold, dahab. Goldsmith, gôhargî.
  • Good, ṭaiyib.
  • Goods, buḍâ‘a.
  • Goose, wizzeh, pl. wizz.
  • Grapes, ‘inab.
  • Gratuity, baḳshîsh.
  • Grave (tomb), turba, pl. turab.
  • Grease, semn.
  • Great, see Large.
  • Greece, Rûm; Bilâd er-Rûm. Greek, rûmî, pl. arwâm.
  • Green, akhḍar.
  • Greeting, salâm (see also p. xlv).
  • Guide, to. Guide me, waddînî or khudnî. Unless thou guidest me alone I shall give thee nothing, tewaddînî (or tâkhudnî) waḥdî, walla mâ badîksheh ḥâga.
  • Gun (musket), bunduḳîyeh.
  • Gunpowder, bârûd.
  • Hair, sha‘r. A single hair, sha‘ra.
  • Half, nuṣṣ
  • Halt, ûḳaf or ‘andak! He halted, wiḳif. We shall halt, nûḳaf. See also Dismount.
  • Hammer, shâkûsh.
  • Hand, îd or yadd. The hands (dual), el-îdein. Her hands, îdeiha. Right hand, on the right, ‘alyemîn. Left hand, on the left, ‘ashshimâl.
  • Happen, to, see News.
  • Harbour, mîna.
  • Hasten, to, ista‘gil. Hasten (pl.),
  • Hat, burneiṭa. ista‘gilû!
  • Have (to) is expressed with the aid of the preposition ‘and or lî; e.g., I have a dog (with me is a dog) ‘andî kalb, or lîya kalb. See p. xxx.
  • Head, râs, pl. rûs.
  • Healthy, salîm; ṣâgh salim; ṭaiyib; biṣ-ṣaḥḥa; mabsûṭ (mabsûṭ means also contented).
  • Hear, to, simi‘. He will hear, yisma‘. Hear (listen), isma‘!
  • Heavy, teḳîl.
  • Help, to, sâ‘id; yisâ‘id.
  • Here, hineh (heneh). Come here, ta‘âla (fem., ta‘âlî) hinch. Go away from here, rûḥ min hinch.
  • High, ‘âlî.
  • Hill, tell, pl. tulûl.
  • Hire, ugra.
  • Hold, to, misik. Hold the stirrup, imsik er-rikâb.
  • Home, beit, waṭan. Is the master at home, el-khawâga gûwa?
  • Honest, amîn.
  • Honey, ‘asal.
  • Horse, ḥoṣân, pl. kheil.
  • Horseshoe, na‘l.
  • Hospital, isbitâliya.
  • Hot, sukhn (of food, liquids, etc.), ḥarr (of weather). It is hot, ed-dunya ḥarr.
  • Hotel, lôkanda. — Which is the way to the hotel? sikket el-lôkanda min cin?
  • Hour, sâ‘a, pl. sâ‘ât. Two hours, sâ‘atein; three hours, lalâtch sâ‘ât. To hire (a cab) by the hour, bis-sâ‘a.
  • House, beit, pl. biyût.
  • How? izaïy? How much, kâm? For how much, bikâm? How many hours, kâm sâ‘a?
  • Hungry, ga‘ân.
  • Hut, ‘ishsha, pl. ‘ishash.
  • Ice, telg (also snow).
  • Ill, ‘aiyân; marîd. Illness, ‘aiya; maraḍ.
  • Immediately, ḥâlan.
  • In, within, gûwa.
  • Interpreter, turgumân.
  • Intoxicated, sakrân.
  • Invoice, fatûra.
  • Iron, ḥadîd.
  • Island, gezîreh, pl. gezâir.
  • Italy, Itâlya. Italian, lalyânî.
  • Jew, yahûdî, pl. yahûd.
  • Journey, to, sâfir. See Start.
  • Judge, ḳâḍi.
  • Jug, ibrîḳ
  • Key, muftâḥ, pl. mafâtîḥ.
  • Khedive, efendînâ (lit. ‘our lord’).
  • Kill, to, mauwit. I have killed him, mauwittuh. Kill him, mauwituh.
  • Kindle, to, walla‘. He has kindled the fire (or kindle the fire), walla‘ en-nâr.
  • Knife, sikkîneh, pl. sakâkîn. Pen-knife, maṭwa.
  • Knock, to, khabbaṭ
  • Know, to, ‘irif. I know him,
  • ba‘rafuh. I do not know thee, mâ ba‘rafaksh.
  • Lady, sitt, pl. sittât.
  • Lake (or pond), birkeh, pl. birak.
  • Lame, a‘rag.
  • Lamp, lamba, pl. lambât.
  • Land, barr.
  • Lane, ḥâra.
  • Language, lisân; lugha.
  • Lantern, fânûs, pl. fawânîs.
  • Large, kebîr; ‘aẓîm.
  • Late, wakhrî. Thou art late, it-akhkhart. Do not be late, mâ tit'akhkharsh. Later, afterwards, ba‘dein.
  • Laugh, to, ḍiḥik. Do not laugh, mâ tiḍḥaksh.
  • Lay, to, lay down, to, ḥaṭṭ Lay the book there, ḥuṭṭ el-kitâb hinâk. I have laid it down, ḥaṭṭeituh. I have not laid it down, ma ḥaṭṭeitûsh.
  • Lazy, kaslân.
  • Lead, ruṣâṣ Lead-pencil, ḳalam ruṣâṣ
  • Leave, to, tarak; yitruk. — Leave me (in peace), khallînî!
  • Left, shimâl. Go to the left, rûḥ ashshimâlak.
  • Leg, see Foot.
  • Lemon, lamûna, pl. lamûn.
  • Letter, gawâb, pl. gawâbât. Registered, mesôgal or mesôkar. Are there any letters for me, fîh gawâbât ‘ashshânî?
  • Lie, to, kidib. Thou hast lied, inta kidibt.
  • Lie down, to (to go to sleep), raḳad. He is lying down, yurḳud. Lie down, urḳud.
  • Light, nûr, pl. anwâr. — A light (glowing embers) for a cigarette is asked for in a café with the word baṣṣa or wil'a.
  • Light, to, nauwar.
  • Like. I should like, etc., see Wish.
  • Little (adj.), ṣughaiyar. Little (adv.), shuwaiyeh or shwaiyeh (also too little).
  • Load, to (a horse). Load up, shiddû! Have you loaded (the pack-animals), shaddeitû?
  • Loaf, raghîf, pl. arghifeh.
  • Lock (of a door), kâlûn, pl. kawâlîn. Padlock, ḳifl, pl. aḳfâl.
  • Locomotive, wâbûr or bâbûr.
  • London, Londra.
  • Long, ṭawîl.
  • Look for, to, see Seek.
  • Loosen, to, ḥall. Thou must loosen the rein, lâzim teḥill es-seir.
  • Lose, to, ḍaiya‘. I have lost my book, ḍaiya‘tch kitâbî. He will lose it, yeḍaiya‘uh.
  • Louse, ḳamla, pl. ḳaml.
  • Low, wâṭi.
  • Lower, see Below. The lower road, eṭ-ṭarîḳ el-taḥtânî.
  • Luggage, ‘afsh. Luggage-ticket, bôlîṣa.
  • Luncheon, see Midday.
  • Mad, magnûn. Madhouse, muristûn.
  • Malodorous, nitin.
  • Make, to, amal.
  • Man. râgil, pl. rigâleh. Human being, insân, pl. nâs (people) or benî âdam (the sons of Adam).
  • Market or Bazaar, sûḳ, pl. aswâḳ
  • Marriage, marriage - feast, faraḥ.
  • Mat, straw-mat, ḥaṣîra, pl. ḥuṣr.
  • Match (light), kebrîta. pl. kebrît.
  • Matter, to. That matters nothing to me (thee), ana mâ-lî (inta mâlak). What does that matter to me, we'ana mâ-lî? That does not matter (I hope it does not matter), mâ ‘aleish.
  • Meat, laḥm.
  • Medicine, dawa. (Peruvian bark, kîna; quinine, malḥ el-kîna; opium, afiûn.)
  • Melons. Musk-melons, shammâm. Water-melons, baṭṭîkh.
  • Midday, ḍuhr. Midday meal (luncheon), ghadâ.
  • Middle, wusṭ.
  • Midnight, nuṣṣ el-leil.
  • Milk, laban. Sweet milk, ḥalîb or laban ḥalîb. Sour milk, laban ḥâmiḍ.
  • Minaret, mâdna, pl. ma'âdin.
  • Minute, daḳîḳa, pl. daḳâyiḳ
  • Mist, see Fog.
  • Mistake, ghalaṭ.
  • Mohammedan, muslim, pl. muslimîn.
  • Moisture, ruṭûba.
  • Money, fulûs. I have no money, mâ ‘andîsh fulûs. Money-changer, ṣarrâf.
  • Month, see below.
  • Moon, ḳamar. New moon, hilâl. Full moon, bedr.
  • More, aktar. More than 100 pias tres, aktar min mît ḳirsh. One more, kamân wâḥid, gheir. Still more, kamân.
  • Morning. Early morning, ṣubḥ or ṣabâḥ. Forenoon, ḍaḥâ.
  • Mosque, gâmi‘, pl. gawâmi‘.
  • Mosquito, nâmûsa, pl. nâmûs.
  • Mother, umm.
  • Mount (a horse), to, rikib, pres. yirkab. We have mounted, rikibnâ.
  • Mountain, gebel, pl. gibâl (also a mountain-chain).
  • Moustache, shanab.
  • Mouth, fumm.
  • Much, too much, very, ketir.
  • Name, ism, pl. asâmi. What is thy name, ismak ei? My name
Month, shahr; 2 months, shahrein; 3 months, tatat ushhur. — Instead of the Arabic names of the months used in Syria, the Egyptians employ the Coptic (ancient Egyptian) names of the solar months, which, however, are always about nine days behind the European months. Each Coptic month has thirty days, and in order to complete the year five or six intercalary days are added at the end (in the beginning of September). The European names, however, are gradually coming into general use.:
English January February March April May June
European yenâyir febrâyir mares abrîl mâyo yûnia
Coptic ṭûba amshir baramhât barmûdeh bashens baûna
English July August September October November December
European yûlia aghosṭos september oktôber nôfember desember
Coptic ebîb misra tût bâba hatûr kiyâk
The intercalary days (see above) are called aiyâm en-nesî.
The MOSLEM months form a lunar year only (comp. p. xcv). Their names are: Moḥarrem, Ṣafar, Rabî‘ Auwil, Rabî‘ el-Tâni, Gemâd Auwil, Gemâd Tânî, Regeb, Sha‘bân, Ramaḍân (month of the fast), Shauwâl, Dhul-Ḳi‘deh, Dhul-Ḥiggeh (month of the pilgrimage).
  • is Hassan, ismî Ḥasan. What is the name of that in Arabic, ismeh di ei bil-‘arabî?
  • Napkin, fûṭa.
  • Native, ibn el-beled.
  • Narrow, ḍaiyile.
  • Near, ḳuraiyib.
  • Necessary, lâzim. It is necessary that I seize him, lâzim amsikuh. Unnecessary, mush lâzim.
  • Neighbour, gâr, pl. gîrân.
  • Neighbourhood, bilâd.
  • Never, abadan, with the negative of verbs, e.g. I never smoke, ana mâ ashrabsh ed-dukhkhân abadan (lit. I never drink tobacco).
  • New, gedîd.
  • News, khabar. What has happened, khabar ei?
  • Night, leil. By night, bil-leil; midnight, nuṣṣ el-lei.
  • Nile, bahr en-Nîl or simply el-baḥr.
  • Nilometer, mikyâs.
  • No. lâ. No, I will not, lâ, mush âuz (‘âuza, if a woman speaks).
  • Noon, ḍuhr.
  • North, northern, baḥarî.
  • Nose, manâkhîr.
  • Not, mush or mâ-sh (see p. xxxi).
  • Nothing. There is nothing, mâ fîsh. What dost thou wish? Nothing (answer), biddak ei? Walla ḥâga or shei.
  • Now, dilwaḳt.
  • Nubia, Bilâd el-Barâbra.
  • Number, nimra.
  • Oasis, wâḥ
  • Obelisk, misalla.
  • O'clock. What o'clock is it, es-sâ‘a kâm? It is 3 o'clock, es-sâ‘a talâteh. It is½ past 4, es-sâ‘a arba‘u nuss. It is¼ to 5, es-sâ‘a khamseh illa rub’. About 8 o'clock, naḥœ es-sâ‘a tamânyeh.
  • Often, ketîr, marrât ketîr.
  • Oil, zeit.
  • Old. An old castle, ḳaṣr ḳadîm (or ḳaṣr ‘atîḳ). An old man, râgil kebîr or ‘ayûz.
  • Olives, zeitûn.
  • On, see Concerning.
  • On (interjec.), yallah!
  • Onion, baṣala, pl. baṣal.
  • Only, bass.
  • Open, to, fataḥ. Open thy box, iftaḥ ṣandûḳak!
  • Oranges, burtuḳân.
  • Ostrich, na‘âmeh, pl. na‘âm.
  • Otherwise, walla.
  • Out, outside, barra. Out (prep.), min.
  • Out, to go. He went out, ṭili. He will go out, yiṭla‘ (with or without barra).
  • Ox, ṭôr, pl. ṭîrân.
  • Pack, to, ḥazam.
  • Pain, waga‘.
  • Paper, waraḳ.
  • para, faḍḍa; pl. the same.
  • Parasol, shemsîyeh.
  • Parents, wâlidein or ab u umm (lit. father and mother).
  • Passport, bassaborṭo. Here is my passport, âho el-bassaborṭo betâ‘i.
  • Pay, to, dafa‘. Thou hast not yet paid, lissa mâ dafa‘tish. I shall pay, ‘âwiz adfâ‘.
  • Peach, khôkha, pl. khôkh.
  • Pen, rîsha. Penholder, ḳalam.
  • Pepper, filfil.
  • Perhaps, balki; yimkin.
  • Physician, ḥakîm, pl, ḥukama.
  • Piastre, ḳirsh, pl. ḳurûsh.
  • Pig, khanzîr, pl. khanâzîr.
  • Pigeon, ḥamâma, pl. ḥamâm.
  • Pilgrim (to Mecca), ḥagg, pl. ḥiggâg.
  • Pistachios, fistuḳ.
  • Place, to, see Lay.
  • Plate, ṣaḥn, pl. ṣuḥûn.
  • Please, min faḍlak!
  • Please, to. It does not please me, mâ yi‘gibnîsh.
  • Plums, barḳûḳ.
  • Pocket, geib.
  • Poison, simm.
  • Policeman, bolîṣ or shauwîsh. Police, bolîṣ.
  • Pomegranate, rummân.
  • Pond (or lake), birkeh, pl. birak.
  • Poor, faḳîr, maskîn, pl. fuḳara, masâkîn.
  • Port (harbour), mîna.
  • Porter, ḥammâl or shaiyâl; pl. ḥammâlîn, shaiyâlîn.
  • Postage-stamp, waraḳat buṣṭa, pl. waraḳ.
  • Post-office, buṣṭa.
  • Pot, ḳidra, pl. ḳidar.
  • Poultry, firâkh. See Fowl.
  • Prayer, ṣalâ, pl. ṣalâwât. Caller to prayer, mu‘eddin.
  • Pretty, kwaiyis; gamît.
  • Previously, ḳabt.
  • Privy, kanîf, beit er-râḥa. Where is the privy? el-kanîf fein?
  • Promontory, râs.
  • Prophet, nabî or (applied to Mohammed) rasût.
  • Pulpit, minbar or manbar.
  • Put, to. Put it here, gîbuh. Put it above, ṭalla‘uh. Put it below, nazziluh. See Send, Lay.
  • Pyramid, háram, pl. ahrâm.
  • Quarrel, khinâka.
  • Question, su‘âl.
  • Quick, ḳawâm; as an exclamation, yallah!
  • Railway, es-sikkeh el-ḥadîd. Railway station, maḥaṭṭa. Station-master, nâẓir maḥaṭṭa. Railway - train, ḳaṭr. Goods - train ḳaṭr el-buḍâ‘a. Railway - carriage, ‘arabîyeh.
  • Rain, naṭar.
  • Razor, mûs. [ḥaḍirîn.
  • Ready, ḥâḍir. We are ready, iḥna
  • Receipt (for a bill), waṣt.
  • Red, aḥmar.
  • Reliable, faithful, amîn.
  • Religion, dîn.
  • Remain, to, fiḍil. How long (i.e. how many days) wilt thou remain here? tifḍal hinch kâm yôm?
  • Rest, to, istiraiyaḥ. I have rested, istiraiyaḥt. I wish to rest for half-an-hour, biddî astiraiyaḥ nuṣṣi sâ‘a.
  • Revolver, fard.
  • Rice, ruzz.
  • Rich, ghani.
  • Ride, to. Wilt thou ride, biddak tirkab? See also Mount.
  • Right, yemîn. Turn to the right, rûḥ ‘alyemînak.
  • Rise, to, ḳâm. Rise up, ḳûm.
  • Road, see Street.
  • Roast, to, shawâ. I have roasted the meat, shaweit el-laḥm. Roasted, mashwî. — Roast meat, rosto.
  • Robber, ḥarâmî, pl. ḥarâmîyeh.
  • Roof, saṭḥ, pl. suṭûḥ.
  • Room, ôḍa, pl. uwaḍ.
  • Rope, ḥabl, pl. ḥebâl.
  • Ruin, kharâbeh, khirbeh. Ruined temple, birbeh.
  • Run, to, garâ. Run, igrî!
  • Russia, Bilâd el-Moskôb. Russian (noun or adj.), miskôbî.
  • Saddle, sarg, pl. surûg. Pack-saddle, barda‘a, pl. barâdî‘ Saddler, surûgî. Saddle-bag. khurg.
  • Sailor, baḥrî, pl. baḥrîyeh. River-boatman, marâkbî.
  • Salt, matḥ.
  • Sand, raml.
  • Satisfied, shab‘ân.
  • Say, to, ḳâl. Say to him he must come, ḳûl luh yigî.
  • Scholar (savant), ‘âlim, pl. ‘ulamâ.
  • School. Elementary school, kuttâb. Secondary school, medresch,

    pl. madâris. — Schoolmaster, khôga; fikî (of a kuttâb).
  • Scissors, maḳaṣṣ.
  • Scorpion, ‘aḳraba, pl. ‘aḳârib.
  • Sea, baḥr.
  • See, to, to look, shâf. We saw the Khedive, shufnâ efendînâ. Do you not see him, mâ teshûfûhsh?
  • Seek, to, dauwar. I have been looking for thee all day, dauwarteh ‘aleik ṭût en-nahâr.
  • Send, to, to forward. Send the luggage, off, khud el-‘afsh or waddî el-‘afsh.
  • Serpent, ta‘bân, pl. ta‘âbîn; ḥaiyeh, pl. ḥaiyât.
  • Servant, khaddâm, pl. khaddâmîn.
  • Set, to, see Lay.
  • Shave, to, ḥalaḳ.
  • Sheep, kharûf (mase.), na‘ga (fem.), ghanam (plur.).
  • Ship, markib, pl. marâkib. Steamship, wâbûr or bâbûr.
  • Shirt, ḳamîṣ.
  • Shoe (i.e. oriental shoe with turned up toes), markûb, pl. marâkîb.
  • Shoot, to, ḍarab (i. e. to beat), if necessary with the addition birruṣâṣ, i.e. with the lead.
  • Short, ḳuṣaiyar.
  • Show, to, warrâ. Show me the way, warînî es-sikkeh.
  • Shut, to, ḳafal. Shut the door, iḳfil el-bâb. The door is shut, el-bâb maḳfûl.
  • Silent, to be, sikit. Be silent, uskut.
  • Silk, ḥarîr.
  • Silver, faḍḍa.
  • Sing, to, ghannâ. He will sing, yeghannî. Sing, ghannî.
  • Singly (one after the other), wâḥid wâḥid (masc.); waḥdeh waḥdeh (fem.).
  • Sir, khawâga (for Europeans) or efendi (for Orientals).
  • Sister, ukhl, pl. ukhwâl.
  • Sit, to, ḳa‘ad. Sit (take a seat), uḳ‘ud.
  • Sky, samâ.
  • Sleep, to, nâm. I slept, nimt. He sleeps, binâm. Sleep (imperat. pl.), nâmû! I cannot sleep, mâ baḳdarsh anâm. To go to sleep, see Lie down.
  • Slippers, bantuflî.
  • Slowly. Go slowly, shwaiyeh shwaiyeh, or ‘ala mahlak.
  • Small, ṣughaiyar.
  • Smoke tobacco, to, shirib (lit. drink) ed-dukhkhân. Comp. Never.
  • Snow, ice, tely.
  • So, kideh.
  • Soap, ṣâbûn.
  • Sofa, dîwân.
  • Soldier, ‘askarî, pl. ‘askarîyeh. Soldiery, ‘askar.
  • Son, ibn or walad, pl. ûlûd.
  • Sort, gins. Give me some of this sort, iddînî min el-ginseh di.
  • Soup, shurba.
  • Sour, ḥâmiḍ.
  • South, southern, ḳiblî.
  • Speak, to, itkallim. Dost thou speak Arabic, titkallim ‘arabî?
  • Spoon, ma‘laḳa, pl. ma‘âliḳ.
  • Spring (of water), ‘ain, pl. ‘iyûn.
  • Spring (season), rabî‘.
  • Square (in a town), mîdân.
  • Star, nigmeh, pl. nugûm. Falling star, nigmeh zâriḳ.
  • Start (on a journey), to, sâfir. When will you start, tesâfirû imta? We will start to-morrow morning, nesâfir bukra badrî (at sunrise, ma‘ash-shems; an hour before sunrise, sâ‘a ḳabl esh-shems). When does the steamer start, el-bâbûr yesâfir imta?
  • Stay, to, see Remain.
  • Steam boat, bâbûr el-baḥr or wâbûr el-baḥr. El-baḥr is frequently omitted.
  • Stick, ‘aṣâya, pl. ‘aṣâyât.
  • Still. Still more, kamân. Still another, kamân wâḥid, gheir.
  • Stirrup, rikâb, pl. rikâbât.
  • Stone, ḥagar, pl. ḥegâra. Stone (of a fruit), naḳâya.
  • Stop, to, see Halt.
  • Straight on, dughri.
  • Street or road, ṭarîḳ; derb, darb; sikkeh. Main street (of a town) shâri‘ (comp. p. 35).
  • Strike, to, see Beat.
  • Strong, shedîd (also violent).
  • Stupid, balîd. See Clumsy.
  • Sugar, sukkar. Coffee with sugar, ḳahwa bis-sukkar. Coffee without sugar, ḳahwa mingheir sukkar or sâdeh.
  • Summer, ṣeif.
  • Sun, shems (or sems). Sunrise, ṭulû‘ esh-shems. Sunset, maghreb. Sunstroke; he has had a sunstroke, esh-shems ḍarbetuh.
  • Sunshade, shemsîyeh.
  • Sweep out, to, kanas. I have swept out the room, kanast el-ôḍa Sweep the room, uknus el-ôḍa.
  • Sweet, ḥelu.
  • Syria, Esh-Shâm. Syrian (noun or adj.), shâmî.
  • Table, sufra; ṭarabeiza.
  • Tailor, khaiyât.
  • Take, to, khad. Take, khud! He takes or will take, yâkhud.
  • Take away, to, shât. Take it away (or up), shîluh!
  • Taste, to. Taste the soup, dûḳ esh-shurba.
  • Tea, shây.
  • Teacher, mu‘allim. See also Schoolmaster.
  • Telegraph, teleghrâf (also telegram). Telegraph-wire, sîlk. Telegraph-official, teleghrâfgî. I wish to telegraph, ana biddi aḍrub teleghrâf.
  • Telescope, naḍḍâra.
  • Temple-ruin, birbeh.
  • Tent, kheima, pl. khiyam. Tent-pole, ‘amûd. Tent-peg, watad.
  • Thanks, thank you, kattar kheirak.
  • There, hinâk. There he is, âhú! There she is, âhí! Is there any bread there, fih ‘eish? There is none, mâ fîsh.
  • Thing, ḥâga, shei.
  • Thirsty, ‘aṭshûn.
  • Ticket, tezkereh, pl. tazûker.
  • Tie, to, rabaṭ. I have tied, rabaṭt. Tie it, urbuṭuh! He (it) is tied (on), marbûṭ.
  • Time, wakt. See O'clock and Hour.
  • Tired, ta‘bân.
  • Tobacco, dukhkhân. Water-pipe, shîsheh. See Smoke.
  • To-day, en-nahâr-di (nahâr = day).
  • To-morrow, bukra.
  • Tongue, lisân.
  • Too much, very, ketîr. Too little, shuwaiyeh or shwaiyeh.
  • Tooth, sinn, pl. isnân.
  • Towel, fûṭa‘ (also table-napkin).
  • Town, medîneh, pl. mudun. Quarter of a town, ḥâra.
  • Travel (to) is expressed by the word for go, with the addition of bil-‘arabîyeh, by carriage; bil-felûka, by boat; bil-markib, by ship, etc.
  • Travelling-bag, see Box, Saddle-bag.
  • Tree, shagara, pl. ashgâr (also shrub).
  • Trousers (European), banṭalûn. See Clothes.
  • True, ṣaḥîḥ.
  • Turkey, Turkîya, Turk, Turkish, turkî.
  • Ugly, wiḥish.
  • Uncle, amm (paternal); khâl (maternal).
  • Understand, to, fihim. I have understood thee, fihimtak. I do not understand, mânîsh fâhim.
  • Untruthful, kaddâb.
  • Upper. The upper route, eṭ-ṭarîḳ el-fôḳânî.
  • Use, to be of, nafa‘. It is no use, mâ yinfa‘sh.
  • Vainly, in vain, balâsh.
  • Valley, wâdî (wâdi).
  • Very, ketîr; ḳawî; khâliṣ.
  • Village, beled, pl. bilâd. Village headman, sheikh el-beled.
  • Vinegar, khall.
  • Violent, shedîd.
  • Visit, ziyâra.
  • Wages, ugra, kireh. Monthly wages, shahrîyeh, mâhîyeh.
  • Wait, to, istannâ. Wait a little, islannâ shwaiyeh. Why didst thou not wait, ‘ashshân ei mâ ‘stanneitsh?
  • Waiter, sufragî.
  • War, ḥarb.
  • Wash, to, ghasal. I wish to wash my hands, biddî aghsil îdeiya. Wash my clothes, ighsil hudûmî. The washing, ghasîl. How much does the washing cost, taman el-ghasîl kâm? Washerman, ghassâl. Washerwoman, ghassâla.
  • Watch, sâ‘a, pl. sâ‘ât.
  • Watchmaker, sâ‘âtî.
  • Watchman, ghafîr, pl. ghufara.
  • Water, maiyeh. Is there any water here? fîh maiyeh hineh?
  • Water-closet, see Privy.
  • Weak, ḍa‘îf.
  • Weather, hawâ (also atmosphere and wind).
  • Week, gum‘a. Fortnight (2 weeks), gum‘atein. Three weeks, talâteh gum‘ât. — Days of the week: Sun., yôm el-ḥadd; Mon., yôm el-itnein; Tues., yôm et-talât; Wed., yôm el-arba‘; Thurs., yôm el-khamîs; Frid., yôm el-gum‘a; Sat., yôm es-sabt. Yôm (day) is frequently omitted.
  • Well, bîr, pl. abyâr. Public fountain, sebîl.
  • West, gharb. Western, gharbî.
  • Wet, mablûl.
  • When, imta?
  • Whence, min ein? Whence comest thou, inta gâi (fem., intî gâyeh) min ein?
  • Where, fein? Where is he, hûwa fein?
  • Whip, kurbâg; sôṭ.
  • White, abyaḍ.
  • Whither, fein? Whither goest thou, inta râiḥ (fem., intî râiḥa) fein?
  • Why, lei? minshân ei? ‘alashân (‘ashshân) ei?
  • Wide, wâsi‘.
  • Wind, hawâ; rîḥ. Hot wind, khamâsîn; samûm.
  • Window, shibbâk, pl. shebâhîk.
  • Wine, nebîd.
  • Winter, shita.
  • Wish or to wish, ṭalab. What dost thou wish, ṭalabak ei? To wish is also expressed by bidd, a wish, with suffixes (p. xxx). I wish to go, biddî arûḥ. Dost thou wish to go, biddak terûḥ?
  • With, wîyâ, ma‘. Come with me, ta‘âla wîyâya.
  • Within, gûwa.
  • Without (prep.), min gheir.
  • Woman, mar‘a or ḥurmeh; pl. ḥarîm or niswân.
  • Wood (substance), khashab.
  • Work, shughl. Work, ishtaghal!
  • Write, to, katab. He will write yiktib. Write what I tell thee, iktib illî aḳûllak.
  • Year, sana. Two years, sanatein. Three years. talâteh sinîn. This year, es-sanâ-di. Last year, ‘âmenauwil.
  • Yellow, aṣfar.
  • Yes, aïwa. Certainly, na‘am.
  • Yesterday, embâreḥ.
  • Yet, lissa. He has not yet arrived, lissa mâ gâsh.
  • Young, ṣughaiyar.
SALUTATIONS AND PHRASES. Health (peace) be with you. Essalâmu ‘aleikum. Answer: And with you be peace and God's mercy and blessing. U ‘aleikum es-salâm warahmet Allâh wabarakâtuh. These greetings are used by Moslems to each other. A Moslem greets a Christian with — Thy day be happy. Nahârak sa‘îd. Answer: Thy day be happy and blessed. Nahârak sa‘îd wemubârak (umbârak). Thy day be white as milk. Nahârak leben.
Good morning. Sabâhkum bil-kheir, or sabâh el-kheir. Answer: God grant you a good morning. Allâh yisabbehkum bil-kheir.
Good evening. Mesâkum bil-kheir, or mesîkum bil-kheir; Answer: God vouchsafe you a good evening. Allâh yimessîkum bil-kheir; or messâkum Allâh bil-kheir. — May thy night be happy. Leitt sa‘îdeh. Answer: Leittak sa‘îdeh wemubâraka (wumbarka).
On visiting or meeting a person, the first question after the usual salutations is: How is thy health? Izaïyak, or keif hâlak (keif keifak), or eish hâlak? Thanks are first expressed for the inquiry: God bless thee; God preserve thee. Allâh yibârek fik; Allâ yihfazak Then follows the answer: Well, thank God. El-hamdu lillâh. — Beduins and peasants sometimes ask the same question a dozen times.
After a person has drunk it is usual for his friends to raise their hands to their heads and say: May it agree with thee, sir. Hanî'an, yâ sîdî. Answer: God grant it may agree with thee. Allâh yehannîk.
On handing anything to a person: Take it. Khud. Answer: God increase thy goods. Kattar Allâh kheirak, or kattar kheirak. Reply: And thy goods also. Ukheirak.
On leaving: In God's care! ‘Alallâh! or Fî amâni 'Uâh! Or, Now proceed with us. Yallah bina. To a person who is about to start on a journey: Peace be with thee. Ma' as-salâma. Answer: May God protect thee. Allâh yisallimak.
On the route: Welcome. Ahlan wa sahlan. or marḥaba. Answer: Twlce welcome. Marḥabtein.
I beg you (to enter, to eat, to take). Tafaḍḍal (tefaḍḍal, itfaḍḍal); fem. tafaḍḍalî (itfaḍḍalî); pl. tafaḍḍatû (tefaḍḍatû, itfaḍḍatû). — Wilt thou not join us (in eating)? Bismillâh (literally ‘in God's name’). Answer: May it agree with you, Bil-hanâ.
Take care; beware. U‘â; fem. û‘î.
I am under thy protection; save me. Fî‘arḍak. — My house is thy house. Beitî beitak. — If thou pleasest. I‘mil ma‘rûf.
What God pleases (‘happens’, understood). Mâshallâh (an exclamation of surprise). — As God pleases. Inshallâh. — By God. Wallâh, or wallâhi. — By thy head. Waḥyât râsak. — By the life of the prophet. Waḥyât en-nabî. — By the life of thy father. Waḥyât abûk. — Heavens! Yâ salâm!

xlvi

II. Geographical and Political Notes.

a. Area and Subdivisions of Egypt.

By Captain H. G. Lyons.
EGYPT proper, the country between the mouth of the Nile and the First Cataract, is a small region with well-defined natural boundaries on three sides. On the N. is the Mediterranean Sea, on the E. the Arabian Desert and the Red Sea, and on the W. the Libyan Desert. The S. boundary is not marked by any natural feature, and has therefore at all ages been liable to alteration. Its fluctuations to the N. and S. form a kind of standard of the political power of Egypt, and the causes of the variations involve a great part of Egyptian history from the most ancient times down to the present day.
Comp, the Map after the Index. — Further details on this subject are contained in a handy form in the Egyptian Government Almanac (comp. p. xcv).
When Mohammed Ali, the founder of the modern vassal kingdom of Egypt (comp. pp. cxx et seq.), died in 1849, he bequeathed to his successor a power extending far to the S. of the First Cataract and including not only the Nubian Valley of the Nile, with the Nubian desert-regions, but also the so-called Egyptian Sûdân (Bilâd es-Sûdân, ‘land of the blacks’), consisting of the districts of Tâka, Sennâr, and Kordofân. The Khedive Ismâ‘îl (p. cxxii) pushed his boundaries towards the S. until they comprised the whole course of the White Nile and the greater part of the basin of the Baḥr el-Ghazâi, and finally extended to about 2°N. latitude. But the rebellion of the Arab tribes that broke out in 1883 under the Mahdi (p. cxxiv) utterly destroyed the new Egyptian power on the White Nile and caused the frontier to be withdrawn to WCaCdi Ḥlfa. The campaigns of 1896-98 and the capture of Omdurmân (p. cxxv), however, finally united the Sûdân with Egypt, though under totally altered conditions. Thus Egypt strictly so called now includes the valley of the Nile up to a point 27 M. to the N. of Wadi Ḥalfa, the desert-strip along the Red Sea, the coast to the W. of Alexandria as far as the Gulf of Solum, the Libyan Desert with the five Oases, the greater part of the Sinai Penisula, and the region of El-‘Arish (comp. Baedeker's Palestine). Its extreme length is 640 M. (N. lat. 31°5′ to 22°), its breadth 596 M. (E. long. 25°2′ to 34°56′), and its area, inclusive of the deserts, ca. 400,000 sq. M. The area of Egypt proper, excluding the deserts, the oases, and the districts of El-‘Arîsh, Sinai, Maryûṭ, Mirsa Matrûḥ, Ed-Daba‘, and Ḳoṣeir, is about 12,000 sq. M. The Sûdàn, which begins on the Nile a little to the N. of Wâdi Ḥalfa and on the Red Sea at 22° N. lat., is under a special Anglo-Egyptian administration (comp. p. 415).
From the earliest times Egypt has been divided into two parts of very unequal size, known as Lower and Upper Egypt. The boundary between these is still, as in antiquity, to the S. of Cairo.

Upper Egypt, known as Eṣ-Ṣa‘îd, extends nominally to the First Cataract only, but now embraces in a political sense most of Lower Nubia (comp. p. 384). Politically Egypt is now divided into fourteen PROVINCES or Mûdîrîyeh. The provinces of Lower Egypt are: (1) Ḳalyûbîyeh (Qaliubia), at the head of the Delta, with Benha as its capital: (2) Sharḳîych (Sharqia), i.e. ‘the eastern’, with Zaḳâzîḳ as its capital; (3) Daḳahlîyeh (Daqahlia), with Manṣûra as its capital; (4) Menûfîyeh (Menufia), with Shibîn el - Kôm as its captial; (5) Gharbîyeh (Gharbia), i.e. ‘the western’, with Tanṭa as its capital; (6) Beḥeireh (Beheira), i.e. ‘of the lake’, with Damanhûr as its capital. The last includes the oasis of Sîweh. The following five governorates are presided over by governors (Moḥâfez) of their own, and are independent of the provincial administration: Cairo, Alexandria, Port Sa‘îd, Ismâ‘îlîyeh, and Suez. Sinai and El-‘Arîsh are administered by the War Office. The eight Upper Egyptian provinces are those of Gîzeh (Giza), Benisueif (Beni Suef), Faiyûm (Fayum), Minyeh (Minia; with the oases of Baḥrîyeh and Farâfra), Assiûṭ (with the oases of Dâkhleh and Khârgeh), Girgeh (Girga, capital, Sohâg), Ḳeneh (Qena), and Assuân (Aswan).
The chief official in every province is the Mûdîr or Governor. Each mûdir is assisted by a sub-mûdîr, a commandant of police, a sanitary inspector, and an engineer (for irrigation and buildings). The interior economy and the financial procedure are subject to investigation by European inspectors from the Ministries of the Interior and Finance, while others from the Ministry of Public Works and the Health Department control the technical work. The 14 provinces are subdivided into 84 districts, called Markaz, the chief officials of which (Ma'mûr) are directly subordinate to the mûdîr and have their official residence in the more important towns. The markaz, in their turn, are divided into Nâḥiyeh, or communes, which include, besides the chief village, hamlets, settlements of agricultural labourers (‘Ezbeh), and landed estates (Ab‘adîyeh). The ‘Omdeh, or chief magistrate of the commune, is directly responsible to the ma'mûr. In the larger communes the ‘omdeh is assisted by the Sheikh el-Beled, or mayor. The governorates are divided into quarters (Ḳism), each of which has its ma'mûr.
According to the census of 1907 the POPULATION of Egypt proper was 11,287,359, of whom 10,903,677 were settled natives, 97,381 were Beduins, and 286,301 were foreigners (147,220 Europeans including 20,653 British). The numbers of males and females were approximately equal. The settled population was distributed in 2 large cities (Cairo and Alexandria), 43 other towns with upwards of 10,000 inhab., and 3580 villages. The above figures show a population of 940 per sq. M. for Egypt proper, a density unequalled by any country in Europe (England and Wales 619, New York State 191, Saxony 830 per sq. M.). The total population in 1897 was 9,734,405, in 1882 it was 6,831,131.

b. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians.

By Professor G. Schweinfurth.

For thousands of years the banks of the Nile have been occupied by the Egyptians. Notwithstanding the interminable series of immigrations and other changes affecting the character of the inhabitants, the Egyptian type has always predominated with marvellous uniformity. As Egypt is said to be the ‘gift of the Nile’, so has the character of its inhabitants been apparently moulded by the influences of that river. No country in the world is so dependent on a river which traverses it as Egypt, and no river presents physical characteristics so exceptional as the Nile; so, too, there exists no race of people which possesses so marked and unchanging an individuality as the Egyptians. It is therefore most probable that this unvarying type is the product of the soil itself, and that the character of the peoples who settled at different periods on the bank of the Nile, whatever it may originally have been, has in due course of time been moulded to the same constant form by the mysterious influences of the river. In all countries, indeed, national characteristics are justly regarded as the natural outcome of soil and climate, and of this connection no country affords so strong an illustration as Egypt, with its sharply defined boundaries of sea and desert, and in its complete isolation from the rest of the world. This fidelity to type, which doubtless many other oriental races share with the Egyptians, is by no means in accordance with common theories as to the decline and degeneration of the Orient. These races seem to possess an innate capacity that is absent from Western nations — the capacity, namely, of permanently preserving the original type. In Egypt this tendency may be partly assisted by the universal practice of early marriages, by which the succession of generations is accelerated, while many children are born of parents still unaffected by any physical deterioration. Although the country has been at various periods overrun by Hyksos, Ethiopians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Turks, and although the people were tyrannized over, ill-treated, and in most cases compelled to intermarry with these foreigners, the Egyptians have for thousands of years retained the same unvarying physical types, while their character has been but slightly modified by the introduction of Christinaity and Mohammedanism. If it now be borne in mind that these foreigners generally invaded the country in the form of an army, that they formed but a small body compared with the bulk of the population, and that they either married native women or sought wives in other countries, it is obvious that they would either continue to exist for a time as a foreign caste, a condition apparently repugnant to nature and necessarily transient, or that they would gradually succumb to the never-failing influences of the soil and be absorbed in the great mass of the aboriginal inhabitants. An excellent illustration of this process is afforded by the Arabian invasion, with

the circumstances and results of which we are better acquainted than with the history of the other foreign immigrations; for, disregarding the Beduin tribes, who are entirely distinct from the Egyptian population, we now meet with genuine Arabs in the towns only, where the merchants, pilgrims, and other members of that people form a class entirely distinct from the natives, and one that is maintained only by means of reinforcements from abroad. Another proof of the transforming influences of the Egyptian climate is afforded by the uniform character of the domestic animals. The oxen, in particular, though they have often been repeatedly exterminated in a single century by murrain, and have been succeeded by foreign races from every quarter of the globe, almost invariably after a few generations assume the well-known Egyptian type with which the representations on the ancient temples render us so familiar.
There have been many hypotheses as to the origin of the Egyptians. In all probability the rise and development of that people followed essentially the same course as those of other great races, whose geographical positions exposed them to a similar variety of external influences. In the course of its history this people attained a characteristic development of its own; but we have to inquire as to the nature of the original prehistoric stock. In classical antiquity the Egyptians were considered to be of African origin, and Diodorus has given expression to this view by quoting a tradition of the Ethiopians, according to which the Egyptians were originally an Ethiopian colony, just as their country itself is a product of the Nile. But the Greeks and Romans knew little of Central Africa, and, more especially, they were acquainted with none of the peoples of the Nile district except those whom we now distinguish as Hamitic (proto-Semitic). The term Hamites or Hamitic races is used to distinguish that great ethnographic group of peoples which has, in the course of ages, altered the population of half Africa, ever pressing from E. to W. and driving out the primæval population before them. The final stage of this migration, which, like those of the horse and camel, falls partly within the historic period, was reached when the Hamites came in contact with the later Semitic races. When these Hamitic peoples began to find their way from Asia across the Red Sea into Africa, they no doubt pushed down the Nile, after subduing the primæval inhabitants of the river-valley. The Ethiopian tradition thus agrees with the Biblical, which describes Ham as the father of Mizraim and Cush — names under which the ancient Hebrews used to personify Egypt and Ethiopia.
The civilization and culture of the Egyptians have been successively affected by every race that has played a prominent part in W. Asia, from the ancient Babylonians to the modern Arabs and Turks. Maspero argues for a gradual infiltration from Libya also in the earlier epochs. But the Libyans were themselves Hamitic, no less than the Ethiopians who overtook them in their advance

westwards. Recent philologists (such as Reinisch) classify the Hamites from their linguistic characteristics as the prototype of the Semitic family, distinguished by more elementary, more primitive forms. It is universally assumed that both Hamites and Semites had their original home in Asia. At what period each hived off from the original common stock is veiled in prehistoric darkness. But it is clear that Asiatic influences must have affected the dwellers on the Nile even before the introduction of the art of tillage, while the valley of the Nile in Egypt was still populated by pastoral races — a conclusion based mainly on the origin of the domesticated on and of several other domestic animals. On the other hand the original ancestor of the Egyptian domesticated ass was peculiar to Africa, dwelling among the mountains and steppes to the S. of Egypt. In this fact we find an indication of the route followed by the Hamitic invaders of Egypt.
The beginning of anything like a regular political development in Egypt cannot be dated before the introduction of agriculture; most probably it began with the cultivation of wheat and barley, grains of which have been found among the remains in the most ancient Egyptian tombs, dating from before the earliest dynasty. The origin of both these cereals is indisputably Asiatic; their first home was in the valley of the Euphrates or in some more central region of the continent. Besides these grains the funeral offerings under the earliest dynasties included also linen, wine, and the produce of other cultivated plants, originally indigenous to W. Asia.
Some of the earliest ideal conceptions of the proto-Egyptians must likewise have been drawn from Asiatic sources, which, however, in this case are to be looked for farther to the S. in that continent. Not only the use of incense but also the sycamore and the persea, the two sacred trees in the Egyptian Pantheon, were known in Egypt from the very earliest period. But all these plants are exclusively indigenous to the mountainous regions of S. Arabia and the adjoining coasts of the Red Sea; they could have been derived from no other source. The use of incense is as ancient as the most ancient known religion. The tree called by the Greeks persea, and known to modern botanists as mimusops, flourished in the gardens of ancient Egypt; and the sycamore, which is now nowhere found in a wild state outside the regions mentioned above, is to be seen all over Egypt at the present day.
To sum up. The condition of the prehistoric dwellers in the Egyptian Nile valley may be described as the result of a union between the autochthonous inhabitants and the Hamitic tribes which, advancing from the Red Sea, entered the country from regions to the S. or S.E. of Upper Egypt. After a long interval of time’ the ancient dwellers on the Nile were subjected to new modifications, arising from the predatory attacks of a race that had attained a higher level of civilization. This latter race must have started from the

valley of the Euphrates, otherwise it would not have been able to introduce into Egypt, as it did, the knowledge of wheat and barley and the art of cultivating them with the plough, the knowledge of copper, bronze, and various metallurgical processes, and perhaps also a religious system of its own and even the art of writing. The net result of the whole historical process was Egyptian civilization as it existed under the Pharaohs.
Prof. G. Elliot Smith's study of the earliest remains has, however, led him to essentially different views on the origin of the Proto-Egyptians. Comp. his book mentioned on p. clxxxviii.
The chief peculiarity of the Egyptians is the remarkable closeness of their eyelashes on both lids, forming a dense, double, black fringe, which gives so animated an expression to their almond-shaped eyes. The very ancient and still existing custom of blackening the edges of the eyelids with antimony (‘koḥl’), which is said to serve a sanitary purpose, contributes to enhance this natural expression. The eyebrows are always straight and smooth, never bushy. The mouth is wide and thick-lipped, and very different from that of the Beduin or inhabitant of the oases. The high cheekbones, the receding forehead, the lowness of the bridge of the nose, which is always distinctly separated from the forehead, and the flatness of the nose itself, are the chief characteristics of the Egyptian skull; but, as the jaws project less than those of most of the other African coloured races, it has been assumed that the skull is Asiatic and not African in shape. The Egyptian peasantry have a much darker complexion than their compatriots in the towns, and their colour deepens as we proceed southwards, from the pale brown of the inhabitant of the Delta to the dark bronze hue of the Upper Egyptians. There is, however, a difference between the tint of the Nubians and that of the Upper Egyptians, even where they live in close contiguity, the former being more of a reddish-brown.

In the ancient representations women are painted yellow and men red, merely because the former were paler owing to their indoor life, while the men were browned by labouring in the open air (Virchow).
The dwelling of the fellah is of a miserably poor description, consisting generally of four low walls formed of crude bricks of Nile mud, and thatched with a roof of durra straw, on which the poultry roost. In the interior are a few mats, a sheepskin, several baskets made of matting, a copper kettle, and a few earthenware pots and wooden dishes. But the railway-traveller, passing through the Delta for the first time, must not suppose that the miserable, ruinous huts that meet his eye are typical of all peasants dwellings in Egypt. In Central and Upper Egypt he will obtain a much more favourable impression. The fact is, that beneath an Egyptian sky, houses are not of the same paramount importance as in more northern regions, all that is wanted being shelter for the night. The day is spent in the open air, on the court in front of the hut, shaded by acacia trees, among whose branches the pigeons coo. Here the fellah spends his ‘keif’ or leisure, chatting with his neighbours and spinning wool from a spindle that he turns in his hand.
The poorer peasant's mode of life is frugal in the extreme. His meals may be summarily characterized as ‘short, scant, and bad’. The staple of his food consists of a peculiar kind of bread made of sorghum flour in Upper Egypt, or of maize in the Delta, wheaten bread being eaten by the wealthier only. This poor kind of bread often has a greenish colour, owing to an admixture of flour made from the kernels of Fænum Græcum (see below). Next in importance in the bill of fare are broad beans (fûl). For supper, however, even the poorest cause a hot repast to be prepared. This usually consists of a highly salted sauce made of onions and butter, or in the poorer houses of onions and linseed or sesame oil. Into this sauce, which in summer acquires a gelatinous consistency by the addition of the universal bamyas (the capsular fruit of the Hibiscus) and various herbs, each member of the family dips pieces of bread held in the fingers. Both in town and country, goats’, sheep's, or buffaloes' milk also forms a daily article of food, but always in a sour condition or half converted into cheese, and in very moderate quantities only. In the height of summer the consumption of fruit of the cucumber and pumpkin species, which the land yields in abundance, is enormous. In spring large quantities of lettuce, radish-leaves, and similar green vegetables are eaten; and the lower classes consume, for medical purposes during January and February, considerable amounts of Fœnum Græcum, a clover-like plant with a somewhat disagreeable odour (p. lxxiv). In the month of Ramadan alone (p. xcvi), when a rigorous fast is observed during the day, and on the three days of the great Bairam festival (Ḳurbân Beirâm), even the poorest indulge in meat, and it is customary to distribute that rare luxury to beggars at these seasons.
The dress of the Egyptian peasant calls for little remark, especially as he usually works in the fields divested of everything except a scanty apron. The chief articles of his wardrobe at other times are an indigo-dyed cotton shirt (ḳamîṣ), a pair of short and wide cotton breeches, a kind of cloak of brown, home-spun goats' wool (‘abâyeh), or simply a blanket of sheep's wool (ḥirâm), and lastly a close-fitting felt skull-cap (libdeh). He is generally barefooted, but occasionally wears pointed red (markûb) or broad yellow shoes (balgha). The sheikhs and wealthier peasants wear wide, black woollen cloaks and the thick red ‘Tunisian’ fez (ṭarbûsh) with a blue silk tassel, round which they coil a turban (‘imma; usually white). They usually carry a long and thick stick (nâbût), made of ash imported from Caramania. All watchmen carry similar sticks as a badge of office.
The sole wealth of Egypt is derived from its agriculture, and to the fellahin alone is committed the important task of tilling the soil. They are, indeed, neither fitted nor inclined for other work, a circumstance which proves how completely the settled character of the ancient Egyptians has predominated over the restless Arabian blood, which has been largely infused into the native population ever since the valley of the Nile was conquered by the armies of Islam. The ancient Egyptian racial type has been preserved in extraordinary purity in many fellah families, especially in Upper Egypt. This is particularly evident in the case of the children and women, whose features are not concealed and distorted by veils (which the ancient Egyptians despised). Even among the Nubians (p. lx), between the first and second cataracts, faces occur that might almost lead us to think that some of the pictures of the period of the old Pharaohs had come to life and stood before us in flesh and blood. In Lower Egypt, and especially in the Delta, the Semitic type has sometimes prevailed over the African in consequence of the steady stream of Arab immigration that has now been flowing for more than a thousand years. The modern Egyptians, moreover, resemble the ancient in character and in the lot to which they are condemned. In ancient times the fellah, pressed into the service of the priests and the princes, was compelled to yield up to them the fruits of his toil, and his position is nearly the same at the present day, save that the names of his masters are changed, and he has obtained some relief owing to the almost entire abolition of compulsory work.
In early life the Egyptian peasant is remarkably docile, active, and intelligent, but at a later period this freshness and buoyancy are crushed out of him by care and poverty and his never-ceasing task of filling the pitcher of the Danaïdes. He ploughs and reaps, toils and amasses, but he cannot with certainty regard his crops as his own, and the hardly earned piastre is too frequently wrested from him. His character, therefore, becomes like that of a gifted child, who has been harshly used and brought up to domestic slavery, but at length perceives that he has been treated with injustice, and

whose amiability and intelligence are then superseded by sullenness and obstinacy. Thus down to a few years ago, as in the time of Ammianus Marcellinus, the fellah would often suffer the most cruel blows in dogged silence rather than pay the taxes demanded of him.
In his own fields the fellah is an industrious labourer, and his work is more continuous than that of the peasant of more northern countries. He enjoys no period of repose during the winter, and the whole of his spare time is occupied in drawing water for the irrigation of the land. Notwithstanding his hard lot, however, he is an entire stranger to any endeavour to better his condition or to improve his system of farming. As soon as he has accomplished the most necessary tasks he rests and smokes, and trusts that Allah will do the remainder of his work for him. The fellah is generally of a peaceful disposition, kindly and helpful to his neighbour. Foreigners can see his best side only by observing his dealings with his fellows; for he regards strangers as merely so many convenient sources of profit (comp. pp. xxiv, xxv).
(2). COPTS (ḳibṭ, ‘ibṭ). While we have regarded the fellahin as genuine Egyptians in consequence of their uninterrupted occupation of the soil, the religion of the Copts affords us an additional guarantee for the purity of their descent. The Copts are undoubtedly the most direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians, there being no ground for the assumption that their ancestors were foreign immigrants who embraced Christianity after the conquest of the country by the Mohammedans, while on the other hand the obstinacy with which they defended their monophysite Christianity for several centuries against the inroads of the creed of Byzantium affords another indication of their Egyptian character. At the last census (1907) the number of Copts in Egypt was 706,322. They are most numerous in the towns of Upper Egypt (554,282), around the ancient Koptos, at Naḳâddeh, Luxor, Esneh, Dendera, Girgeh, Tahṭa, and particularly at Assiûṭ and Akhmîm.
The total number of Christians in Egypt in 1907 was 881,692, including 76,953 Greek Orthodox, 57,744 Roman Catholics, 12,736 Protestants, and 27,937 Eastern Christians.
Most of the Copts that dwell in towns are engaged in the more refined handicrafts (as watchmakers, goldsmiths, jewellers, embroiderers, tailors, weavers, cabinet-makers, turners, etc.), or in trade, or as clerks, accountants, and notaries. Their physique is accordingly materially different from that of the fellahin and even from that of Coptic peasants. They are generally of more delicate frame, with small hands and feet; their necks are longer and their skulls are higher and narrower than those of the peasantry; and,

their complexion is fairer. These differences are sufficiently accounted for by their mode of life; for, when we compare those Copts who are engaged in rustic pursuits, or the Coptic camel drivers of Upper Egypt, with the fellahin, we find that the two races are not distinguishable from each other. This dualism of type in bodily structure, common to all civilized lands of the South, has been recognized also in the skeletons of the ancient mummies.
Few nations in the East embraced the Gospel more zealously than the dwellers on the Nile. Accustomed as they had long been to regard life as a pilgrimage to death, as a school of preparation for another world, and weary of their motley and confused Pantheon of divinities, whose self-seeking priesthood designedly disguised the truth, they eagerly welcomed the simple doctrines of Christianity, which appeared so well adapted to their condition and promised them succour and redemption. Like Eutyches, they revered the divine nature of the Saviour only, in which they held that every human element was absorbed; and when the Council of Chalcedon in 451 sanctioned the doctrine that Christ combined a human with a divine nature, the Egyptians with their characteristic tenacity adhered to their old views, and formed a sect termed Eutychians, or Monophysites, to which the Copts of the present day, and also the Abyssinians, still belong.
The name of the Copts is an ethnical one, being simply an Arabic corruption of the Greek name of Egyptians. The theory is now exploded that they derive their name from a certain itinerant preacher named Jacobus, who according to Maḳrîzi was termed El-Berâdî‘i, or ‘blanket-bearer’, from the old horse-cloth worn by him when he went about preaching. This jacobus promulgated the monophysite doctrine of Eutyches, which had found its most zealous supporter in Dioseurus, a bishop of Alexandria, who was declared a heretic and banished after the Council of Chalcedon, and his disciples were sometimes called Jacobites. If this name had ever been abbreviated to Cobit or Cobt, it would probably have occurred frequently in the writings of Monophysites; but there we find no trace of it. It is, on the other hand, quite intelligible that the word Copt, though originally synonymous with Egyptian, should gradually have come to denote a particular religious sect; for, at the period when the valley of the Nile was conquered by Amr, the native Egyptians, who almost exclusively held the monophysite creed, were chiefly distinguished by their religion from their invaders, who brought a new religious system from the East.
These Egyptian Christians strenuously opposed the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, and thousands of them sacrificed their lives or their welfare in the fierce and sanguinary conflicts of the 6th century, the causes of which were imperfectly understood by the great majority of the belligerents. The subtle dogmatic differences which gave rise to these wars aroused such hatred among these professors of the religion of love, that the defeated Monophysites readily welcomed the invading armies of Islâm, or perhaps even invited them to their country.
After the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs (p. 44) the Copts were at first treated with lenity, and were even appointed to the highest

government offices; but they were soon doomed to suffer persecutions and privations of every description. These persecutions were mainly due to their unbounded arrogance and their perpetual conspiracies against their new masters, and their Mohammedan contemporaries even attributed to them the disastrous conflagrations from which the new capital of the country so frequently suffered. Their hopes were doomed to bitter disappointment, and their national pride to utter humiliation. Their conquerors succeeded in maintaining their position, and though apparently at first inclined to moderation, were at length driven by the conduct and the previous example of the Copts themselves to persecute and oppress them to the uttermost.
In spite, however, of all these disasters a numerous community of Copts has always existed in Egypt, a fact which is mainly to be accounted for by the remarkable tenacity and constancy of the Egyptian character. Owing, however, to the continual oppression and contempt to which they have been subjected, they have degenerated in every respect, while their character has been correspondingly altered. Their divine worship will strike the traveller as strange, and anything but edifying or elevating (comp. p. 107). It is true that the Copt is a regular attendant at church (‘kenîseh’), but his conduct while there and the amount of benefit he receives are somewhat questionable. In the service the Coptic language, i.e. the language of the Egyptians of the 3rd cent. A.D., is used for praying and chanting. But as the majority even of the priests themselves, though able to read this ancient speech, do not understand it, the Arabic translation of the prayers is given at the same time, and the sermon is delivered in Arabic. Since the 6th cent. the doctrine of the Jacobites has been in a state of deathlike lethargy which has made even the slightest attempt at further development impossible. In no other religious community is fasting so common as among the Christians of Egypt and Abyssinia. They still found their creed upon Old Testament institutions, and so show pretty clearly that had Christianity been confined to the East it would never have become the chief religion of the world. The Coptic church has not even training-colleges for its ministers.
The Copts are no longer distinguished from the Arabs by their dress. Only the priests now wear the dark blue or black turban and the dark-coloured clothes, a costume that was originally prescribed by their oppressors. A practised eye will frequently detect among them the ancient Egyptian cast of features. Towards strangers the Copt is externally obliging, and when anxious to secure their favour he not unfrequently appeals to his Christian creed as a bond of union. Many Copts have recently been converted to Protestantism by American missionaries, particularly in Upper Egypt, chiefly through the foundation of good schools and the distribution of cheap Arabic Bibles. Even the orthodox Copts have a great reverence for the sacred volume, and it is not uncommon to meet with members of their sect who know the

whole of the Gospels by heart. The Roman propaganda, which was begun by Franciscans at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th cent., has been less successful among the Copts. There are, however, a few small Roman Catholic communities in Upper Egypt (at Girgeh, Akhmîm, and Naḳâdeh), forming the ‘Church of the Catholic Copts’, whose patriarch, Cyrillos II., consecrated in 1899, is a native Copt. The present patriarch of the old Copts, at Cairo, is likewise named Cyrillos.
(3). BEDUINS. Bedu (sing. bedawi) is the name applied to the nomadic Arabs, and ‘Arab (sing. ‘Arabi) to those who immigrated at a later period and settled in the valley of the Nile. They both differ materially from the dwellers in towns and from the fellahin. The subdivisions of the Beduin tribes are called Ḳabîlch. Though differing greatly in origin and language, the wandering tribes of Egypt all profess Mohammedanism. Again, while some of them have immigrated from Arabia or Syria, partly in very ancient and partly in modern times, and while others are supposed to be the aboriginal inhabitants of the territories claimed by them (as the Berbers of N. Africa and the Ethiopians and Blemmyes of Nubia), or former dwellers on the Nile expelled from their homes by foreign invaders, they all differ greatly from the settled Egyptian population; and this contrast is accounted for by the radical difference between the influences of the desert and those of the Nile valley.
According to the census of 1907 there were 635,012 Beduins in Egypt, of whom 537,631 were settled in towns and villages.
The Beduins may be divided into two leading groups: (1) Beduins in the narrower sense, i.e. Arabic-speaking tribes, most of whom have probably immigrated from Arabia or Syria, and who occupy the deserts adjoining Central and Northern Egypt besides to a considerable extent settling in the Nile valley; (2) Bega, who range over the regions of Upper Egypt and Nubia situated between the Nile and the Red Sea, and extending to the frontiers of the Abyssinian mountains. These are the descendants of the ancient Blemmyes (p.386; their territory being known as ‘Edbai’). The two principal races of the second group, with whom alone we have to deal as inhabitants of Egypt, are the Bishârîn and the ‘Abâbdeh. They are widely scattered in the valleys of the desert (pp. 372 et seq.), between the tropics and the latitude of Keneh and Ḳoṣeir, and lead a poverty-stricken life with their very scanty stock of camels and goats. Though closely resembling the other Bega tribes in appearance, the ‘Abâbdeh (sing. ‘Abâdi, probably the Gebadaci of Pliny) possess on original language of their own (‘to-bedyawîyeh’), which, however, they have long since exchanged for bad Arabic. They have adopted also the costume of the fellahin, while the Bishárîn tend their large flocks of sheep and herds of camels in a half-naked condition, girded with a leathern apron and wrapped in a kind of cotton shawl (melâya). All these ‘Ethiopians’ are remarkable for their

fine and almost Caucasian cast of features, their very dark, bronze-coloured complexion, and their luxuriant growth of hair, which they war loose or hanging down in numberless plaits. Their figures are beautifully symmetrical, and more or less slender in accordance with their means of subsistence, and their limbs are gracefully formed. In other respects they resemble all the other children of the desert, as in the purity of their complexion, the peculiar thinness of their necks, and the premature wrinkling of the skin of their faces. Compared with their bold and quarrelsome neighbours the Bishârîn, the Abàbdeh are generally gentle and inoffensive.
Besides the Bega there are numerous Beduins who inhabit the steppes and deserts belonging to the region of the Nile, but beyond the limits of Egypt, and range as far as the confines of the heathen negro-races on the left bank of the Nile, nearly to 9 N. latitude; but with these we have not at present to deal. As regards the Beduins proper of the N., their common home, the desert, seems to have exerted a unifying effect upon races that were originally different, and the peculiar characteristics of each have gradually disappeared before the uniform environment of all.
There are three important Beduin tribes in the peninsula of Mount Sinai: the Terâbiyîn; the Tîyâha, who occupy the heart of the peninsula, between Suez and ‘Aḳaba; and the Sawârkeh or El-‘Arayîsh, to the north of the latter. In Upper Egypt, besides the Abâbdeh, the most important tribes who occupy the eastern bank of the Nile are the Beni Waṣel and the Atwâni, who, however, have now settled on both banks of the Theban Nile valley and are gradually blending with the fellahin, and the Mââzch, who dwell in groups among the limestone mountains between Suez and Ḳeneh, where there are good pastures at places. Most of the Arabian Beduins, on the other hand, who belong to Egypt, confine themselves to the western bank of the Nile. They occupy the whole of this side of the river from the Faiyûm as far as Abydos near Girgeh, and it is mainly with their aid that communication is maintained with the western oases, peopled by a totally different race, who till the ground and possess no camels, being probably allied to the Berbers of Northern Africa (one of the numerous Libyan tribes mentioned in ancient inscriptions).
The Beduins of the North, and especially the tribe of the Ûlâd ‘Ali, have inherited with comparative purity the fiery blood of the desert-tribes, who achieved such marvellous exploits under the banner of the prophet, but the traveller will rarely come in contact with them unless he undertakes a journey across the desert. The Beduins who assist travellers in the ascent of the pyramids belong to the Nagâma tribe. Genuine Beduins are to be found nowhere except in their desert home, where to a great extent they still retain the spirit of independence, the courage, and the restlessness of their ancestors. As in the time of Herodotus, the tent of the Beduin is

still his home. Where it is pitched is a matter of indifference to him, if only the pegs which secure it be firmly driven into the earth, if it shelter his wife and child from the burning sunshine and the chilly night-air, and if pasturage-ground and a spring be within reach. At Ramleh on the coast, near Alexandria, the traveller may see numerous Beduin families of the poorest class encamped in their tents, where they live in the most frugal possible manner, with a few miserable goats and the fowls which subsist on the rubbish in their neighbourhood. Though professors of Islâm, the Beduins of Egypt are considerably less strict in their observances than the fellahin of the valley of the Nile, who are themselves sufficiently lax, and above all they sadly neglect the religious duty of cleanliness. They do not observe the practice of praying five times a day, and they are as a rule but slightly acquainted with the Koran. Relies of their old star-worship can still be traced among their customs.
The traveller will occasionally observe Beduins in the streets and in the bazaars of the armourers and leather-merchants, and will be struck with the proud and manly bearing of these bronzed children of the desert, whose sharp, bearded features and steady gaze betoken firmness and resolution. In Egypt the traveller need not fear their predatory propensities.
(4). ARAB DWELLERS IN TOWNS. Those Arabs with whom the traveller usually comes in contact in towns are shopkeepers, officials, servants, coachmen, and donkey-attendants. These are generally of a much more mixed origin than the fellahin. It thus happens that the citizens of the Egyptian towns consist of persons of every complexion from dark-brown to white, with the features of the worshippers of Osiris or the sharp profile of the Beduins, and with the slender figure of the fellah or the corpulence of the Turk. Among the lower classes intermarriage with negro-women has sometimes darkened the complexion and thickened the features of their offspring; while the higher ranks, including many descendants of white slaves or Turkish mothers, more nearly resemble the European type. As the inhabitants of the towns could not be so much oppressed by their rulers as the peasantry, we find that they exhibit a more independent spirit, greater enterprise, and a more cheerful disposition than the fellahin. At the same time they are not free from the dreamy character peculiar to orientals, nor from a tinge of the apathy of fatalism; and their indolence contrasts strongly with the industry of their European rivals in political, scientific, artistic, and all business pursuits. Of late years, however, they have begun to occupy themselves with scientific studies and to produce a considerable number of higher officials, barristers, doctors, architects, engineers, etc. The townspeople profess Islâm, but, in their youth particularly, they are becoming more and more lax in their obedience to the Koran. Thus the custom of praying in public, outside the house-doors and shops, is gradually failing into disuse. Likewise,

wise the European dress is superseding the oriental, though the latter is far more picturesque and better suited to the climate. On the whole, however, they are bigoted Mohammedans, and share the contempt with which the fellahin regard all other religions. Their daily intercourse with unbelievers and their dread of the power of the Christian nations tend, however, to keep their fanaticism, which otherwise would be unbounded, in check, and has even induced them sometimes to admit strangers to witness the sacred ceremonies in their mosques.
(5). NUBIANS. The name Barâbra (sing. Berberi) is applied to the Nubian inhabitants of the Nile valley between the neighbourhood of Assuân and the Fourth Cataract. The Egyptians and Nubians are radically different, and the dislike between the two races is carried to such an extent that Nubians, even in Egypt, never marry Egyptian wives. The Nubians are inferior to the Egyptians in industry and energy, especially in tilling the soil, and in physical (and perhaps also in intellectual) vigour; and they are more superstitious as is indicated by the numerous amulets they wear round their necks and arms. They are, however, superior to the Egyptians in cleanliness, honesty, and subordination, and possess a more highly developed sense of honour. The traveller must not expect to find them very sincerely attached or grateful, any more than the native Egyptians, but as servants they are certainly preferable. The Nubian language belongs to a special group of the African tongues; and Dr. Brugsch was of opinion that it may afford a clue to the interpretation of the still undeciphered Meroïtic inscriptions of the Nubian part of the Nile valley. It is divided into three dialects:1. Kenûz, spoken between the First Cataract and Es-Sebû‘a; 2. El-Mahâsi, from Korosko to Hannek (at the third cataract); 3. Donyolu, prevalent in the province of Dongola from Hannek to Gebel Deiga (near Korti) and resembling the Kenûz dialect.
Those Nubians who do not learn Arabic grammatically never speak it thoroughly well; but it is generally, though imperfectly, understood in Nubia. The traveller must therefore not expect to learn good Arabic from his Nubian servants. In their native country the Nubians till the banks of the Nile, but their land is of very limited extent and poorly cultivated; and as their harvests are scanty they are rarely able to support large families. They accordingly often emigrate at an early age to the richer lands of Egypt, chiefly to the large towns, in quest of employment. When the Nubian has succeeded in amassing a moderate fortune, he returns to settle in his native country, of which throughout his whole career he never entirely loses sight. They are most commonly employed as doorkeepers (bauwâb), as house-servants (Khaddâm), as grooms and runners (sâis), for which their swiftness renders them unrivalled, as coachmen (‘arlágî), and as cooks (ṭabbâkh). Each of these five classes is admirably organized as a kind of guilda with a sheikh of its own, who levies a tax from each member, and

guarantees the character and abilities of members when hired. Thefts are very rarely committed by the Nubians, but in cases of the kind the sheikh compels the whole of his subjects to contribute to repair the loss, and cases have been known in which several hundred pounds have been recovered in this way. The result is that there is a strict mutual system of supervision, and suspected characters are unceremoniously excluded from the fraternity. Nubian women are seldom seen in Egypt.
(6) SÛDÀN NEGROES. Like the Nubians, most of the negroes in Egypt are professors of Islâm, to the easily intelligible doctrines of which they readily and zealously attach themselves. Most of the older negroes and negresses with whom the traveller meets have originally been brought to Egypt as slaves, and belong to natives, by whom they are treated more like members of the family than like servants. The eunuchs, who also belong almost exclusively to the negro races, very seldom avail themselves of any opportunity of regaining their liberty, as their emancipation would necessarily terminate the life of case and luxury in which they delight. — The numerous negroes who voluntarily settle in Egypt form the dregs of the people and are employed in the most menial offices.
Most of the negro-races of Central Africa to the N. of the equator are represented at Cairo, particularly in the rank and file of the negro regiments. In 1907 there were 65, 162 natives of the Sûdân settled in Egypt.
(7). TURKS. Although the dynasty of the viceroys of Egypt is of Turkish origin (see p. cxx), a comparatively small section of the community belongs to that nation. According to the census of 1907 there were 27,591 genuine Turks in Egypt, besides 42,134 Turkish subjects from other parts of the Ottoman empire (Syria, Arabia, Armenia). The Turks of Egypt are chiefly to be found in the towns, where most of them are government-officials, soldiers, and merchants. The Turkish language is very little understood in Egypt.
(8). LEVANTINES, SYRIANS, etc. A link between the various classes of dwellers in Egypt and the visitors to the banks of the Nile is formed by the members of the various Mediterranean races, especially the Christian Syrians, known when of partly European origin as Levantines, who have been settled here for several generations, and form no inconsiderable element in the population of the larger towns. Most of them profess the Latin form of Christianity, and Arabic has now become their mother tongue, although they speak also French, Italian, or English. They are good men of business, and are often employed as shopmen and clerks. Their services have also become indispensable at the consulates and in several of the government-offices. A large proportion of them are wealthy. The Egyptian press is very largely in the hands of Syrian Levantines, a great many of whom are lawyers, physicians, and chemists also.
(9). ARMENIANS AND JEWS. This section of the community is somewhat less numerous than the last. The Armenians generally possess excellent abilities and a singular aptitude for learning both oriental and European languages, which they often acquire with great grammatical accuracy. They often hold high positions in the service of government, and many of them are wealthy goldsmiths and jewellers.
The Jews (38,635 in 1907) are met with almost exclusively in Cairo and Alexandria, and can hardly be reckoned as among the natives of the country. Most of them are from Palestine, though of Spanish origin, but many have recently immigrated from Roumania. The latter are popularly called ‘Shlekhti’, in reference to the barbarous German idiom they speak. Most of the money-changers in the streets (ṣarrâf), and many of the wealthiest merchants of Egypt, are Jews, and notwithstanding the popular prejudice entertained against them, they now form one of the most highly respected sections of the community.
(10) EUROPEANS. The number of European residents and visitors in Egypt was 147,220 in 1907, inclusive of the British army of occupation. The Greeks are most numerously represented, then the Italians, British (including Indians and Maltese), French, Austrians (including many Dalmatians), Russians, and Germans. Besides these nationalities, there are also a few representatives of America, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Scandinavia, and other countries. — The Greeks of all classes are generally traders. They constitute almost entirely the aristocracy of Alexandria, and, at the other end of the scale, nearly all the small inn-keepers and victual-dealers (bḳḳâl) in other towns are Greeks. The cigarette-industry also is almost exclusively in the hands of Greeks. They are the proprietors of the small steam-mills that abound in the villages, and of the numerous small banks which lend money on good security, both to the peasantry and the government-officials, at a rate of interest sometimes amounting to 6 per cent monthly, the maximum permitted by law. The Greeks are the only Europeans who have established themselves permanently as merchants beyond the confines of Egypt proper. Almost the entire trade with the Egyptian Sûdàn is now in their hands. Of recent years many Greeks have been active as physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, and especially landowners, but they are conspicuous by their absence from the government-service. The Greeks have also the unenviable notoriety of committing numerous murders, thefts, and other crimes, but it must be borne in mind that they are by far the most numerous section of the European community (62,973 in 1907), and that most of them belong to the lowest class of immigrants. The commercial superiority of the Greeks to the Orientals is nowhere so strikingly manifested as in Egypt, where it affords a modern reflex of their ancient success in colonization.
The Italian residents, 34,926 in number, consist chiefly of traders of a humble class, but include also many merchants, advocates, and scholars. Of French nationality (14,591) are all the artisans of the higher class, who are generally noted for their skill, trustworthiness, and sobriety. Most of the better shops are kept by Frenchmen, and the chief European officials of the government, including several architects and engineers, were until recently French. The British settlers numbered 6118 in 1882 and in 1907 20,653, inclusive of the troops. Until recently their specialties were the manufacture of machinery and the construction of railways and harbours; but of late they have also almost monopolized the chief posts in those branches of the administration (army, post and telegraph office, railways, custom-house) that have been remodelled after the British pattern. A part from the troops, a large majority of the residents who enjoy the protection of the British consulate are Maltese and natives of India (in 1907, 6292 from British colonies). To the Maltese apply even more forcibly most of the remarks already made regarding the Greeks. It has been ascertained that the Maltese settlers in foreign countries are more numerous than those resident in their two small native islands, and of these a considerable proportion belongs to Egypt. At home, under the discipline of British institutions, they form a pattern little nation of their own, but in Egypt, where they are freed from the restraint of these influences, they are very apt to degenerate and to swell unduly the ranks of the criminal class. Many of the Maltese, however, are enterprising tradesmen and industrious artisans, such as shoemakers and joiners. To the Austrian (7704) and German (1847) community belong a number of merchants of the best class, many physicians and teachers, inn-keepers, musicians, and lastly humble handicraftsmen. — In 1907 there were 521 Americans in Egypt.
With regard to the capability of Europeans of becoming acclimatized in Egypt there are a number of widely divergent opinions. Much, of course, must depend on the nature of the climate of their own respective countries. It has been asserted that European families settled in Egypt die out in the second or third generation, but of this there is no sufficient proof, as the European community is of very recent origin, and many examples to the contrary might be cited. Moreover as the Europeans in Egypt dwell exclusively in the large cities, they do not afford very conclusive evidence on the general question; for city life, as opposed to country life, is even less propitious to health and vigour in warm countries than it is in northern climes. Thus the Mamelukes have left no descendants in Egypt. The climate of Egypt (comp. p. lxxvii) is less enervating than that of most other hot countries, an advantage attributed to the dryness of the air.

c. The Nile.

By Captain H. G. Lyons:

From the sources of the Nyavarongo, a tributary of the Kagera River, to the sea the Kagera-Nile is the second longest continuous waterway in the world (4037 M.), being surpassed only by the Mississippi-Missouri, which is probably about 100 M. longer. From the Ripon Falls at Lake Victoria to the sea the distance is 3473 M., so that the Nile proper is the longest single river in the world, the Yang-tse-kiang probably coming next.
Rising to the N.E. of Lake Tanganyika, the waters of the Nyavarongo-Kagera flow into the great Victoria Lake, on the N. shore of which, at the Ripon Falls, begins the true Nile. After a course of 242 M. this enters the Albert Lake. From this point, under the name of the Bahr cl-Gebel, it traverses a rocky channel as far as Gondokoro, and it then flows for 470 M. through the swamps which till the valley and provide the reeds and grasses of the ‘sudd’, or mass of vegetation which from time to time blocks the channel (p. 435). In latitude 9° 30′ N. the main stream receives two tributaries, the Baḥr cl-Ghazâl and the Bahr ez-Zarâfeh, and a little farther on it is joined by the important Sobat River, to which the annual flood of the White Nile is due. From this point to Kharṭûm the Baḥr cl-Abyaḍ or ‘White Nile’, as it is here called, flows through a shallow valley of considerable width, until it is joined by the Baḥr cl-Asraḳ, i.e.. the ‘blue’, ‘dark’, or ‘turbid’ Nile, so called in contradistinction to the White Nile, the ‘clear’ water of which has been filtered in its passage through the marshes of the Baḥr el-Gebel or has deposited its silt in the upper reaches of the Sobat. Between Kharṭûm and the Mediterranean, a distance of 1900 M., the Nile receives no further addition to its supply except from the river Atbara, while it is being continually diminished by evaporation, by percolation into the sandstone of the desert through which it flows, and by the irrigation of its flood-plains in Egypt. — Between Wâdi Ḥalfa and Assuàn the average breadth of the Nile is about 550 yds., to the N. of Assuàn it varies from 550 to 980 yds.
As practically no rain falls within its limits, Egypt would cease to exist as a fertile country and would become a desert valley, similar to those of the Sahara, were it not for its constant supply of water from the Nile. Thus the all-important annual INUNDATION of that river merits special notice as the great event of the Egyptian year.
The heavy rains which fall from June to September on the Abyssinian tableland cause the Blue Nile and the Atbara to rise rapidly, and their waters carry down in suspension vast quantities of the mud which has during many centuries formed the fertile valley and delta of Egypt, but of which very little is deposited now, however, owing to the perennial irrigation (comp. p. lxxi). The volume of the Blue Nile flood, which may reach and even exceed 350,000 cubic

feet per second, holds back the waters of the White Nile above the junction of the two streams, so that in August and September the waters of the Baḥr el-Gebel and the Sobat are penned up in the White Nile valley and contribute only a very small share to the inundation of the Nile proper. The rains of Abyssinia may therefore be regarded as practically regulating the height of the inundation of the Nile, and it is their variations which occasion the fluctuation from year to year. The region of the equatorial lakes has no effect whatever on the flood.
The Nile begins to rise at Kharṭûm about the middle of May, and at Assuân by the beginning of June, reaching its maximum height at both places about the end of the first week in September. The mean difference between the highest and lowest stages of the river is 21 ft. at Kharṭûm, 20 ft. at Wâdi Ḥalfa, 23 ft. at Assuân, 22 ft. at Assiûṭ, 22 ft. at Minyeh, and 16 ft. at Cairo. After the flood has reached its maximum height the Blue Nile falls rapidly, but the water of the White Nile, which is now liberated, prevents too rapid a fall of the river below Kharṭûm. By January the Blue Nile supply has diminished to a small amount, while that of the White Nile is several times as great, and this state of affairs continues until June, when the Blue Nile again rises. Thus, for these five months the mainstay of the Nile supply is the constant quantity furnished by the White Nile, amounting to some 14,000 cubic ft. per second, supplemented by a quantity from the Sobat River and the Blue Nile, which varies from year to year according to the amount of the summer and autumn rains of Abyssinia in the preceding year.
From time immemorial the Nile flooded its valley annually. Crops were sown on the mud flats left by the water as it subsided and, at a very early period, a system of irrigation was developed by which the flood-water, with its load of rich earth, was led by canals into basins enclosed by earthen banks, where it deposited its sediment and whence it was allowed to escape when the river had fallen sufficiently. The crops which grew luxuriantly on the soil thus annually enriched were harvested in April and May, after which time land in the neighbourhood of the river or where there were wells could alone be cultivated until November after the next flood. The amount of water was insufficient to meet the needs of agriculture in Egypt during the months of May, June, and July.
Of recent years, however, especially since Mohammed Ali developed cotton-growing in the Delta, a great change has taken place. It is no longer in the flood-season alone that water is supplied to the land. Several large works have been constructed in order to render Perennial Irrigation (comp. p. lxxi) possible, by storing up the surplus water in November, December, and January for distribution in the later months before the arrival of the flood, and by means of canals and numerous regulating works water is supplied to the Delta at such a level as to flow on to the cultivated land at

all seasons, thus allowing a series of crops to be raised throughout the year. Mohammed Ali deepened canals and began in 1835 the construction of the Delta Barrage (comp. p. 122), which was not completed, however, until 1890. It renders it possible to raise the upstream water-level so that the water can at all times flow into the three main delta-canals, the Rayâḥ et-Taufûḳû, the Rayâḥ el-Menûfîyeh, and the Rayâḥ el-Beḥeireh. In 1902 were completed, the Assuân Dam (p. 371) and the Assiûṭ Barrage (p. 232). The first of these works (recently heightened) allows a reserve-supply of water to be kept to increase the insufficient supply of the river in May, June, and July, while the second enables the water-level of the river at Assiûṭ to be raised until it flows down the great Ibrâhîmîyeh Canal which supplies the provinces of Assiûṭ, Minyeh, Benisueif, Gîzeh, and (through the Baḥr Yûsuf) the Faiyûm. Finally the barrage at Esneh (p. 342), completed in 1909, provides for the irrigation of the province of Ḳeneh. One effect of the modifications thus introduced is to diminish to some extent the importance of the high floods, but to enhance enormously the value of a favourable low-stage supply, since in April, May, June, and July, when the supply of water is lowest, a very large proportion of the country from Assiûṭ to the sea is bearing crops, principally cotton, the most valuable crop of the year. Another effect of increased perennial irrigation is that the volume of water brought down by bountiful inundations is greater than is now required. Of late years very large sums have been expended in providing an efficient system of drainage to prevent low-lying lands from becoming water-logged and the Rosetta branch is now being remodelled to increase its capacity as a flood-escape.
The breadth of the Nile valley is nowhere great, and only a portion of it is occupied by the cultivated alluvial plain, the rest consisting of desert-sands at too high a level to be reached by the inundation. In Nubia the cultivable land is restricted to isolated patches, while the valley is rarely as much as 2-3 M. wide; in Egypt it is wider, varying from 15 M. at Benisueif to 5 M. at Edfu, of which 13 M. and 4 M. respectively are cultivated.
The alluvial deposit which is annually brought down by the Nile in flood has accumulated in the course of centuries to an average depth of 35-40 ft., occasionally even more. In composition it varies slightly from place to place. As a rule it forms a good light soil being rather above the average in potash but deficient in nitrates. The view formerly held that it had a high manurial value was an exaggerated one, and it should be considered rather as a virgin soil which, added annually to the surface of the land, enables it to bear luxuriant crops year after year.
Every year during the flood a considerable deposit of silt takes place in the river-bed, part of which is carried away as the river falls, but the general result is that the bed of the Nile has been

slowly rising by deposit at an average rate of about 4 inches per century for at least 5000 years and for a long period before this at some undeterminable rate. One consequence of this is that temples, which were built on the banks of the river, well above the annual inundation, are now below it, and foundations which were originally dry are now below the infiltration-level and in consequence have deteriorated.
This remarkable river has exercised a unique influence on the history of civilization. The necessity of controlling its course and utilizing its water taught the ancient Egyptians the art of river engineering and the kindred science of land-surveying, while in the starry heavens they beheld the eternal calendar which regulated the approach and the departure of the inundation, so that the river may perhaps have given the first impulse to the study of astronomy. As the annual overflow of the water obliterated all landmarks, it was necessary annually to measure the land anew, and to keep a register of the area belonging to each proprietor; and above all it became an important duty of the rulers of the people to impress them with a strong sense of the sacredness of property. Similar causes produced a like result in Babylonia. Every succeeding year, however, there arose new disputes, and these showed the necessity of establishing settled laws and enforcing judicial decisions. The Nile thus led to the foundation of social, legal, and political order.
Subsequently, when the engineers and architects, in the service of the state or in the cause of religion, erected those colossal structures with which we are about to become acquainted, it was the Nile which materially facilitated the transport of their materials, and enabled the builders of the pyramids and the other ancient Egyptians to employ the granite of Assuân for the structures of Memphis, and even for those of Tanis, near the coast of the Mediterranean. As the river, moreover, not only afforded a convenient route for the transport of these building-materials, but also an admirable commercial highway, we find that the Egyptians had acquired considerable skill at a very early period in constructing vessels with oars, masts, sails, and even cabins and other appliances.
From the earliest historical period down to the present time the course of the Nile, from the cataracts down to its bifurcation to the N. of Cairo, has undergone very little change. This, however, is not the case with its EMBOUCHURES; for, while ancient writers mention seven (the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Bucolic or Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitinic, and the Canopic), there are now practically two channels only through which the river is discharged into the sea. These are the mouths at Rosetta (Rashîd) and Damietta (Dumyâṭ), situated near the middle of the Delta, while the Pelusiac and Canopic mouths, the most important in ancient times, lay at the extreme E. and W. ends of the coast respectively.

d. Geology of Egypt.

1. THE NILE VALLEY AND THE ISTHMUS OF SUEZ. The building stone generally used at Alexandria is obtained from the quarries of Meks (p. 26) and on the coast to the E. of Alexandria. This is a calcareous light-coloured stone of the quaternary period, formed of fragments of shells and foraminifera, intermixed with oölitic granules and grains of quartz sand, or even with fine gravel. This rock forms low hills to the W. of Alexandria and the coast-strip from Alexandria to Abuḳîr. In many places it is covered by sand-dunes and other recent formations.
The cultivated plains of the Delta and the Nile Valley consist of recent alluvial deposits, ranging from fine sand to the finest silt, laid down by the water of the annual inundation. Under these lie coarser yellowish sands and gravels of pleistocene age, which here and there reach the surface in the Delta as islands of sandy waste among the rich cultivation of the surrounding country. These are related to the later sand and gravel deposits on the neighbouring deserts, and to the traces of marine cliffs and beaches of the same period which may be seen on both sides of the valley at Cairo and at other places. At Abu Za‘bal (p. 120), to the N.E. of Nawa, occurs a low hill of basalt which supplies excellent road-metal for Cairo and Alexandria.
The N. portion of the Isthmus of Suez consists of the recent marine deposits of the Mediterranean, while in the central portion, near the low hill of El-Gisr and round Lake Timsâḥ, are deposits of the Nile mud with fresh-water shells. To the S. of the Bitter Lakes are found marine quaternary deposits of the Red Sea.
Reefs of fossil coral of quaternary age occur over a large part of the coasts of the Gulf of Suez, and the highest of these are now 1000 ft. above the present sea-level, while five or six others occur at lower levels. The land here, or at least the coast line, must therefore have risen considerably in comparatively recent times, and the salines which are now forming appear to show that the movement has not yet ceased. The shores and islands of the Red Sea are today fringed with coral reefs which are most dangerous to shipping.
Sands and loams occur to the S. of the pyramids of Gîzeh, and at numerous places on the E. side of the Nile valley between Cairo and Feshn, belonging, as is shown by the numerous fossils which they contain, to the pliocene age. The small valley immediately to the S. of the pyramids of Zâwiyet el-‘Aryân has been cut out in these beds, and a rich collection of pliocene fossils may be made here. These deposits are intimately connected with the formation of the present valley in pliocene times. When it was at first a fiord into which the waters of the Mediterranean flowed at least as far as Ḳeneh and perhaps even as far as Esneh. In the time of the older miocene sea the Nile valley did not exist, but instead a large river flowed from a S.W. direction towards the region that is now Lower Egypt.
The fluvio-marine deposits of Moghara (to the W. of the Wâdi Naṭrûn) and the silicified wood of the same district also belong to these miocene times, as do also the marine limestones of the plateau of Cyrenaica, to the N. of the Sîweh Oasis and on the E. edge of the Arabian Desert (at the foot of Gebel Geneifeh and Gebel ‘Atâḳa), and on the shore of the Gulf of Suez near Gebel Zeit.
The ‘Petrifled Forest’ near Cairo consists of scattered fragments of the silicified stems of trees; and these, together with the red sandstone of Gebel el-Aḥmar and conical hills of the same material in the N. parts of the Arabian and Libyan deserts, are connected with the siliceous thermal springs which bubbled forth amid the network of lagoons which existed in these parts in oligocene time. To the N.W. of the Birket Ḳarûn, in the Faiyûm, these fossil trees are even more numerous, while in the sands of oligocene age innumerable bones of former terrestrial and marine mammals and reptiles have been found, which were carried down by the river and buried in its estuarine deposits. A fine collection of these fossil animals may be seen in the Geological Museum at Cairo.
The cliffs of the Nile valley above Cairo consist of middle and lower eocene limestone, containing numerous nummulites (p. 116) and other fossils. The strata are gently inclined to the N.N.W., so that the strata increase in age as we go towards the S.
To the S. of Edfu begins the upper cretaceous formation, here represented by the sandstone which at Gebel Silsileh forms steep walls of rock and confines the river in a narrow channel. This ‘Nubian Sandstone’ covers an area of many thousand square miles, extending from the oases to the Sûdàn. At certain points, such as Assuàn, Kalâbsheh, Wâdi Halfa, and the third and fourth cataracts, ridges of crystalline rocks (granite, gneiss, diorite, etc.) rise through it, and form black or reddish hills in sharp contrast to the low tabular masses of the sandstone.
2. In the ARABIAN or EASTERN DESERT (pp. 362, 372 et seq.) a line of hills, some peaks of which are 7000 ft. in height, runs parallel to the Red Sea and at short distance from it. This is wholly formed of crystalline rocks (granite, gneiss, diorite, hornblende-schist, micaschist, tale-schist and the andesites and allied rocks which form a great series of very ancient volcanic rocks, the imperial porphyry of Gebel Dukhàn being a well-known representative). The E. and W. slopes of this range are overlaid by sedimentary rocks, usually the Nubian sandstone, but also (in the N. part) by limestones and marls. These stretch away toward the W., forming a great plateau of limestone in the N. and of sandstone in the S., in which the Nile Valley forms a narrow trough. Numerous deeply eroded valleys give a characteristic appearance to the Eastern Desert. The open plains are almost bare of vegetation, but numerous plants may be seen in the valleys, especially after rain, while in the sheltered ravines among the hills where springs occur they grow luxuriantly.
3. The WESTERN or LIBYAN DESERT (pp. 378 et seq.) is totally different. The level limestone plateau, about 1000 ft. above the sea, extends to the W., its S. escarpment overlooking the lower plain of the Nubian sandstone to the S. In deep bays in this escarpment lie the oases of Khârgeh, Dâkhleh, and Farâfra, while that of Baḥrîyeh is situated in a depression surrounded by the higher plateau. The plateau is waterless and practically devoid of vegetation, while isolated knolls show how rapidly the erosion of the desert-surface by wind is proceeding. In certain parts lines of sand-dunes 100-200 ft. high stretch across the desert plateau in a N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction, sometimes for several hundred miles with hardly a break. They are most developed to the W. of the oasis of Dâkhleh. The floor of the oases of Khârgeh and Dâkhleh consists mostly of dark-coloured sands and clays of the upper cretaceous formation. Some beds contain alum and others are phosphatic. Springs well up at many points from a depth of about 400 ft. and furnish an abundant water-supply to the cultivated lands (comp. p. lxxii). Some of these rise through natural fissures and others through holes bored for the purpose.
To the S. of the oases lies the lower plain of the Nubian sandstone. This plain contains no hills of any importance, but presents a low rolling surface covered with blackened flint pebbles and concretions of iron and manganese oxide, while the silicified trunks of fossil trees are frequently met with. Yellow drift-sand is seen everywhere, but it is only occasionally that it forms dunes of any size.
The oasis of Farâfra lies farther to the W., and to the N. and W. of it extends the plateau of eocene limestone as far as the oasis of Sîweh. The strata here are mostly of miocene age, and they contain numerous fossils, a fact recorded by Herodotus and Eratosthenes.

e. Agriculture and Vegetation.

1. CAPABILITIES OF THE SOIL. The land is extremely fertile, but it is not so incapable of exhaustion as it is sometimes represented to be. Many of the crops, as elsewhere, must occasionally be followed by a fallow period; others thrive only when a certain rotation is observed (such as wheat, followed by clover and beans); and some fields require to be artificially manured. Occasionally two crops are yielded by the same field in the same season (wheat and saffron, wheat and clover, etc.). The great extension within the last thirty or forty years of the cultivation of the sugar-cane, which requires a great deal of moisture, and of the cotton-plant, which requires much less, has necessitated considerable modifications in the modes of irrigation and cultivation hitherto in use. As both of these crops are of a very exhausting character, the land must either be more frequently left fallow or must be artificially manured. The industry and powers of endurance of the Egyptian peasantry are thus

most severely tried, although the homogeneous soil of the valley of the Nile requires less careful tilling and ploughing than ours. As the dung of the domestic animals is used as fuel throughout Egypt, where wood is very scarce, while that of the numerous pigeons (comp. p. 235) is mainly used for horticultural purposes, resource must be had to other manures. One of these is afforded by the ruins of ancient towns, which were once built of unbaked clay, but now consist of mounds of earth, recognizable only as masses of ruins by the fragments of pottery they contain. Out of these mounds, which conceal the rubbish of thousands of years, is dug a kind of earth, known as Sabakh, sometimes containing as much as 12 per cent of nitrate of soda, potash, and chloride of soda. The valuable nitrates, however, usually form a very small proportion. So largely have these ancient sites been worked of late years, since intensive cultivation began, that they will be exhausted at no very distant date. So long as the inundation deposited a thick deposit of fresh mud on the basin-lands every year, and a single crop was raised off the greater part of the area, the land could go on producing crops indefinitely, but now that most of the land is irrigated throughout the year a very small amount of the mud is deposited, while two or more crops are raised annually. To meet this, manuring in a much more systematic manner than hitherto has now become necessary, but as yet few cultivators have fully realized this.
2. IRRIGATION. As a consequence of the works described on p. lxvi, the whole of Egypt from Assiûṭ to the Mediterranean, with the exception of a strip of land along the edge of the Western Desert and the right bank of the Nile above Cairo, has had its old system of flood-irrigation, i.e. a single watering by the annual inundation, replaced by a perennial supply furnished by innumerable canals and watercourses. In the inundation season (p. lxiv) the sluice-gates of the dams are open and the red-brown flood rushes through them towards the plains of Egypt. When the irrigation-basins are filled up to a sufficient level, the water is left in them for about 40 days, to deposit its suspended mud and to soak the ground thoroughly. The perennially irrigated lands of the provinces of Middle Egypt and the Delta receive only so much water as the standing crops require, since these districts cannot be inundated. They, therefore, under the present intensive cultivation receive a very much smaller amount of mud from the flood-water than the land which has basin-irrigation, and this has to be compensated by extensive manuring.
Briefly stated, the annual routine after the end of the inundation is as follows. In November, when the Nile is falling and the whole country is amply supplied, the sluice-gates of the Assuân Dam are gradually closed, so as to fill the reservoir slowly. This is usually accomplished about the end of January. The gates of the Esneh, Assiûṭ, and Delta barrages are similarly manipulated so as to maintain the necessary depth of water in the supply-canals. In April the

supply falls below the requirements of the country, and, besides drawing upon the supply of the reservoir, it then often becomes necessary to restrict land-owners on different parts of a canal to drawing water from it in rotation. Periods of watering alternate with periods when the water is employed elsewhere. The intervals become longer as the river falls, and the supply steadily diminishes until the flood rises about the beginning of August.
Above Assiûṭ flood irrigation still continues. About Aug. 20th the river has risen high enough to flow into the supply canals and basins; in these, when full, the water stands for 40 days. At the end of this period the clear water is allowed to flow back into the river, or, in the case of years when the flood is exceptionally low, into other basins at a lower level. On the mud thus left the seed is sown and a crop is grown without further watering. In years of insufficient flood the higher portions of the land are not watered; these lands are termed ‘sharâḳi’ and pay no tax when unwatered.
The irrigation is effected by means of: (1) the ‘Sâḳiyeh’, or large wheels (rarely exceeding 30 ft. in diameter), turned by cattle or buffaloes, and sometimes by camels, and fitted with scoops or buckets (ḳâdûs) of wood or clay, resembling a dredging-machine. (2) The ‘Shâdûf’, an apparatus resembling an ordinary ‘well-sweep’ (with bucket and counter-weight), set in motion by one person only, and drawing the water in buckets resembling baskets in appearance; as a substitute for the sâḳiyeh several shâdûfs are sometimes arranged one above the other. (3) When it is possible to store the water in reservoirs above the level of the land to be watered, it is allowed to overflow the fields whenever required. This is the only method available in the oases, where fortunately the springs rise with such force as to admit of their being easily dammed up at a sufficiently high level. (4) Pumps driven by steam are used also, particularly when a large supply of water is required, as in the case of the sugar-plantations on the banks (gefs) of the Nile in the N. part of Upper Egypt, where they are seen in great numbers. (5) The ‘Tâbût’, a peculiar, very light, and easily moved wooden wheel, which raises the water by means of numerous compartments in the hollow felloes, is used mainly in the Lower Delta in places where the level of the water in the canals remains nearly the same. — Archimedean screws also are found in the Delta, and in the Faiyûm there are undershot water-wheels. Occasionally irrigation is effected by means of a basket (naṭṭâl) slung on a rope between two labourers. In order to distribute the water equally over flat fields, these are sometimes divided into a number of small squares by means of embankments of earth, a few inches in height, which, owing to the great plasticity of the Nile mud, are easily opened or closed so as to regulate the height of the water within them. The efforts of government as mentioned on p. lxvi are directed towards the emancipation of agriculture from dependence upon the inundation.
3. AGRICULTURAL SEASONS. In the time of the Pharaohs the Egyptian agricultural year, which originally began on July 19th, was divided into three equal parts, each consisting of four months of 30 days: the period of the inundation, winter, and summer. At the present day there are, strictly speaking, but two seasons: the hot season lasting from May to September and a cooler one from November to March, while October and April are intermediate months; but the effect which the annual Nile flood has upon the agriculture of the country rather than upon the climate has caused the period from July to October to be considered as a third season.
(a) The Winter Cultivation, or ‘Esh-Shitwi’, lasts on the flooded lands of Upper Egypt from November till April; on perennially irrigated land the winter-sowing takes place from October onwards, while the grain-harvest is reaped in April in Middle Egypt and in May in the Delta. In this season the principal crops are wheat, barley, beans, and barsim (clover).
(b) The Summer Crops (Eṣ-Seifi) may be considered as growing from May to August in the basin - lands and to October wherever there is perennial irrigation. The principal crops are rice, which is sown in May and harvested in October, and cotton, sown in March and picked in September and October. Most of the latter is grown from seed, but a limited amount is grown from two-year-old plants which have been cut back. On basin-lands of Upper Egypt where sufficient water from wells is available a crop of durra (millet) is grown and harvested before the flood-water arrives.
(c) The Autumn Season (‘En - Nîl’, or flood) is the shortest, lasting barely seventy days. On the rich land of the Delta maize is grown. A large crop of durra is raised on the perennially irrigated lands of Upper Egypt, and a considerable amount also grown on those which are not reached by the inundation. This crop is cut about November.
The AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS of the Egyptians are exceedingly primitive and defective. The chief of these is the plough (mihrát), the form of which is precisely the same as it was 5000 years ago; and the traveller will recognize it on many of the monuments and in the system of hieroglyphics. It consists of a pole about 6 ft. long, drawn by an ox. buffalo, or other draught-animal, attached to it by means of a yoke, while to the other end is fastened a piece of wood bent inwards at an acute angle and shod with a three-pronged piece of iron (lisán). Connected with the pole is the handle which is held by the fellah. These rude and light ploughs penetrate but slightly into the ground. The harrow is replaced in Egypt by a roller provided with iron spikes (ḳumfud, literally ‘hedgehog’). The only tool used by the natives on their fields, or in making embankments of earth, is a kind of hoe or shovel (migrafeh, fâ, torîyeh). The process of reaping consists in cutting the grain with a sickle (mingal), or simply uprooting it by hand. The (uôrag, or ‘threshing-sledge’, consists of a kind of sledge resting on a roller provided with sharp semicircular pieces of iron, and drawn by oxen or buffaloes. This primitive machine, being driven over the wheat, peas, or lentils to be threshed, crushes the stalks and ears and sets free the grain or seeds.
4. FARM PRODUCE OF EGYPT. The following is an enumeration of all the most important industrial crops cultivated in Egypt. On hearing the names of those with which he is unacqainted, the traveller may identify them with the aid of the Arabic names given below. The various products are enumerated in the order of their importance.
a. CEREALS. 1. Wheat (ḳamḥ) 2. Maize (dura shami, i.e. Syrian; called in Syria dura only). 3. Barley (shî‘ir). 4. Rice (ruzz), cultivated only in the lower part of the Delta of Alexandria and Raḥmânîyeh, as far as Manṣûra, Zaḳâzîk, Ṣâlihîyeh, and the Wâdi Ṭûmîlât. and also in the Faiyûm and in the oases of the Libyan desert. 5. Sorghum vulgare (dura beledi, i.e. durra of the country: simply called dura in the Sûdân: Ital. sorgho, Engl. Kaffir-corn, and the Tyrolese sirch). 6. Pennisetum typhoideum (dukha).
b. LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. 1. Broad beans (fûl). 2. Lentils (‘ads). 3. Chick-peas (ḥummuṣ). 4. Lupins (tirmis). 5. Peas (hisilla). 6. Vigna Sinensis (lubiya). 7. Dolichos Lablab (lablab), which is very frequently seen festooning walls and hedges, but is grown also in fields (lûbiya afin).
c. GREEN CROPS. 1. White Egyptian clover (barsim). 2. Fœnum Græcum (helbeh), frequently ground into flour and used in making bread; also generally eaten raw by the natives in spring; not to be confounded with clover. 3. Medicago saliva, or lucerne (barsim ḥegazi). 4. Lathyrus salivus, or flat pea (gilban). 5. Sorghum halepense (gerau).
d. STIMULANTS. Poppies, for the manufacture of opium (afiûn) — The growth and importation of Indian hemp (ḥashish; see p. xxvi) and the cultivation of tobacco (dukhkhân) are forbidden, the latter measure being in the interest of the customs-revenues.
e. TEXTILE MATERIALS. 1. Cotton (ḳaṭa), introduced from India in 1821, but extensively cultivated since 1863 only. 2. Flax (kittan). 3. Hibiscus cannabinus (til). 4. Sisal hemp, or Agave rigida.
f. DYES. 1. Indigo argentea, a peculiar kind (nîleh). 2. Lawsonia inermis (ḥenna), used for dyeing the nails, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet yellowish red (a very ancient custom); properly a tree, but, like the tea-plant, cultivated in fields in the form of a dwarfed bush. 3. Saffron (ḳarṭam or ‘oṣfur). 4. Reseda Luteola (bliya), used as a yellow dye.
g. OIL PLANTS. 1. Castor-oil plant (kharwa‘). 2. Sesame (simsim). 3. Rape (selgam). 4. Mustard (khardal, or kabar). 5. Arachides, or earthnuts (fûl sennâri, or simply fûl). 6. Saffron (as an oil-yielding plant). 7. Poppy (as an oil-plant).
h. SPICES. 1. Capsicum annuum, the Italian peperone (filfil aḥmar). 2. Capsicum frutescens, or Cayenne pepper (shaṭṭa). 3. Aniseed (yânsûn). 4. Coriander (kusbareh). 5. Cummin (kammûn). 6. Nigella (kammûn aswad). 7. Dill (shabat). 8. Mustard. 9. Fennel (shamar).
i. The SUGAR CANE (ḳaṣab) is largely cultivated in the N. part of Upper Egypt (comp. p. lxxii). An inferior variety, which is eaten raw, introduced from India in the time of the caliphs, is cultivated in every part of the country.
k. VEGETABLES. 1. Bamyas, or Hibiscus esculentus (bâmiya). 2. Onions (basal), 3. Pumpkins (ḳar‘a). 4. Cucumbers (khiydr), 5. Egyptian cucumbers (frequently trumpet-shaped) one of the chief exports of Egypt.and ribbed; different varieties called ‘abdelawi, ‘aggûr, etc.). 6. Melons (kuwûn; musk-melons, shammâm). 7. Water-melons (battikh). 8. Aubergines (badingân). 9. Tomatoes (tamatim). 10. Corchorus olitorius (melûkhîyeh). 11. Coloeasia (ḳulḳâs). 12. Garlie (iôm). 13. Mallows (khubbeizeh). 14. Cabbage (korumb). 15. Celery (karafs). 16. Radishes, a peculiar kind, with fleshy leaves, which form a favourite article of food (figl). 17. Lettuces (khazz). 18. Sorrel (ḥommeid). 19. Spinach (isbanikh). 20. Parsley (baḳdfinis). 21. Purslane (rigleh). 22. Turnips (lift). 23. Carrots (gezer, a peculiar kind, with red juice). 24. Beetroot (bangar). 25. Cress (Eruca sativa; gargir). A variety of other vegetables are cultivated in small quantities n gardens, exclusively for the use of European residents.
5. TREES AND PLANTATIONS. The extensive planting of trees since the middle of the 19th cent, has introduced a new feature into the Egyptian landscape. In ancient times most of the timber required for ship-building and other purposes seems to have been imported from abroad. Mohammed Ali, a great patron of horticulture, at one time offered prizes for the planting of trees, but his efforts were unattended with success, as the climatic and other difficulties attending the task were then but imperfectly understood in Egypt. Ibrâhîm followed the example of his predecessor, but ‘Abbaâs I. and Sa‘îd were sworn enemies to trees of every kind, and they were content that their palaces should be exposed to the full glare of the sun. A new epoch, however, began when the Khedive Ismâ‘îl summoned to Egypt M. Barillet (1869), superintendent of the gardens of Paris, one of the most skilful landscape-gardeners of the day. The finest of the shade-trees, both on account of its umbrageousness and the excellence of its wood, and one which thrives admirably, is the lebbakh (Albizzia Lebbek), which has long been erroneously called by travellers the acacia of the Nile (the latter being properly the ṣunṭ tree). Within forty years the lebbakh attains a height of 80 ft. and a great thickness, while the branches project to a long distance over the roads, covering them with a dense leafy canopy within a remarkably short time. Among the most important of the other kinds of trees thus planted are the magnificent ‘Flamboyer des Indes’ (Poinciana pulcherrima), the rapidly-growing Jacaranda, Casuarina, and Eucalyptus, tropical fig-trees, and several rare varieties of palms.
The commonest TREES OF AN EARLIER PERIOD which the traveller will encounter in every town in Egypt are the following: — The Acacia Nilotica (ṣunt), the thorn-tree of antiquity, the pods (ḳaraḍ) of which, resembling the beads of a rosary, yield an excellent material for tanning purposes. Next to the palm, this is the the tree most frequently seen by the wayside and in the villages. Then, the Acacia Farnesiana (fuṭnch), with blossoms of delicious perfume; the sycamore (gemmeis), anciently considered sacred; the zizyphus, or Christ's thorn-tree (nebḳ); tamarisks (atl); the Parkinsonia (seisebân); mulberry - trees (tût); and carob - trees, or bread of St. John (kharrûb).
Among the FRUIT TREES the most important is the date-palm (Phoenix dactylifera, nakhla; the date, balah; the ribs of the leaf, gerîd; the points of the leaf, sa‘af; the terminal bud, gummâr; the bast, lîf). In 1907 there were 5,966,010 date-palms in Egypt. The date-palms blossom in March and April, and the fruit ripens in August and September. Fresh dates are rough in appearance, blood-red or pale yellow in colour, and harsh and astringent in taste. Like the medlar they become more palatable after fermentation has set in. There are no fewer than twenty-seven kinds of date commonly offered for sale. The largest attain a length of three

inches, and are called ibrîmi, or sukkôti, as they come from N. Nubia. The most delicately flavoured are the dark-brown dates from Alexandria, known as amhâ, which are eaten fresh. The value of the dates exported annually amounts to about one million francs only, as they realize too high a price in the country itself to remunerate the exporter. — The dûm-palm (Hyphaena Thebaica) occurs principally in Upper Egypt and Nubia. It may be seen on the Nile above Baliana (comp. p.244). It is a broad-leafed palm of medium height, and its timber and bast are of considerable value. Various objects are made out of the hard kernel of the fruit, while the soft and fibrous rind is edible and has a sweetish taste, not unlike that of gingerbread. — The mango-tree (Mangifera Indica) has recently been introduced into the Delta for the sake of its fruit.
The vine thrives admirably in Egypt, and grapes (‘inab) abound from July to September. Wine was extensively made from them in ancient times, and this might still easily be done, were it not that Egypt is already amply supplied with cheap and excellent wines from every part of the Mediterranean. The vine blossoms in March and April, like the palm, and the grapes ripen in June and July. Oranges (burtuḳân) are abundant and cheap (the harvest beginning in September), and so also are mandarins (‘Yûsuf Effendi’) and small lemons (lamûn; the small and juicy fruit of the Citrus limonium); citrons and cedros are of less frequent occurrence. Among other fruit-trees we may mention also the pomegranate rummân), which yields a handsome return. The common European fruits likewise abound, but their flavour is generally very inferior. Figs (tîn) are very common in summer, but caprification is not practised in Egypt.
The principal DECORATIVE PLANTS are roses (ward; of which the Rosa Damascena moschata and Rosa sempervirens are specially cultivated for the manufacture of attar of roses), oleanders of astonishing height, carnations, and geraniums, all of which have been grown in Egypt from a very early period. A bushy tree, which in its half-leafless condition attracts the attention of every traveller on landing at Alexandria in winter, is the Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). The insignificant blossom is surrounded by leaves of the most brilliant red, presenting a very picturesque and striking appearance. Natural forests, or even solitary wild trees, are never met with in the valley of the Nile or in the valleys of the northern deserts.

f. Climate of Egypt.

By Captain H. G. Lyons.
The blue cloudless sky, the powerful sunlight, and the dry warm air are among the first facts that strike the traveller on his arrival in Egypt; and his surprise increases when he observes that

the conditions remain uniform day after day, and are, in short, so generally the rule that ‘the weather’ ceases to be a topic of conversation. If from the top of the hills or cliffs bordering the Nile valley to the S. of Cairo he looks out on the boundless deserts on either side, the visitor will realize at once that Egypt is practically a part of the Sahara, a verdant strip of fertile soil, 8-12 M. wide, dependent for its existence upon the Nile; and that the refreshing purity of the atmosphere is essentially due to the proximity of the desert.
Strictly speaking there are but two seasons (comp. p. lxxiii). During the summer-months (May-Sept.) there prevails throughout the whole of Egypt dry and hot weather, tempered by steady northerly winds, but in the other half of the year, and especially in December, January, and February, the storms of the Mediterranean exercise so much effect on the Delta that comparatively cold weather, with cloudy days, is sometimes experienced as far as Cairo and even up to Benisueif. The temperature is sometimes high even in winter, but the dryness of the air prevents it from being trying, while as soon as the sun gets low the temperature falls so rapidly as to necessitate precautions against a chill.
The mean maximum and minimum temperatures at some of the more important points are given in the following table:
January April July October
Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min.
°F. °F. °F. °F. °F. °F. °F. °F.
Alexandria 64.4 50.5 74.5 58.4 86.7 72.8 81.9 68.5
Cairo (‘Abbâsîyeh) 64.7 44.2 82.9 55 96.8 71.44 85.6 62.8
Assiût 69.6 39.6 90.8 56.5 99.7 71.9 87.9 63.3
Assiûṭ 74.3 48.4 96.6 64.6 107.2 77.5 99.5 69.2
Wâdi Ḥalfa 74.5 46.4 95.9 62.9 105.2 73.9 97.5 68.5
In spite of the essential dryness of the climate, the rapid fall of temperature at night causes morning-fog to be common in the Nile Valley in winter. It is, however, rapidly dissipated when the sun rises, and the rapid drying of the air as the day advances is shown in the following table.
Percentage of Relative Humidity.
January February March April May
Alexandria 64 67 65 67 68
Cairo (‘Abbâsîyeh) 71 67 61 53 49
Assiûṭ 69 63 55 43 37
Assuân 52 45 40 34 36
Wâdi Ḥalfa 47 37 31 25 21
Rain is rare in Upper Egypt, a slight shower in winter being the most that is usually recorded. Heavier rain-bursts take place

not infrequently in the desert, and on rare occasions extend to the Nile Valley.
At Cairo rain usually falls on 4-6 days in the year, the average amount being about one inch. In some years, however, as much as two inches are recorded, while in others hardly any rain falls.
At Alexandria and on the coast the regular winter-rains of the Mediterranean occur, and the average annual rainfall is 8-10 inches, most of which falls in November-February.
From Assiûṭ southwards the prevalent winds blow from the N. throughout the year, being slightly to the E. of N. in the spring-months and more to the W. in the late summer. In winter and spring dry S. winds occur occasionally. In the N. portion of the country the winds are more variable, for although N. winds prevail, S. and S.W. winds may continue for several days in the winter and are a great hindrance to the sailing craft on the Nile at this season. These S. winds are due to the Mediterranean winter-storms, which sweep by from W. to E., and if they follow a track between Crete and Egypt produce S. winds blowing from the Egyptian deserts towards the storm-centre. The winds blowing from the open desert are cold and by their dryness seem to be even colder than they really are, so that visitors to Cairo in the winter-months may experience the sensation of a somewhat greater degree of cold than would be expected from the temperatures quoted above.
The spring-storms of the Mediterranean are also primarily the cause of the Khamâsîn or hot S. wind which occasionally blows for two or three days at a time in March. April, and May. This wind blows from the heated deserts and often attains considerable strength, carrying with it stand and dust until a thick yellow fog may prevail, sufficiently dense to hide the sun. The shade temperature under these conditions frequently exceeds 100° Fahr.
On the desert-plateau the range of temperature is at all times of the year considerably greater than in the valley, while the dryness is much greater. In the valley the temperature varies comparatively little and sinks to freezing point only for very brief periods. On the desert-plateau, however, the thermometer often stands at the freezing point and may even fall several degrees below it.

lxxix

III. El-Islâm.

By Professor C. H. Becker.

The term Islâm is used to connote the peculiar civilization of the Nearer East, which owes its characteristic features to the spread of the Arabs and to the religion of Mohammed. However strange and novel it may appear to us at first sight, it is nevertheless based upon the same general principles as the civilization of mediæval Europe, from which it differs mainly in being represented by other peoples and other races, to whom the brilliant intellectual development of Europe has been denied.
The rise of El-Islâm has become historically intelligible only within recent years. Formerly it was tacitly assumed on all hands that the Arabs had imposed upon the East not only a new language, but also a new, specifically Arab, civilization. This view agreed with Christian conceptions, which recognized in Islâm only a new religion and founded its opposition to Arab dominion on religious and ecclesiastical motives only. In Christian eyes Mohammed was identified with Antichrist; he instigated his barbarian hordes to hurl themselves upon the Christian countries of the East in order to convert them to Islâm by the sword; the course of development since antiquity was abruptly broken off; and the Islamic Arab civilization superseded its early-Christian predecessor. When, with such preconceptions as these, the Arabian historical sources were consulted, they seemed at first to yield confirmation. The Arab tradition was as ecclesiastically coloured as the European; there, too, the starting-point was Mohammed and the Arab migrations; Mohammed and the early Caliphs were supposed to have reorganized everything and to have created, in all essentials, the new Islamic civilization. As a matter of fact, the erroneousness of all these current conceptions cannot be too emphatically insisted on.
In the first place it must be clearly understood that the triumphant campaigns of the Mohammedans were nothing else than an Arab Migration, the latest and, for us, the most obvious of the great Semitic migrations, absolutely analogous with the great migrations of the Germanic peoples in Europe. The main difference between the Arab and the Germanic migrations is this, viz. that the Arabs, owing to their religious organization, were directed by a central authority, so that the establishment of a homogeneous Islamic empire became a possibility. It was not religious zeal, it was not the fiery words of an inspired prophet that urged the Arabs on their warlike mission to the outer world; simple necessity, the long continued economic decline of Arabia, in a word sheer hunger, drove them into the rich lands of the settled countries. The movement had begun centuries before Mohammed. The tribes of Inner Arabia were already on the move, a peaceful immigration of Arabs into Mesopotamia and Syria had already begun, and the standing

hostility between Byzantium and Persia had many times led to incursions into the settled districts by the savage border-tribes of both empires. The tide had thus begun to flow long before Islâm gave the movement a unifying watch-word and an organization. Universal dominion for the Arabs was the watch-word; that was the interpretation put upon Islâm by the conquerors, in sharp contrast with the initial position of their prophet. They had no thought of converting the defeated nations by force; so long as tribute was paid and Arab supremacy recognized, every religious and civil right was confirmed to the conquered. At first conversion to Islâm was possible only by connecting the convert with the Arab tribal system as a client; then, as a Moslem, he became, in theory at least, a fully qualified burgess of the Islamic theocracy and no longer required to pay tribute. Thus the flood of converts to Islâm soon became larger than was altogether pleasing to the Arabs; but the impelling force was not terror of the sword but the great economic advantages that attended the transition of a mere subject into even the lowest rank among the rulers.
The key to a proper appreciation of Islamic civilization lies in a due understanding of the relations existing between the thin Arab upper layer and the huge underlying mass of their subjects. In the case of kindred peoples at least, it was easy for the Arabs to impose their language as the language of common intercourse; and for the reasons given above their religion also was bound to spread. But for the rest the Arabs, comparatively few in number and on a lower stage of culture, could hardly hope to stamp a new civilization upon the highly-developed inhabitants of the ancient empire. In each new-won province, therefore, they simply took over the arrangements for governing as they found them, and with them all the problems of economic and intellectual life. Even their religion, in order to be effective, was forced to come to an understanding with the existing ecclesiastical conceptions of expiring antiquity. The religion of Islâm, born of the religious spirit of W. Asia, did not of its own strength impose upon a population of a widely different nature that religious temper which is to this day characteristic of the Islamic world, permeating state and society, family and individual. On the contrary; it was by the people of the conquered lands that Islâm itself was converted to that view of existence, as we now see it, which infuses religion into everything; for these new converts, in contrast with the religiously-indifferent Arabs, could neither do anything nor leave anything undone without bringing it into direct relation with God and the future life. We must therefore think of the early Islamic civilization, not as something quite new, introduced from elsewhere by the Arabs, but as the self-assertion of the remarkable mixed civilization of the Near East which had developed in the course of the first six Christian centuries. In other words, Islâm is the heir of the late-Hellenistic

Christian civilization, which we must regard as the hybrid product of Greek and Asiatic feelings and philosophy.
When that point is established Islamic civilization falls into its natural position in the general scheme of the historical development of the world. From the days of Alexander the Great down to the Roman imperial epoch the East had been forced to bow European ideas and to submit to European domination. But just as in the days of the early emperors the Hellenic spirit was suffocated in the embrace of the Orient and the classical world hungrily assimilated the cults and religions of the East; so an ethnical renaissance of the East began in the second century and the Semitie element steadily asserted itself beneath the Hellenistic surface. With the spread of the Arabs the Orient once more achieved an independence in the political sphere, corresponding to that which had slowly been growing in the political sphere, corresponding to that which had slowly been growing in the intellectual sphere. The first result of the political union of the whole of the Near East was that the Greek intellectual impulses there, cut off from their original sources of inspiration and operating only through Semites, were submerged by orientalism. On the other hand the seeds of Asiatic civilization found fresh nourishment in the new whole formed by the permanent political connection between the Near East and Western Asia; and the Asiatic reaction against the comprehensive expansion of the Greek spirit operated until far on in the Islamic period. Thus Islamic civilization finds its organic connection with and place in the general course of history. Further, we recognize another important bond of connection; for, if Islâm simply carried Christian civilization a step farther, we are no longer surprised by the profound inner relationship between the mental outlook of mediæval Christianity and that of Islâm; both systems are based upon the common foundation of the Greek-Oriental civilization of Christian antiquity. The Arabs on the one hand consistently stressed the oriental elements in this civilization; while on the other hand, on European soil, the Germanic spirit turned farther and farther away from these and collaborated from its inner consciousness the typical western forms of the middle ages.
From these fundamental principles it becomes clear why Arabia could not permanently remain the seat of the caliphate. Damascus superseded Medîna. It was only in the agitated period of the Arab empire, the period of expansion, that the artificial condition of the political supremacy of the Arabs over subjects superior to them in culture could be maintained. In the long run the economic and intellectual influence of the subjugated races was bound to tell and the deposition of the Arab ruling class was inevitable. The levelling influence of Islâm, as it was understood by the over-whelming majority of its converts, destroyed the economic basis of the Arab dominion and with it the prerogatives of the Arabs as such. The net results of the Arab period of Islamic civilization

were a simple continuance of previously existing elements of civilization, an advance to a kind of syncretism among the varied civilizations of the Near East, and the spread of the Arab tongue and the religion of Islâm.
By-and-by the people that was nationally the strongest and the most advanced in culture within the wide empire of the caliphs began to assert itself. That people was the Persians, whose civilization even in pre-Islamic days had permeated the Near East and was, indeed, the chief factor in orientalizing it. It is almost impossible to exaggerate the importance of the Persian element in Islamic civilization, which is so often erroneously spoken of as Arabian. If we are to connect that civilization with the name of any one people, it must be with the name of the Persians; for all the notable achievements of the period of the caliphs, the sumptuous buildings, the works of literature, even the higher developments of the religion of Islâm, are utterly un-Arabian and, so far as they are not inspired by Greek influences, are due to the Persian spirit. Only the domain of law, so intimately connected with the beginnings of a religion, betrays the stamp of the Prophet's native land. The decisive ascendancy of the Persians is apparent enough in the facts that the Arabic language never established itself on Persian soil and that under the Abbaside caliphs it was a matter of course that court and government, architecture and literature, should be modelled after ancient Persian patterns. Moreover, when the separate provinces developed into independent kingdoms, it was the Persian rulers alone that followed local traditions, while, e.g., the Tulunide sultans of Egypt could only imitate the Persianized Baghdad and the residence of the caliphs at Samarra. Even the civilization of the Fatimite empire was thoroughly Persian.
The transference of the imperial residence from Damascus to Baghdad heralded a new era, and the Arabian military aristocracy was simultaneously changed into an absolute despotism on the accident oriental pattern. This was the natural consequence of the deposition of the Arabs as a ruling caste (p. lxxxi). The Arab aristocracy of birth was superseded by a bureaucratic aristocracy of Persian officials, the free warriors sank into the condition of paid troops, and were finally replaced by an army of slaves.
With these slaves, who were a constantly growing factor in the Islamic world from the 9th century onwards, the third great national element powerfully affecting Islâm enters upon the scene. The Turks, appearing at first in groups of slaves but afterwards as strong tribes from Central Asia, introduced fresh traditions and new forms into the empire of the caliphs. This third phase in the development of Islâm begins with the appearance of the Seljuks, the most powerful of these Turkish tribes. The union of the empire had long before begun to crumble, but the Seljuks for a time postponed

its disintegration. Egypt, indeed, at first stood out against them, but even Egypt in the long run was unable to repel the tide of Seljuk influence; and Turkish civilization penetrated to the Nile under Saladin, who himself stood upon the ruins of the Seljuk power. The religious reaction was accompanied by a change in ecclesiastical architecture (p. clxxx), and the establishment of a feudal system (very different indeed from the European system) coincided with a total alteration of all titles of honour. The traditions of Saladin's epoch were carried on in all departments by the Mamelukes, whose influence is most conspicuous in Egypt; while the continuous reinforcements from Central Asia conduced at the same time to the growing accentuation of the Asiatic elements. The Mongol invasion, which finally overthrew the Seljuk civilization in Asia, came to a halt before the gates of Egypt. Egypt's brilliant period ended only when she lost her political independence and became subject to a foreign people from Central Asia, viz. the Osman Turks (1517).
A glance over the historical development thus briefly sketched shows at once why the Islamic civilization cannot properly be named after any particular nation; from the very first it was a hybrid civilization resting upon the international basis of religion. Yet amid all the mingling of the various constituent elements, amid all the confused shiftings of peoples, one unifying principle is clear: viz. the steady growth of Asiatic Ideas. Ante-dating Islâm, the process had begun in a reaction against Greek intellectual supremacy and Roman political dominion; European fetters were burst asunder and shaken off, and in the course of subsequent development both the Near East and Egypt passed under the direct influence of Asiatic conceptions, first in the intellectual and finally also in the political sphere. But that accomplished, the vital ethnic force and the intellectual energy of Asia were exhausted. This is the true reason of the striking decline of Islâm under Osman rule. Its civilization has culminated; strength fails it for a renaissance. At the present day, just as in the Hellenistic period, the European spirit and European domination are pressing forward in the East. This western movement in the historical process will certainly be followed by an eastern reaction. In any case only the form and not the essence will be common to the East and West in the intellectual sphere so long as racial differences exist among nations.
Doctrines of El-Islâm . El-Islâm counts to-day about 260 million confessors, mostly in Asia and Africa, but to be found in all the other continents also, including Australia. It is rapidly extending, especially in Africa. Almost the entire population of Egypt (about 91¾ per cent) is Mohammedan.
Partly from the former article by the late Prof. A. Socin.

lxxxiv

Mohammed, the founder of the religion, son of ‘Abdallâh, was born at Mecca about 570 A.D. and at the age of forty announced himself as a prophet. As he found no acceptance in his native Mecca, he emigrated in 622 to Medîna. This was the famous Hegira or Hijra (quite erroneously translated ‘flight’), the date of which, on the introduction of the Mohammedan calendar, was fixed as 16th July, 622. At Medîna he met with more success, and from the position of a kind of magistrate he rose to be the head of a new state. After years of fighting he captured Mecca in 630, but two years later he died at Medina in the prime of life. Mohammed never represented himself as anything beyond a mortal man, but in legend, which in the East has the authority of history, he is invested with the halo of the miraculous. God, it is said, created the Light of the Prophet even before the creation of the divine throne; and this Light wandered through all the generations of men until it manifested itself at the centre of the world in the best of created beings, a noble scion of the noblest family of Mecca. Angels, opening the breast of the boy, expunged the last drop of sin from his heart. A little later the Archangel Gabriel brought him the Revelations, the Korans, which were then formed into a book. Mohammed wrought many miracles and even raised the dead to life, as in the case of his parents, who turned their brief resurrection to account by embracing Islâm. Among his most celebrated feats was the splitting of the moon and his nocturnal journey (mi‘râg) on a miraculous steed from Jerusalem to heaven, where he treated with the Deity as to the number of prayers to be offered by the faithful.
The starting-point of Mohammed's teaching was the conception of the Last Judgment. Borrowing the conviction of a future life and of future rewards and punishments from the Jews and Christians, who were found all over Arabia, Mohammed exhorted his careless fellow-countrymen, who lived merely from day to day, to adopt a more serious conception of life. Paradise and hell were drawn by him in striking colours. The idea of the Judgment involves the idea of a just and single deity; from the beginning, therefore, Mohammed had to preach the strictest monotheism in opposition to the fetishism of the Arabs. This he named Islâm, i.e. resignation to the will of God. He believed at first that Christianity and Judaism were identical, and he desired to bring the same glad gospel to the Arabs. When he learned the real historical relation of these faiths, he postulated an ascending series of revelations, culminating in Islâm. At Medîna he at first endeavoured to accommodate himself to the doctrines of the Jewish community there, but soon finding this impossible he shook himself free of both Christian and Jewish fetters, although he still adhered to Abraham (Ibrâhim), who was venerated by Jews and Christians alike and was, moreover, according to the Bible the ancestor, through Ishmael, of the Arabs. The ancient temple of stone at Mecca, the Kaaba (Ka‘ba, i.e. cube), became to him an analogue of

the temple of Jerusalem. The entire native creed of the Meccans was re-interpreted on an Abrahamistic basis, so that its incorporation with Islam was rendered possible. On the other hand the reception of Islâm by the Meccans was equally facilitated. In addition to this assertion of religious independence the Hegira had another consequence of great moment for the future of Islâm; the position of the Prophet as also the head of a state entailed a mingling of political and religious life. And as a matter of fact the present markedly political character of Islâm is a result of this short-lived theocracy. Mohammed further had definite conceptions of a revealed religion, for which he deemed necessary a sacred book, a prophet, and a fixed ritual with recitations and liturgies. But at the date of his death neither Islamic law nor dogma, not even the number of daily prayers, was fixed and determined. The comprehensive system now known as the religion of Islâm gradually grew up in the course of time.
The foundation is the Koran (p. lxxxix), the very word of God which was collected and published as early as 650 A.D. This contains few rescripts or laws. Next to it as a rule of conduct ranks the Sunna, the practice of the Prophet and his earliest associates. To follow this example in all its details became, doubtless under the influence of the Jewish spirit, the aim of every believer. The Sunna was glossed by the sayings of the Prophet and by reports as to his practice and as to the things that he suffered to happen without comment. These formed the traditions or Ḥadîths. Originally the Ḥadîths were substantially genuine, but in the course of the general effort to live as the Prophet did they finally became the literary vehicles of religious controversy. To sift them and to harmonize their contradictory sayings has given rise to a science of itself. In this process the consensus or agreement of the learned (Igmâ‘) was the deciding authority, which thus became authoritative over the Sunna, and indeed over the Koran itself, for only the Igmâ‘ was able rightly to interpret the Koran. The early scholars of Islâm too received the Igmâ‘ as the most important principle of development next to the Sunna and the Koran.
Founded on the Koran, the Sunna, and the Igmâ‘, Mohammedan Law has been developed into a canonical system, embracing every department of life, in the manner of the Jewish and Christian systems. When the Arabs became masters of the ancient civilized countries of the Near East, there arose at once a crop of unforeseen legal problems, which had to be solved according to the Sunna, or at least in their spirit. The impulse to independent legal activity in the newly-conquered lands was given (as in the ‘Irâḳ by Abu Ḥanîfa, d. 767) by the pre-Justinian Roman law that had been accepted by the Christian church. Against this intellectual independence, which allowed room for differences of opinion, arose the orthodox party at Medina (Mâlik ibn Anas: d. 795), who admitted only the letter of

the ancient tradition. Afterwards a compromise was attained by the admission of analogous decisions (Ḳiyâs). as a legal-theological principle (Esh-Shûfi i, d. 820). A considerable number of schools of jurisprudence (madhhab, pl. madhâhib) arose, named after their founders; but of these only four finally survived: the Mâlikites, Hanefites, Shâfites, and Ḥanbalites (pronounced Ḥambalites). In Egypt the Shâfi‘ites, and Malikites are most influential to-day; in Turkey, the Ḥanefites; in West Africa, the Malikites. The Ḥanbalites, restricted to Arabia, are of inferior importance. Every believer must belong to one or other of these rites or schools (which are not sects). They mutually recognize each other as orthodox and differ only in their distribution of actions among the five recognized classes of ‘commanded’, ‘recommended’, ‘indifferent’, ‘blameworthy’, and ‘forbidden’. The science of law is known as Fiḳh (recognition). It forms practically the entire sphere of Islamic mental activity. Its results, varying slightly according to the rites and adapting themselves to the interpretation of each, constitute the Sherîa, or Shar‘, the holy law. It contains the collection of those precepts from the Koran and the Sunna that have been approved by the Igmâ‘ and are therefore authoritative. Certain later text-books also have attained a certain canonical authority. The theologian who is officially entrusted with the exposition of the law is called Muftî, his decision Fetwâ. The chief muftî bears the title Sheikh u‘l-Istâm. These experts are necessary, for only the learned can grasp the entire complicated system. These learned men (‘Ulamâ, sing. ‘Alim) and jurists (Fuḳahâ. sing. Faḳîh) resemble Jewish scribes rather than Christian priests. A sinner may reckon upon divine pardon even if he transgress the precepts of the Sherî‘a daily or hourly, but if he doubt their theoretical authority he is an infidel. This is why Mohammedans are always ready to fly to arms when the Sheri‘a is threatened. In practice they trouble themselves little about its precepts.
The five pillars (i.e. chief duties) of Islâm are the profession of the true faith (p. lxxxviii), the repetition of the daily prayers, the payment of the charitable tax, the fast during Ramadan, and the pilgrimage to Mecca. Other matters dealt with by the Sherî‘a are the laws relating to family duties, inheritance, and marriage; the management of religious endowments (Waḳf, pl. Auḳâf), which occupies a ministerial department in Egypt; and the regulation of ceremonies and custom. The precepts of the law as regards these, being regarded as religious in the narrower sense, are carried out in practice as far as possible. In other matters, regarded as more theoretical (such as constitutional law, criminal law, the law of real property, and the law of obligations), local customary law (‘Ada) has from the very first outweighed the Sherî‘a. The distinction between the Âda, the commands of custom, and the Sherî‘a, the commands of religion, is recognized in every sphere of Islamic life. The extent to which the Sherî‘a prevails in any country is a measure of the real strength of

Islâm in that country. At times of fanatical excitement its prescriptions are fulfilled with unusual zeal. Among uneducated people the ‘Âda and the Sherî‘a are naturally often identified.
The hours of PRAYER (ṣalat) are proclaimed five times a day by the muezzins (mu‘eddin) from the minarets of the mosques: (1) Maghib, a little after sunset; (2) ‘Isheh, nightfall, about 1½ hour after sunset; (3) Ṣubh, daybreak; (4) Ḍuhr, midday; (5) ‘Asr, afternoon, about 3 hours after midday. On Fridays the midday recital of prayer takes place three quarters of an hour earlier than usual and is followed by a sermon. Friday, however, is not regarded as a day of rest in the Christian sense. The sonorous call of the muezzin is as follows: Allâhu akbar (three times): ashhadu anna la ilaha illa llâh; ashhadu anna Muhammedan rasûlu‘llah (twice); heiya ‘ala‘ṣṣaláh (twice); ḥeiya ‘ala‘lfalah (twice); Allâhu akbar (twice); lâ ilâha illa‘llah; i.e. ‘Allah is greatest; I testify that there is no God but Allah. I testify that Mohammed is the apostle of Allah; come to prayer; come to worship; Allah is greatest; there is no God but Allah‘. — The duty of

washing before prayer is enforced by the ritual. In the desert the faithful are permitted to use sand for this religious ablution. The person praying must remove his shoes or sandals and turn his face towards Mecca, as the Jews used to turn towards Jerusalem. He begins his orisons by holding his hands to the lobes of his ears, then a little below his girdle, and he interrupts his recitations from the Koran with certain prostrations in a given order. The most usual prayer is the first Sûreh of the Koran, one of the shortest, which is used as we employ the Lord's prayer. It is called el-futha (‘the commencing’) and is to the following effect: — ‘In the name of God, the merciful and gracious. Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds, the merciful and gracious, the Prince of the day of judgment; Thee we serve, and to Thee we pray for help; lead us in the right way of those to whom thou hast shown mercy, upon whom no wrath resteth, and who go not astray. Amen'. After praying the Moslem looks over his right, then over his left shoulder, in greeting to the two recording angels who write down his good and evil actions.
The CHARITABLE TAX (zukal) is a high religious tax upon property graduated according to the kind of property, and earmarked for certain

purposes, chiefly charity and the ‘holy war’. Now, however, it is paid only by the very pious. But in religious risings the zakât is an inexhaustible source of supply. A special kind of charitable tax, called the zakat el-fiṭr, or tax for breaking the fast, is almost universal.
For the FAST (ṣôm) of the month Ramadan, the third of the chief duties of Islâm, comp. p. xcvi.
For the PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA (ḥagg) the pilgrims assemble at particular points. Those from Egypt usually proceed by sea to Jidda on the Red Sea (p. 424). On approaching Mecca the pilgrims undress, laying aside even their headgear, and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Kaaba, kiss the black stone, bear the sermon on Mt. ‘Arafât near Mecca, pelt Satan with stones in the valley of Muna, and conclude their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial feast. On the day when this takes place at Mecca, sheep are slaughtered and a festival called the Great Bairam (El‘ld el-Kebir) is observed throughout all the Mohammedan countries. The conduct of the caravan, with the gifts presented to the town of Mecca, the escort, and other items, costs the Egyptian government more than 50,000l. annually.
Other RELIGIOUS PRECEPTS forbid the use of intoxicating liquors or of the flesh of swine and the eating of the flesh of any animal not slaughtered in the prescribed fashion or of blood. The position of women is clearly defined. Every Moslem is permitted to have four wives at a time, though monogamy is the rule, owing to economic conditions. A woman has full rights under the law of property, but under the law of succession and as a witness she is regarded as equivalent only to half a man. The practice of veiling women, usual in the higher circles, is a matter coming under the ‘ada not the sheri‘a (p. lxxxvi); except in the towns women are usually seen unveiled. The case with which Islâm permits divorce is a grave moral danger; in Mecca, for example, prostitution exists under the form of marriage. Further details as to Islamic law may be found in the ‘Handbuch des islamischen Gesetzes‘, by Th. W. Juynboll of Leyden (Leipzig, 1908 10, 9 marks), a work adapted for the layman as well as for the legal expert.
Dogma by no means plays such an important part in Islâm as in Christianity; for the simple Moslem creed is embodied in the words: ‘There is no God but God (Allah) and Mohammed is the prophet of God’. But all the same lively controversies over dogma have not been absent in the development of Islâm, mainly owing to the influence of Græco-Christian modes of thought. Just as in the sphere of law, we find here a literal and a speculative interpretation; and in the sphere of dogma also orthodoxy triumphed by adopting the speculative method in a modified form. The process of amalgamation is generally associated with the name of El-Ash‘arî (d. 935). The questions most eagerly canvassed were those relating to the freedom of the will, the attributes of God, and the nature of the Koran (i.e. whether it is ‘eternal’ or ‘created’). The orthodox solutions of these problems are roughly as follows. There is but one God, in whom certain universal attributes inhere (knowledge, seeing, hearing, etc.), but who must not be conceived of under a human form. He is all-mighty and has therefore created also evil, which serves his purposes of salvation in a manner inconceivable by our limited human intelligence. Above all, God is the Creator, who at every moment re-creates all things. Causality is merely the creative operation of the divine will. In this connection man is not free, for everything is immutably foreordained by God's will. God operates everything

in man, but man is nevertheless responsible, according as he assents to or dissents from the operations of God. The Koran, like the Logos of the Christians, is conceived of as uncreated and co-existent with God from all eternity; but on the other hand the Koran committed to the Prophet by the angel Gabriel is created. The cardinal points which every Moslem is bound to hold are the beliefs in God and the angels, in written revelation and the prophets, and in the last judgment and predestination.
GOD AND THE ANGELS. Ninety-nine of the different attributes of God were afterwards gathered from the Koran, each of which is represented by a bead of the Moslem rosary. Great importance is attached to the fact that the creation of the world was effected by a simple effort of the divine will. (God said ‘Let there be’, and there was.) The story of the creation in the Koran is taken from the Bible, with variations from Rabbinical, Persian, and other sources. God first created his throne; beneath the throne was water; then the earth was formed. In order to keep the earth steady God created an angel and placed him on a huge rock, which in its turn rests on the back and horns of the bull of the world.
In connection with the creation of the firmament was that of the jinn (demons), beings occupying a middle rank between men and angles, some of them believing, others unbelieving. When the jinn became arrogant an angel was ordered to banish them, and he accordingly drove them to the mountains of Ḳâf by which the earth is surrounded, whence they occasionally make incursions. Adam was then created, on the evening of the sixth day, and the Moslems on that account observe Friday a their Sabbath. As the angel who conquered the jinn refused to bow down before Adam, he was exiled and thenceforward called Iblis, or the devil. After this Adam himself fell and became a solitary wanderer, but was afterwards re-united to Eve at Mecca, where the sacred stone in the Kaaba derives its black colour from Adam's tears. Adam is regarded as the first orthodox Moslem.
The Angels are the bearers of God's throne and execute his commands. They act also as mediators between God and men. While there are legions of good angels, there are also innumerable satellites of Satan, who seduce men to error.
WRITTEN REVELATION AND THE PROPHETS. The earliest men were all believers, but they afterwards fell away from the true faith. A revelation therefore became necessary. The prophets are very numerous, amounting in all, it is said, to 124,000; but they differ very much in rank. They are free from all gross sins and are endowed by God with power to work miracles, which power forms their credentials; nevertheless they are generally derided and disbelieved. The greater prophets are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, Jesus being the next greatest after Mohammed. Moses and Christ prophesied the advent of Mohammed, who is the promised Paraclete, the Comforter (St. John xiv. 16), the last and greatest of the prophets. He confirms previous revelations but his appearance has superseded them.
The KORAN (Korân), the name of which signifies ‘rehearsal’, or ‘reading’, is divided into 114 chapters or parts called Sûrehs. The first revelation vouchsafed to the Prophet took place in the ‘blessed night’ in the year 609. With many interruptions the ‘sending down’ of the Koran extended over twenty-three years, until the whole book was in the prophet's possession. The earlier or Meccan sûrehs, placed at the end of the book on account of their brevity, are characterized by great freshness and vigour of style. In the longer sûrehs of a later period the style is more studied and the narrative often tedious. The Koran is nevertheless regarded as the masterpiece of Arabic literature.
The best English translations of the Koran are those of E. Sale (1734; obtainable in a cheap form or with a preliminary discourse and copious notes, edit. by Rev. E. M. Wherry, 1882-86, 4 vols.); Rodwell (London,

1861; 2nd edit., 1878); and Palmer (London, 1880). See also Sir William Muir, ‘The Côran, its Composition and Teaching’ (1878); T. W. Arnold, ‘The Preaching of Islam’ (2nd edit.; London, 1913; 12s. 6d.).
LAST JUDGMENT. The doctrine of the resurrection has been highly elaborated in the Koran and subsequent tradition; but its main features have doubtless been borrowed from the Christians, as has also the appearance of Antichrist, and the part to be played by Christ at the Last Day. On that day Christ will establish Islâm as the religion of the world. Before him will re-appear the Mahdi, the ‘well-directed one’, the twelfth Imâm (p. xcii), who will establish the Islamic ideal empire and will render Islamic law supreme. The Last Judgment will begin on the appearance of Christ. The first trumpet-blast of the angel Asrâfil will kill every living being; a second will awaken the dead. Then follows the Judgment; the righteous cross to Paradise by a bridge of a hair's breadth, while the wicked fall from the bridge into the abyss of hell. At the Judgment every man is judged according to the books of the recording angels (p. lxxxvii). The book is placed in the right hand of the good, but is bound in the left hand of the wicked behind their backs. The scales in which good and evil deeds are weighed play an important part in deciding the soul's fate, and the doctrine of the efficacy of works is carried so far that it is believed works of supererogation may be placed to the credit of other believer. Hell, as well as heaven, has different grades; and Islâm assumes the existence also of a purgatory, from which release is possible. Paradise is depicted by Mohammed as a place of entirely material delights.
Mysticism, the third great branch of religious thought under Islam, aims at an immediate union with the divine on the basis of emotion, in contradistinction to the hair-splitting of the dogmatists and to the doctrine of the efficacy of works taught by the moralists. The mystics seek their end in two ways. On the one hand they bridge over the vast gulf between God and humanity by the conception of mediators with God, viz. Saints, who with reference to an expression in the Koran are known as ‘those who stand near God’ (Auliyâ, sing. Walî); and on the other hand, by emotional exercises in company, they aim at producing an ecstatic exaltation of mind, i.e. the immediate blending of their own individuality with that of the Deity. The latter is the explanation of the practices of the orders of dervishes (p. xci). In the worship of saints, which centres principally at tombs and ancient holy sites, we trace the same popular polytheistic tendencies as appear in Christianity, connected with the primitive traditions of the heroic age. A not unwarrantable attempt has been made to deduce the fundamental forms of early Semitic religious conceptions from the practices current to-day in the Islamic saint-worship. The recognition of saints became possible in Islâm when Mohammed himself was exalted above the infirmities of humanity. The tomb of Mohammed at Medîna and that of his grandson Ḥosein at Kerbelâ became particularly famous, and every little town soon boasted of the tomb of its particular saint. In many of the villages the traveller will observe small dome-covered buildings with grated windows. These are saints' tombs and are called ‘Sheikhs’ (comp. p. clxxxiii). ‘Sheikh’ also means a chief or old man. Shreds of cloth are often seen suspended from the gratings of these tombs, or on certain trees

which are considered sacred, having been placed there by devout persons or by those who have made vows. About the end of the 18th century a reaction against the abuses of Islâm sprang up in Central Arabia. The Wahabis, named after their founder ‘Abdel-Wahhâb, endeavoured to restore the religion to its original purity; they destroyed all tombs of saints, including even those of Mohammed and Ḥosein, as objects of superstitious reverence, and sought to restore the primitive simplicity of the prophet's code of morals. As a political power, however, they were suppressed by Mohammed Ali (p. cxxi).
Another development quite foreign to the original spirit of Islâm is that of the RELIGIOUS ORDERS (Turuk, sing. Ṭarîka), or Orders of Dervishes. Starting with the Christian doctrine of asceticism (hence Darwîsh, Faḳîr, poor man, Ṣûfî, man in a woollen shirt), the mystics early borrowed Neo-Platonic (Dionysos Areopagita) and subsequently also Buddhist ideas. Even the Buddhist nirvana was adopted under the form of fanâ, the destruction of individuality. As a natural consequence pantheistic and other heresies found their way into Islam. The orthodox party long opposed the recognition of the mystics, and mysticism did not effect its footing until the time of the celebrated philosopher Ghazzâti. To-day all those orders that accept the formulæ of the faith and the received doctrine of religious duties are recognized as orthodox. Each order has its own fixed system, with an ascending series of degrees. A man may reach the lower degrees in several different orders, the higher degrees in one only. A member enters an order with a view to obtain a share in the blessings of certain forms, which have been consecrated by the founder of the order and are maintained in its traditions. The zikrs, or religious exercises, are directed towards producing a state of mental excitement by means of pious invocations or dancing (hence howling dervishes, dancing dervishes; comp. p. 71); the souls of those who reach a condition of ecstasy are considered to be absorbed in the Deity. These orders represent in the East the religious and other associations of Europe; and this fact is the key to their significance. They are more important economically than politically, though great political movements, even in recent times, have been brought about by organizations resembling these orders, as, e.g., the insurrection of the Mahdi at Kharṭûm. The original orders were few, but numerous subdivisions have in course of time established themselves on an independent footing. In Egypt all the orders are under the control of the Sheikh el-Bekrî, who is the political representative of their interests and presides at public functions.
The following are the principal orders of dervishes (ṭarîkat ed drâwish) in Egypt: —
(1) The Rifâ‘iyeh (sing. rifâ‘i), an order founded by Seiyid Aḥmed er-Rifâ‘i el-Kebîr, are recognizable by their black flags and black, dark blue, or bluish-green turbans. The best known branches of this order are

the Úlâd ‘Ilwân, or ‘Ilwâniych Dervishes, and the Sa‘diyeh Dervishes. The former are noted for their extraordinary performances at festivals, such as thrusting iron nails into their eyes and arms, breaking large stones against their chests, as they lie on their backs on the ground, and swallowing burning charcoal and fragments of glass. The Sa‘dîyech, who usually carry green flags, are snake-charmers (p. xxvii). — Belonging to this group but actually independent and peculiar to Egypt, are —
(2) The Ahmedîyeh (sing, aḥmedi), the order of the Egyptian national saint Seiyid Ah.med el - Bedawi, who is buried at Ṭanṭa (p. 33). They are recognized by their red banners and red turbans. This order is divided into many branches, but of these the two most important only need be mentioned. One of these is the much respected Baiyûmîyeh or Shinnâwiyeh, who play an important part in the ceremonies at Tanta (p. 33). They other branch is that of the Úlâd Nûh, who are generally young men wearing high pointed caps and carrying wooden swords and a kind of whip. — Connected with this group by a mystic genealogy are —
(3) The Mirghanîyeh or Khatmîyeh, an order conspicuous for the energy of its zikrs on dervish festivals (e.g. the Mûlid of the Prophet). The Nubians have joined this order in large numbers, and it is wide-spread also in the Sûdân. — To the same group belong —
(4) The Burhâmîyeh, the order of Ibrâhîm ed-Desûki (p. 32), an exceedingly popular saint in Egypt. Their colour is green.
(5) The Kâdirîyeh (sing, ḳâdiri), one of the most widely distributed orders, founded by the celebrated Seiyid ‘Abd el-Kâdir el-Gîlâni, are quite independent. Their banners and turbans are white.
In addition to these there are 30-40 less important orders and sects. The Turkish order of the Merlevis (comp. p. 71) discharge the religions functions connected with the Khedive's court.
A few words may be added on the Sects, though sectarianism is much less important in Islâm than in other religions. Mohammedan sects separate on a point of constitutional law, the question being which of the early caliphs were the legitimate successors of Mohammed. The Orthodox Party, which alone prevails in Egypt, recognizes all the ‘rightly directed’ caliphs — Abu Omar, ‘Othmân, and ‘Ali. The Shiites (from Shîa, party, i.e. the party of ‘Ali) regard Ali and his sons Hasan and Hosein as the only legitimate caliphs and imâms (i.e. leaders in prayer), the twelfth (or seventh) of whom is believed to be awaiting in concealment the day of restoration. The Khâregites recognize only Abu Bekr and Omar. All the sects have their traditions, and when the Shiites are said to reject the Sunna, the remark applies only to the orthodox Sunna. Their Sunna has developed in the same manner as that of the Orthodox, but along different lines. The same is true of all the Moslem sects. Egypt has been under a Shiite régime only in the time of the Fatimites, who recognized the seventh Imam. This dynasty called themselves after Fâṭima, daughter of the Prophet and wife of ‘Ali, from whom they claimed descent. They professed a secret doctrine which resulted in scepticism.

Remarks on Mohammedan Customs.

The rite of circumcision is performed on boys up to the age of six or seven, or even later, the ceremony being attended with great pomp. The child is previously conducted through the streets in holiday attire; in order to diminish the expense of the proceedings, the procession is frequently united with some bridal party, or two or more boys are driven together in a carriage. The boy generally wears a turban of red cashmere, girls' clothes of the richest possible description, and conspicuous female ornaments, which are designed to attract attention and thus avert the evil eye from his person. He half covers his face with an embroidered handkerchief; and the barber who performs the operation and a noisy troop of musicians head the procession. The first personage in the procession is usually the barber's boy, carrying the ‘ḥeml’, or barber's sign, a kind of cupboard made of wood, in the form of a half-cylinder, with four short legs.
Girls are generally married in their 12th or 13th, and sometimes as early as their 10th year. A man in search of a bride employs the services of a relative or of a professional female match-maker, and he never has an opportunity of seeing his bride until the wedding - day, except when the parties belong to the lowest classes. When everything is arranged, the affianced bridegroom has to pay a bridal - portion (mahr) amounting to about 25t., less being paid when the bride is a widow. Generally speaking, about two-thirds of the sum, the amount of which always forms a subject of lively discussion, is paid down, while one-third is settled upon the wife, being payable on the death of the husband or on his divorcing her against her will. Before the wedding the bride is conducted in gala attire and with great ceremony to the bath. This procession is called ‘Zeffet el-Hammâm’. It is headed by several musicians with hautbois and drums; these are followed by several married female friends and relatives of the bride in pairs, and after these come a number of young girls. The bride follows, under a silken canopy open in front. In Cairo, however, this canopy is now generally replaced by a carriage of some kind. The shrieks of joy which women of the lower classes utter on such occasions are called caghârîṭ (sing, zaghrûṭa). The bride is afterwards conducted with the same formalities to the house of her husband.
The ceremonies observed at funerals are not less remarkable than those that attend weddings. If the death occurs in the morning, the funeral takes place the same day; but if in the evening, it is postponed till next day. The body is washed and mourned over by the family and the professional mourning women (neddûbeh); the fiḳîs, or schoolmasters, read several sûrehs of the Koran by its side; after this, it is wrapped in its white or green winding sheet, placed on the bier, and then carried forth in solemn procession.

The foremost persons in the cortège are usually six or more poor, and generally blind, men, who walk in twos or threes at a slow pace, chanting the creed — ‘There is no God but God; Mohammed is the ambassador of God; God be gracious to him and preserve him!’ These are followed by several male relatives of the deceased, and sometimes by a number of dervishes with the flags of their order, and then by a few boys, one of whom carries a copy of the Koran. The boys usually chant in a loud and shrill voice several passages from the ‘Hashrîyeh’, a poem describing the last judgment. The bier, with the head of the deceased foremost, comes next, being borne by three or four of his friends, who are relieved from time to time by others. After the bier come the female relatives, with dishevelled hair, sobbing aloud, and frequently accompanied by professional mourning women, whose business it is to extol the merits of the deceased. If the deceased was the husband or father of the family one of the cries is: ‘O thou camel of my house’, the camel being the emblem of the bread-winner of the household. The body is first carried into that mosque for whose patron saints the relatives entertain the greatest veneration, and prayers are there offered on its behalf. The body is then borne to the cemetery, where it is laid in the tomb in such a position that the face is turned towards Mecca.
Among the women are the relatives and friends of the deceased, distinguished by a strip (usually blue) of linen, cotton, or muslin bound round the head, with the end hanging down behind. Men wear no mourning clothes. The women, especially in the country, frequently put dust on their brows and breasts, a practice which is a survival from antiquity, as may be seen on comparing the representations of ancient funerals at Thebes and elsewhere. Rich men or pious sheikhs and ‘ulamâs are buried with greater pomp, to which religious fraternities and dervishes with their flags contribute; water is distributed; and the riding-horse and a buffalo are led in the procession. The buffalo is slaughtered at the tomb and its flesh distributed among the poor.
Another custom peculiar to the Moslems is the separation of the sexes even after death. In family-vaults one side is set apart for the men, the other for the women (comp. p. clxxxiii). Between these vaults is the entrance to the tomb, usually covered with a single large slab. The vaults are high enough to admit of the deceased sitting upright in them when he is being examined by the angels Munkar and Nekîr on the first night after his interment.

Mohammedan Calendar. Festivals.

The Mohammedan era begins with July 16th of the year 622 A. D., being the day of Mohammed's so-called flight (Hegira) from Mecca to Medîna (p. lxxxiv). The Mohammedan year is purely lunar and has no reference or relation to the sun; it contains 354 days, or 355 in leap-years, eleven of which occur in each cycle of 30 years. There are 12 months, the first, third, etc., of which have 29 days each, the second, fourth, etc 30 days. Their names are given at p. xxxix.
In order approximately to convert a year of our era into one of the Moslem era, subtract 622, divide the remainder by 33, and add the quotient to the dividend; or, subtract 622, multiply the result by 1.0307 and add 0.46. Conversely, a year of the Mohammedan era is converted into one of the Christian era by dividing it by 33, subtracting the quotient from it, and adding 622 to the remainder. Or, multiply the Mohammedan year by 2.977, divide the result by 100, subtract the quotient from the Mohammedan year, and add 621.569. On Nov. 29th, 1913, began the Moslem year 1332.
The Gregorian calendar was introduced into Egypt in 1875, but is observed by government in the finance department only. For all other purposes the Mohammedan calendar is used, and the dates even of fixed festivals cannot easily be stated according to the European computation of time. Calendars reducing the Mohammedan and Coptic reckoning of time to the European system may, however, be obtained at any bookseller's. The Almanac issued yearly by the Government Publications Office in Cairo may be recommended (price 5 pias.); it contains a number of other useful details.
Religious Festivals. The first month of the Arabian year is the MOḤARREM, the first ten days of which (‘ashar), and particularly the 10th (yôm ‘ashûra), are considered holy. On these days alms are distributed and amulets purchased. Mothers, even of the upper classes, carry their children on their shoulders, or cause them to be carried, through the streets, and sew into the children's caps the copper coins presented to them by passers-by. On the 10th Moḥarrem, the highly revered ‘Ashûra day, on which Adam and Eve are said first to have met after their expulsion from Paradise, on which Noah is said to have left the ark, and on which Ḥosein, the grandson of the Prophet, fell as a martyr to his religion at the battle of Kerbelâ, the Gâmi ‘Seiyidna’l-Ḥosein (p. 54) is visited about 8 p.m. by a vast concourse of noisy religious devotees. Troops of Persians in long white robes parade the streets, cutting themselves with swords in the forehead until the blood streams down and stains their snowy garments. Two boys, representing Ḥasan and Ḥosein, are led through the streets on horseback, with blood-stained clothes.
At the end of ṢAFAR, the second month, or at the beginning of Rabiel-Auwil, the third, the Mecca Caraxan (p. lxxxviii) returns home. Its approach is heralded by outriders and some enthusiasts advance three days to meet it. Detached groups of pilgrims occasionally return before the rest of the cavalcade, and their arrival is always signalized by the blowing of trumpets and beating of drums. A pyramidal wooden erection, called the Maḥmal, hung with beautifully embroidered stuffs, and carried by a camel, accompanies the procession as a symbol of royalty. The interior of the Maḥmal is empty, and to the outside of it are attached two copies of the Koran. The procession usually enters the city by the Bâb en-Naṣr (p. 77). In 1½ 2 hrs. it reaches the Place Saladin (p. 68), the large open space in front of the citadel, from which last twelve cannon-shots are fired as a salute. The cortège finally enters the citadel through the Bâb el-Wezîr. The departure of the pilgrims is attended with similar ceremonies (comp. p. xcvi).
The great festival of the Mûlid en-Nebi, the birthday of the prophet, is celebrated at the beginning of RABI EL-AUWIL, the third month. The preparations for it begin on the second day of the month, and the most important ceremonies take place on the evening of the eleventh. The

city, particularly the scene of the festival, at ‘Abbâsîyeh (p. 78), is then illuminated by means of lamps hung on wooden stands (ḳaim) made for the purpose. Processions of dervishes (p. xci) parade the streets with flags by day and with lamps by night. The Doseh, or ceremony of riding over the dervishes, which also took place on the twelfth of this month, was suppressed by the Khedive Taufiḳ, and the ceremonies are now confined to the sheikh's walking over some dervishes, his procession, and the reading of the Koran in the Khedive's tent. At night a great ziker (p. xci) is performed by the dervishes. On this festival, as on all the other ‘mûlids’, the jugglers, buffoons, shadow-players, and other ministers of amusement (comp. pp. xxvi, xxvii), ply their calling with great success.
In the fourth month, that of RABÏ EL-AKHIR (Rabî et-Tâni), occurs the peculiarly solemn festival of the birthday or Mûlid of Ḥosein, the prophet's grandson, the principal scene of which is the mosque of Ḥosein (p. 54). This festival lasts fifteen days and fourteen nights, the most important day being always a Tuesday (yôm et-lalât). On the chief days, and on their eves, the Koran is read aloud to the people, the streets adjoining the mosque are illuminated, the shops are kept open, and story tellers, jugglers, and others of the same class attract numerous patrons.
In the middle of REGEB, the seventh month, is the Mûlid of Seiyideh Zeinab (‘Our Lady Zeinab’), the granddaughter of the prophet. The festival, which lasts fourteen days, the most important being a Tuesday, is celebrated at the mosque of the Seiyideh Zeinab (p. 74). — On the 27th of this month is the Leilet el-Mirâg, or night of the ascension of the prophet (p. lxxxiv), the celebration of which takes place outside the Bâb el-‘Adawi, in the N. suburb of Cairo.
On the first, or sometimes on the second, Wednesday of SHABÂN, the eighth month, the Mûlid of Imâm esh-Shâf is commemorated, the centre of attraction being the mosque mentioned at p. 115. This festival is numerously attended, as most of the Cairenes belong to the school of Imâm Shâf‘i (p. lxxxvi).
The month of RAMAḌÂN, the ninth, is the month of fasting, which begins as soon as a Moslem declares that he has seen the new moon. The fast is strictly observed during the day, but the faithful indemnify themselves by eating, drinking, and smoking throughout the greater part of the night. At dusk the streets begin to be thronged, the story-tellers in the cafés attract numbers of visitors, and many devotees assemble at the mosques. The eye of the 27th of the month is considered peculiarly holy. It is called the Leilet el-Ḳadr, or ‘night of honour’, owing to the tradition that the Koran was sent down to Mohammed on this night. During this sacred night the angels descend to mortals with blessings, and the portals of heaven stand open, affording certain admission to the prayers of the devout.
The month Ramadan is succeeded by that of SHAUWÂL, on the first three days of which is celebrated the first and minor festival of rejoicing, called by the Arabs Et-d eṣ-Ṣughaiyar (the lesser feast), but better known by its Turkish name of Beiram (Bairam). The object of the festival is to give expression to the general rejoicing at the termination of the fast; and as at our Christmas, parents give presents to their children, and masters to their servants at this festive season. Friends embrace each other on meeting, and visits of ceremony are exchanged. During this festival the Khedive receives his principal officials, ambassadors. etc.
At this season the traveller may also pay a visit to the cemetery by the Bâb en-Naṣr, or to one of the others, where numerous Cairenes assemble.
A few days after the Bairam, the pieces of the Kisweh, or covering manufactured at Constantinople, at the cost of the Sultan, for the Kaaba (p. lxxxiv), whither it is annually carried by the pilgrims, are conveyed in procession to the citadel, where they are sewn together and lined. The ceremonies which take place on this occasion are repeated on a grander scale towards the end of the month of Shauwâl (generally the 23rd), when there is a gay procession of the escort which accompanies the pilgrimage caravan to Mecca and also takes charge of the Mahmal (p. xcv).

On this occasion every true believer in the prophet, if he possibly can spends the whole day in the streets. The women don their smartest attire Many of the harem windows are opened and the veiled inmates gaze into the streets. The chief scene of the ceremonies is the Place Saladin (p. 68). where a sumptuous tent of red velvet and gold is pitched for the reception of the dignitaries. The procession is headed by soldiers, who are followed by camels adorned with gaily coloured trappings and bearing on their humps bunches of palm-branches with oranges attached. Each section of the cavalcade is preceded by a band of Arab musicians, the largest section being that which accompanies the Takhtarawân, or litter of the Emir el-Ḥagg, and the next in order that of the Delil el-Hagg, or leader of the pilgrims, with his attendants. Next follow various detachments of pilgrims and dervishes with banners, and lastly the Maḥmal.
On the 10th of DHUL-HIGGEH, the twelfth month, begins the great festival of El-‘Id el-Kebir (Ḳurban Beiram), which resembles the lesser feast el-îd eṣ-ṣughaiyar) already mentioned. On this day, if on no other throughout the year, every faithful Moslem eats a piece of meat in memory of the sacrifice of Abraham, and the poor are presented with meat by the rich.
With the Rising of the Nile also there are connected several interesting festivals, closely resembling those of the ancient period of the Pharaohs, which even the Christian epoch was unable entirely to obliterate. As, however, they take place in summer, few travellers will have an opportunity of witnessing them. As these festivals have reference to a regularly recurring phenomenon of nature, their dates are necessarily fixed in accordance with the Coptic solar reckoning of time, instead of the variable Arabian lunar year. — The night of the 11th of the Coptic month Baûna (June 17th) is called Leilel en-Nuḳṭa, i.e. the ‘night of the drop’, as it is believed that a drop from heaven for a tear of Isis, according to the ancient Egyptian myth) falls into the Nile on this night and causes its rise. The astrologers profess to calculate precisely the hour the fall of the sacred drop. The Cairenes spend this night on the banks of the Nile, either in the open air or in the houses of friends near the river, and practise all kinds of superstitious customs. One of these consists in the placing of a piece of dough by each member of a family on the roof of the house; if the dough rises, happiness is in store for the person who placed it there, while its failure to rise is regarded as a bad omen. On the 21st of June the river begins slowly to rise. On the 27th of the Coptic month Baûna (July 3rd) the Munâdi en-Nil, or Nile criers are frequently heard in the morning, announcing to the citizens the number of inches that the river has risen. Each munâdi is accompanied by a boy, with whom he enters on a long religious dialogue by way of preface to his statements, which, however, are generally inaccurate. The next important day is the Day of the Cutting of the Dam (yôm gebr el-baḥr, or yôm wefa el-baḥr), about the middle of the Coptic month of Misra (i.e. the middle of August), when the principal ceremonies are performed to the N. of the former Fumm el-Khalîg (p. 104). The Nile-crier, attended by boys carrying flags, announces the Wefa en-Nil (i.e. superfluity of the Nile), or period when the water has reached its normal height of about sixteen ells (p. 105). The actual cutting through of the dam can no longer take place, but the festivities go on as before.

xcviii

IV. Outline of the History of Egypt.

I. ANCIENT HISTORY.

By Professor G. Steindorff.

a. From the Earliest Times to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 B.C.

Exact systems of chronology were as little known to the ancient Egyptians as to the other peoples of antiquity. The events they desired to record were dated according to the years of the king reigning at the time. To determine at what period a particular king had reigned, the priests drew up long lists of monarchs, fragments of which have survived to the present day (comp. pp. 87, 241, 275). The chronological epitomes, moreover, which are all that has been transmitted to us of the ‘Egyptian History’ written in Greek by the priest Manetho, were founded on these native registers. Manetho arranged all the rulers of Egypt, from Menes, the first king, to Alexander the Great, in 31 Dynasties, which correspond, generally speaking, to the various royal houses that held sway in Egypt successively or (at certain periods) contemporaneously. This arrangement has been generally adopted by writers on the subject; but at the same time, for the sake of convenience, several dynasties are frequently grouped together under the name of a ‘period’, ‘empire’, or ‘kingdom’. It is impossible to assign anything like exact dates for the kings before Psammetichos I. The dates, therefore, in the following outline are given as approximate merely, and in the earliest period may sometimes be even a century or more out.
Manetho of Sebennytos (p. 174) flourished in the reigns of Ptolemy I. and Ptolemy II. He was probably a priest at Heliopolis and wrote his three books of Αἰγυππιχχὰ ῾Υπομνγματα in the reign of Ptolemy II.
1. Prehistoric Period (before 3400 B.C.).
The dark prehistoric period, which later traditions fill up with dynasties of gods and demigods, is illumined by a few scattered rays of light only. It may be taken as certain that the country did not originally form one single kingdom, but was divided into two states — the ‘Northern’, corresponding to the Delta, and the ‘Southern’, stretching from the neighbourhood of Memphis (Cairo) to the Gebel Silsileh, and afterwards to the First Cataract. Each of these states was subdivided into a number of small principalities, originally independent but afterwards dependent, which still existed in historic times as ‘nomes’ or provinces. The two Egyptian kingdoms were for a time hostile to each other. Their final union seems to have been operated from Upper Egypt by King Menes, just how is unknown. The memory of the division subsisted beyond the dawn of the historic period; the arms of the united empire were formed by the union of the lily and the papyrus, the symbolical

plants of Upper and Lower Egypt; the king styled himself ‘King of Upper and Lower Egypt’ or ‘Lord of both Lands’, and wore the double tiara () consisting of the white crown () of the S. and the red crown () of the N.; and at the base of the temple-walls were represented on one side the provinces of the S., and on the other the provinces of the N. Even in matters of administration respect was paid to this distinction, which was further emphasized by the physical differences of the two regions. The introduction of the Egyptian calendar also belongs to the primæval period and begins with July 19th, 4241.
3. The Ancient Empire (ca. 2980-2475 B.C.).
III. DYNASTY (2980-2900 B.C.).
This dynasty originated at Memphis, where their tombs also are situated. The most ancient maṣṭabas date from this period.
Zoser, builder of the Step Pyramid at Saḳḳâra (p. 146).
IV. DYNASTY (ca. 2900-2750 B.C.).
An epoch of powerful monarchs, who built the great pyramids.
Snofru, builder of the Pyramid of Meidûm (p. 205) and of the great pyramid at Dahshûr (p. 166).
Kheops or Cheops (Khufu), builder of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh (p. 127).
Tetf-rē, builder of the Pyramid of Abu Roâsh (p. 139).
Khephren (Khefrē), builder of the Second Pyramid of Gîzeh (p. 131).
Mencheres or Mykerinos (Menkewrē), builder of the Third Pyramid of Gîzeh (p. 133).
V. DYNASTY (2750-2625 B.C.).

Egypt now reached the zenith of her civilization; art, in particular, attained a perfection never again reached. The pyramids of the kings are mostly near Abuṣîr (p. 141), where special sanctuaries were built also for the sun-god Rē.
Nuserrē built the sanctuary of Abu Gurâb (p. 140) and the pyramid and mortuary temple at Abuṣîr (p. 141).
Sehurē, whose pyramid and mortuary temple are at Abuṣîr (p. 141), carried on wars against the Libyans and Asiatics.
Onnos (Unis), the last king of the 5th Dyn., built his pyramid near Saḳḳâra (p. 165). After his death internal dissensions seem to have broken out, resulting in the accession of a new dynasty.
VI. DYNASTY (ca. 2625-2475 B.C.).
Under this dynasty the power of the kings was more limited, and the small principalities recovered some of their independence. Far-reaching commercial relations were entered into with the Upper Nile, Punt (the S. coast of the Red Sea), Syria, etc.
Othoes (Teti) Builders of pyramids at Saḳḳâra (pp. 163, 166).
Phiops I. (Meri-rē Pepi I.)
Merenrē Ment-em-sof (Methusuphis)
Phiops II. (Nefer-ke-rē Pepi II.)
Towards the end of the 6th Dyn. the monarchy fell and civil strife broke out. While the successors of the 6th Dyn. (VIII. Dynasty) may have maintained themselves at Memphis, a new race of independent kings established themselves at Heracleopolis (IX. & X. Dynasties) and for a time ruled the whole of Egypt. On the other hand the chief power in the S. was seized by Theban princes (XI. Dynasty), most of whom were named Mentuhotep. The mortuary temple of two of these has been found at Deir el-Baḥri (p. 304). Dependent on these sovereigns were the Theban sub-kings named Entef (Enyotef), whose small tombs lay near Drah Abu'l Negga (p. 283). The Mentuhoteps finally overthrew the kings of Heracleopolis and gradually succeeded in reuniting the whole country. The first ruler over reunited Egypt was Amenemhēt I., with whom begins—
4. The Middle Empire (2000-1580 B.C.).
*XII. DYNASTY (2000-1788 B.C.).
This was Egypt's most prosperous period, and an epoch of great buildings. There is hardly a considerable town in Egypt without some traces of the building activity of the kings of this dynasty. Literature and art flourished. The kingdom was organized as a feudal state.
Amenemhē I. restored peace; his tomb is the northern pyramid at Lisht (p. 205).
Sesostris I. (Senwosret I.) conquered Nubia; his tomb is the southern pyramid at Lisht (p. 205).
Amenemhēt II.; his tomb is at Dahshûr (p. 167).
Sesostris II., builder of the pyramid of Illahûn (p. 195).
Sesostris III. (the famous Sesostris of the Greeks) consolidates the sovereignty over Nubia. Pyramid at Dahshûr (p. 166).
Amenemhēt III., builder of the pyramid and great temple (so-called Labyrinth) at Ḥawàra (p. 194).
Amenemhēt IV.
Sebek-nofru, a queen.
XIII.-XVI. DYNASTIES (1788-1580 B.C.).
The monarchs of the 13th Dynasty, mostly named Sebek-hotep, maintained the power of Egypt for some time, but a period of decline afterwards set in. There is no period of Egyptian history at which kings were more numerous, most of them reigning but a short time. The South was probably ruled by the descendants of the ancient Theban kings, while in the town of Xoïs, in the W. Delta, another family raised themselves to power (14th Dynasty).
About this time (ca. 1680 B.C.) Egypt was conquered by a Semitic people, known as Hyksos, i.e. ‘Shepherd Kings’ (15th & 16th Dynasties), who were doubtless Syrian Beduins. Few of their monuments have been preserved; but it is evident that they conformed to the ancient culture of Egypt. While the Hyksos were established in the N. part of the land, the S. was ruled by Theban princes, who were at first vassals of the foreign intruders. The tombs of these princes, among whom were Sekenyenrē III. and Kemose, lay near Drah Abu'l Negga (p. 283).
Sekenyenrē III., whose mummy was found at Deir el-Baḥri (p. 97).
Kemose. His queen was perhaps Ahhotep, whose jewels are now in the Cairo Museum (p. 98).
5. The New Empire (1580-1090 B.C.).
Egypt became a great power during this period. At first the culture of the New Empire differed little from that of the Middle Empire, but under Thutmosis III. political and social life as well as the art of Egypt underwent a radical change, owing to the new relations with W. Asia. The tribute paid by foreign states caused an enormous flood of wealth to pour into Egypt, and especially into Thebes, the capital. The earlier buildings, that had fallen into disrepair, were now replaced by imposing monuments, such as the temples at Karnak, Luxor, etc.
XVII. DYNASTY (ca. 1580-1540 B.C.).
Amosis (Ahmose, 1580-1557 B.C.), perhaps the son of Kemose, conquered Auaris, the chief fortress of the Hyksos, and expelled the intruders from Egypt, which was reunited under one sceptre. The Biblical story of the Exodus may possibly relate to the expulsion of the Hyksos.
Amenophis I. (Amenhotep, 1557-ca. 1540 B.C.). This king and his mother Nefret-ere were afterwards regarded as the patron-gods of the Necropolis of Thebes.
*XVIII. DYNASTY (1510-1315 B.C.).

Thutmosis I. (Thutmose, 1540-1501 B.C.). His tomb at Bibân el-Mulûk (p. 297) was the first royal rock-tomb of the Pharaohs. During his lifetime his children fought for the succession.
Kemarē-Hatshepsut, queen and builder of the temple of Deír el-Baḥri (p. 299). Her tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 296).
Thutmosis II.
Thutmosis III. (1501-1447 B.C.).
reigned alternately.
After the death of his sister and brother-
Thutmosis III. reigned alone. He was one of the most notable Egyptian kings, conquered Syria, and established the influence of Egypt in W. Asia. His rock-tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 296).
Amenophis II. (Amenhotep; 1447-1420 B.C.); rock-tomb at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 297).
Thutmosis IV. (1420-1411 B.C.) excavated the Sphinx at Gîzeh (comp. p. 135). Tomb at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 298).
Amenophis III. (1411-1375 B.C.; called Memnon by the Greeks), whose wife was named Teye, maintained intercourse with the kings of Babylon, Assyria, Mitàni (on the upper Euphrates), etc. (see cuneiform tablets from Tell el-‘Amarna, p. 212), and built temples in Nubia, Luxor, Medînet Habu (Colossi of Memnon, p. 330), and elsewhere. His tomb and that of his wife are both at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 298).
Amenophis IV. (1375-1358 B.C.) endeavoured to replace the old religion by the worship of a single deity, viz. the sun, an attempt perhaps to provide a god that should be worshipped in common by all the peoples of the extensive empire (p. cxlvi). The movement was probably instigated by the priests of Heliopolis and was directed at first only against the gods of Thebes, who, during the New Empire, had thrown all others into the shade. Many of the ancient deities, especially those of Thebes, were fanatically ‘persecuted’, their images and names being removed from all monuments. For his own original name, in which the name of Amon occurs, the king substituted that of Ekh-en-Aton,; the disk of the sun rejoices’. Tell el-‘Amarna (p. 211) was made the capital instead of Thebes. Amenophis IV. was buried at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 298). After his death internal commotions broke out and the new religion was abolished.
Among his successors (1358-1350 B.C.) were Eye (tombs at Tell el-‘Amarna, p.216, and at Bîbân el-Mulûk, p. 298) and Tutenkh-Amun, who transferred the royal residence back to Thebes.
Haremheb (Harmaïs; 1350-1315 B.C.) restored peace and founded the 19th Dynasty. Tomb at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 298).
*XIX. DYNASTY (1315-1200 B.C.).

Ramses I. (Ramesse) had a short reign. His tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 291).
Sethos I. (Sethy I.) fought against the Libyans, the Syrians, and the Hittites (Kheta), a powerful people that under the 18th Dyn. had penetrated from Asia Minor into N.Syria and threatened the Egyptian possessions in Syria and Palestine. Sethos built large temples at Karnak, Ḳurna, and Abydos. His tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 292), his mummy at Cairo (p. 96).
Ramses II. (Ramesse, ca. 1292-1225 B.C.), the most celebrated of all Egyptian kings. He waged tedious wars against the Hittites (battle of Kadesh, p. 307), finally making a peace with them in the 21st year of his reign (p. 272), which left Palestine proper in the possession of the Egyptians, while N. Syria was acknowledged to be tributary to the Hittites. Ramses developed an extraordinary building activity in the course of his reign of 67 years. Perhaps one-half of all the extant temples date from this reign; and the name of Ramses is found in nearly every group of ruins in Egypt. His largest temples were those of Abu Simbel (p. 404), Karnak (p. 265), Luxor (p. 257), the Ramesseum (p. 306), Abydos (p. 243), Memphis (p. 144), and Bubastis (p. 171). His tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 287), his mummy at Cairo (p. 96). Ramses II. is frequently identified, but probably erroneously, with the ‘Pharaoh of the Oppression’ (Exod. i. 11). Of his numerous sons only one survived him, viz.
Amenephthes (Merenptah), who carried on campaigns against the Libyans and their allies (comp. p. 86), the peoples of the Mediterranean. His mortuary temple is at Thebes (p. 309), his grave at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 287), and his mummy at Cairo (p. 96). are all buried at Bîbân el-Mulûk (pp. 289, 298, 291). Their short reigns were followed by a period of anarchy. Decline of the kingdom.
Amen-meses Siptah Sethos II.
*XX. DYNASTY (1200-1090 B.C.).
Seth-nakht succeeded in restoring peace.
Ramses III. (Ramesse, 1200-1179 B.C.) conquered the Libyans and in two great battles repelled an invasion of barbarians who approached from Asia Minor by land and by water, threatening Egypt. His reign of 21 years was thereafter an epoch of peace and quiet, in which several large buildings (e.g. the temple at Medînet Habu, p. 323) were erected. The king presented great gifts to the gods, especially to the Theban Amon, who had been richly endowed by former kings also. The high-priest of Amon gradually became the greatest power in the state. The king's tomb is at Bîbân el-Mulûk (p. 289), his mummy at Cairo (p. 96). His successors —
Ramses IV.-Ramses XII. gradually fell more and more under the control of the priests of Amon. Their tombs are at Bîbân el-Mulûk (pp. 285 et seq.).
6. Period of Foreign Domination (1090-663 B.C.).
XXI. DYNASTY (TANITES; 1090-945 B.C.).
Herihor, high-priest of Amon, occupied the throne for a short time after the death of Ramses XII.
The empire now fell to pieces. At Tanis a new dynasty arose (Psusennes, Amenemopet), which contested the rule of the high-priests at Thebes. Pinotem I., a Theban priest-king, became king of all Egypt through marriage alliances with the Tanite dynasty, while his sons obtained the influential and lucrative dignity of high-priests of Thebes. Nubia recovered its independence; and the Egyptian dominion in Palestine terminated.
XXII. DYNASTY (945-745 B.C.).
The kings of this dynasty were of Libyan origin. Their ancestors, like the Mamelukes of later days, had come to Egypt as the leaders of mercenary troops. Settling in the E. Delta, they grew in power as that of the monarchy declined. The royal residence under this dynasty was Bubastis (p. 171); Thebes steadily declined in importance. Royal princes assumed the office of high-priests of Amon.
Shoshenk I. (Sesonchis; theShishak of the Bible) overthrew the Tanites. In the 5th year of Rehoboam of Judah he captured Jerusalem and plundered the Temple of Solomon (ca. 930 B.C.). For his monument of victory, see p. 272.
Under his successors (Osorkon, Takelothis, Shoshenk, etc.) the throne once more lost power, and the country was subdivided into small independent principalities. Among these are reckoned the members of the —
XXIII. DYNASTY (745-718 B.C.),
who reigned in Tanis, but of whom we know little. The kings of Ethiopia, whose capital was Napata (p. 419), made themselves masters of Upper Egypt.
B.C. 780. Tefnakhte, Prince of Saïs and Memphis, attempted to seize the sovereignty of Lower Egypt, but was defeated by Piankhi, King of Ethiopia, who captured Memphis. (For Piankhi's monument of victory, see p. 88.)
*XXIV. DYNASTY.
Bocchoris (Bekenranf), son and successor of Tefnakhte, secured the sovereignty of Lower Egypt, while Upper Egypt remained subject to the Ethiopians. Sabakon of Ethiopia, son of Kashta, overthrew Bocchoris and burned him to death. All Egypt fell into the hands of the Ethiopians.
*XXV. DYNASTY (ETHIOPIANS; 712-663 B.C.).

712-700. Shabako (Sabakon) assisted the smaller Syrian states (Hezekiah of Judah) against the Assyrians.
700-688. Sebichos (Shabataka).
688-663. Taharka (the Tirhakah of the Bible) also assisted the princes of Syria and Palestine against the Assyrians, but was defeated in 670 by Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, and after the capture of Memphis compelled to take refuge in Ethiopia. Both Upper and Lower Egypt became subject to the Assyrians, the various local princes (such as Necho of Saïs, etc.) becoming vassals of the invaders. Various attempts to expel the latter failed.
663. Tanutamun, son of Shabako, succeeded in recovering Egypt for a brief period, but was finally defeated by the Assyrians and driven back into Upper Egypt.
The Assyrian rule in Egypt was, however, approaching its end. The absence of the main Assyrian forces, which were engaged in distant wars in Babylon and Elam, afforded an opportunity of shaking off the yoke, which was seized by Psammetichos of Saïs, son of Necho (see above), with the help of Gyges, King of Lydia. The foreign garrisons were expelled; the authority of the small native princes was gradually curbed; and Egypt was again united. Since then Ethiopia has been separate from Egypt.
7. Late-Egyptian Period (663-332 B.C.).
*XXVI. DYNASTY (663-525 B.C.).
Egypt now enjoyed another period of prosperity. Trade began to flourish owing to the new relations with Greece. Art also received a fresh impetus; even before the Ethîopian kings artists had begun to imitate the models of the classic period of Egyptian art under the Ancient Empire. This reversion to an earlier era appeared also in other departments, such as literature, the spelling of inscriptions, and even the titles of officials, so that the period of the 26th Dyn. may be styled the Egyptian Renaissance.
663-609. Psammetichos I. (Psametik), see above.
609-593. Necho (Nekaw). While the Assyrians were engrossed in a deadly contest with the Babylonians and Medes Necho invaded Syria, defeating and slaying Josiah, King of Judah, at the battle of Megiddo. The Egyptians were, however, defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, and thus lost their possessions in Syria and Palestine. — Necho began to construct a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, but was stopped by an oracle (p. 182).
593-588. Psammetichos II. warred against Ethiopia.
588-569. Apries or Uaphris (Weh-eb-rē; the Hophrah of the Bible) made another attempt to recover Syria, but was unable to prevent the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 586. A military rebellion in Libya dethroned Apries, and his general Amasis was proclaimed king.
569-526. Amasis (Ahmose) secured his supremacy by marriage with a daughter of Psammetichos II. A campaign undertaken by Nebuchadnezzar against Egypt led to the final abandonment of the Egyptian claims upon Syria. Amasis assigned the city of Naucratis (p. 32) to Greek colonists, who speedily made it the most important commercial town in the empire. A friendly alliance was made with Polycrates, tyrant of Samos.
525. Psammetichos III. was defeated at Pelusium by the Persian king Cambyses, and Egypt became a Persian province.
*XXVII. DYNASTY. PERSIAN DOMINATION.
The Persian monarchs appeared as successors to the native rulers and by their moderation found favour with the greater part of the population. The old religion was unmolested.
525-521. Cambyses led an unsuccessful expedition, viâ Khârgeh, against the oases of the Libyan Desert and a campaign against Ethiopia.
521-486.
487.
Darius I. endeavoured to promote the prosperity of Egypt in every possible way. The canal from the Nile to the Red Sea was completed (p. 182). A strong garrison was sent to the oasis of Khârgeh and a temple was built there to Amon (p. 381). After the battle of Marathon the Egyptians, headed by Khabbash, revolted and expelled the Persians. The insurrection, however, was quelled by —
486-465. Xerxes I., who appointed his brother Achæmenes satrap.
465-425.
463.
Artaxerxes I. During his reign the Egyptians again revolted. Inaros (Ert - Har - erow), prince of Marea, aided by the Athenians, defeated Achæmenes, the Persian satrap, but the allied Egyptians and Greeks were in turn defeated by the Persian general Megabyzos near Prosopitis, an island in the Nile, and Inaros was crucified.
after 449. Herodotus visited Egypt.
424-404. Darius II. The Persian power gradually declined. Under —
404-362. Artaxerxes II. and his successor —
362-338. Artaxerxes III. the Egyptians once more revolted and succeeded in regaining their independence for a brief period under native rulers, whom Manetho assigns to the 28-30th Dynasties.
*XXVIII. DYNASTY.
404. Amyrtæos of Saïs maintained his authority for a short time only. In Lower Egypt several dynasties contended for sovereignty,
*XXIX. DYNASTY (398-379 B.C.).

This dynasty came from Mendes and relied for support chiefly upon Greek mercenaries.
Nepherites (Nefarēt).
Achoris (Hakor).
Psamuthis (Pshe-Mut).
*XXX. DYNASTY (378-341 B.C.).
378-425. Nektanbēs (Nekht-Har-ehbēt), of Sebennytos, built a temple of Isis at Beḥbît el-Ḥagar (p. 174), a gate at Karnak (p. 277), and a colonnade in the oasis of Khârgeh (p. 381).
360-359. Tachos (Tehor) was dethroned, and died at the Persian court.
358-341.
341.
Nektanebōs (Nekhte - nebof) was a powerful monarch, in whose reign large temples (e.g. at Philæ. p. 364) were once more built. Egypt, however, was reconquered by the Persians; the king fled to Ethiopia and the temples were plundered.
332. Alexander the Great took possession of Egypt.

b. Graeco-Roman Period (332 B.C.-640 A.D.).

1. Alexander the Great and the Ptolemaic Period.
332-330. ‘Under the Ptolemies the lower valley of the Nile became once more for three centuries the seat of a brilliant kingdom, at first under gifted rulers of the most prosperous, richest, and most powerful state in the world, but afterwards condemned to shameful impotence under their vicious and degenerate posterity, torn by fratricidal wars, and existing only by the favour of Rome, until it was involved in the domestic struggles of Rome and finally perished.’ The customs and religious views of the Egyptians were respected by the Ptolemies, who represented themselves to the native population as the descendants of the ancient Pharaohs. Large temples were built during this period.
332-323. Alexander the Great tolerated the native religion and visited the oasis of Jupiter Ammon (Siweh Oasis, p. 378) in 331, where he was hailed by the priests as a son of Ammon. He founded Alexandria (p. 12), which soon became the centre of Greek culture and of the commerce of the whole world. After his death in 323 the Macedonian empire fell to pieces. Egypt became the satrapy of —
323-285. Ptolemy I. Soter I., son of Lagus, who carried on the government at first for Philippus Arrhidæus and Alexander II., son of Alexander the Great, and then for the latter alone. Alexander II, died in 311 and Ptolemy assumed the title of king in 305. The Museum at Alexandria (p. 13) and Ptolemaïs Hermiou (p. 221), in Upper Egypt, were founded in this reign.
285-247. Ptolemy II. Philadelphus married first Arsinoë I., daughter of Lysimachus, then his sister Arsinoë II. Arsinoë II. was named patron-goddess of the Faiyûm, which was entitled the ‘Arsinoite nome’ in her honour. Under Philadelphus and his successors great elephant-hunts took place on the Somali coast. The elephants were brought to Egypt and trained for military purposes.
347-222.
238.
Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. married Berenice of Cyrene. He temporarily conquered the empire of the Seleucides in Asia Minor. An unsuccessful attempt was made by the Egyptian priests to reform the calendar by intercalating a day in every fourth year. The power of Egypt abroad was now at its zenith.
222-205. Ptolemy IV. Philopator. Under the misgovernment of this king and his successors the empire of the Ptolemies began to totter. Ptolemy IV. defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria, who had threatened the Egyptian frontier, at the battle of R aphia, but concluded a dishonourable peace with him. The king married his sister Arsinoë III. For nineteen years a series of native Pharaohs ruled at Thebes.
205-481.
193.
Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (comp. p. cxxvi) ascended the throne, when five years of age, under the guardianship of Agathocles and œ;nanthe, the mother of the latter. In consequence of a revolt at Alexandria his guardians were obliged to resign their office. Advantage of these dissensions was taken by Antiochus the Great of Syria and Philip V. of Macedonia to invade the foreign possessions of Egypt. Egypt offered the guardianship of Ptolemy V. to the Roman Senate, which ceded Cœlesyria and Palestine to Antiochus, while Egypt continued to be independent. Ptolemy married Cleopatra I., daughter of Antiochus. The internal affairs of the country fell into deplorable confusion; rebellion succeeded rebellion, and anarchy prevailed everywhere.
181. Ptolemy V. was poisoned.
181-146. Ptolemy VI. Philometor, his son, ascended the throne under the guardianship of his mother Cleopatra. Onias was permitted by the king to build a Jewish temple at Leontonpolis (p. 171).
171. Battle of Pelusium. Philometor was taken prisoner, and Memphis captured, by Antiochus IV. of Syria. The king's younger brother —
Ptolemy IX. (Physkon), at first also surnamed Philometor, was summoned to the throne by the Alexandrians.
170-163. Ptolemy VI. and Ptolemy IX.
reigned jointly, having become reconciled, and with them also their sister Cleopatra, wife of Philometor.
163.
163-146.
The brothers again quarrelled. Philometor, banished by his brother, fled to Rome, was reinstated by the Roman Senate, and thenceforth reigned alone, while the younger brother became King of Cyrene.
146. After the death of Philometor he was succeeded by his son,
Ptolemy VII. Eupator, who, after a very short reign, gave place to —
Ptolemy IX., who now assumed the title of Euergetes(II.).
He married his brother's widow and afterwards also his niece Cleopatra.
130. Expelled by a revolution, Ptolemy IX. sought refuge in Cyprus, while Cleopatra reigned in Egypt as Philometor Soteira. Memphites, a son of Euergetes, became, under the name Ptolemy VIII. Neos Philopator, a rival to his father, who succeeded in murdering him.
127. Euergetes II. regained possession of the throne. After his death the government was shared by his widow —
127. Cleopatra Cocce and her son Ptolemy X. Soter II. (Lathyrus).
106. Soter II. was banished, and his brother Ptolemy XI. Alexander I. became co-regent in his stead.
88. Alexander, expelled by a rebellion, perished in a naval battle. Soter II. was recalled.
Thebes rebelled and was destroyed.
81. After the death of Soter II. Ptolemy XII. Alexander II. married Cleopatra Berenice, with whom he reigned jointly.
80. He assassinated his wife and was himself slain.
80-52.
59.
55.
Ptolemy XIII. Neos Dionysos (popularly called Auletes, i.e. ‘the flute-player’) next ascended the throne and was formally recognized by Rome. He was banished by his daughter Berenice, who married Archelaus, an alleged son of Mithridates VI., King of Pontus, but he was restored by the Romans after six months. The temple at Edfu (p. 344) was completed and that at Dendera was begun (p. 245). — Ptolemy XIII. was succeeded by his children —
51-47. Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV., under the guardianship of the Roman Senate. Pompey was appointed guardian.
48.
47.
Ptolemy XIV. banished his sister Cleopatra. Pompey, having been defeated at the battle of Pharsalia, sought refuge in Egypt, but on landing was slain at the instigation of Ptolemy, his ward.
Cæsar landed at Alexandria (p. 12), took the part of the banished Cleopatra, and defeated the rebellious Ptolemy, who was drowned in the Nile. — Cæsar, having meanwhile become dictator of Rome, appointed —
47. Ptolemy XV., the brother of Cleopatra, a boy of eleven, co-regent.
45. Ptolemy XV. was assassinated at the instigation of Cleopatra, and —
Ptolemy XVI. Cæsar (also called Cæsarion), her son by Cæsar, was appointed co-regent.
44. Cæsar was murdered.
41.
31.
30.
Antony, having summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus to answer for the conduct of her general Allienus, who contrary to her wishes had aided the army of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, was captivated by her beauty and talent. After having spent years of debauchery with the Egyptian queen, he was at length declared by the Roman Senate to be an enemy of his country. Octavianus marched against him, defeated him at Actium, and captured Alexandria. Antony committed suicide, and Cleopatra also is said to have caused her own death by the bite of an asp.
Egypt now became a Roman province subject only to the emperor and was governed by viceroys or prefects nominated by the emperor.
2. Roman Period.
B.C. 30-A.D. 395. The Roman emperors followed the example of the Ptolemies in representing themselves to the Egyptian people as successors of the old Pharaohs and in maintaining the appearance of a national Egyptian state. — Christianity was early introduced into Egypt, where it spread rapidly.
B.C. 30-29. C. Cornelius Gallus (B.C. 69-26), whom Ovid ranked first among Roman elegiac poets, was appointed first perfect. He repressed an insurrection in Upper Egypt (p. 256) and fought against the Ethiopians. Having afterwards fallen into disgrace with the emperor, he committed suicide. — The reformed calendar was finally introduced by Augustus.
27. Caesar Octavianus, under the title of Augustus, became sole ruler of the vast Roman empire (p. 13).
24. The Ethiopians, under their queen Candace, invaded Egypt. Strabo travelled in Egypt.
A.D. 14-37. Tiberius erected the Sebasteum at Alexandria.
19. Germanicus visited Egypt.
37-41. Caligula. In Alexandria civic disturbances took place between the Hellenes and the Jews.
41-51. Claudius. The building of the pronaos of the temple at Esneh (p. 342) was begun.
54-68. Nero. Egypt acquired a new source of wealth as a commercial station between India and Rome.
68-69. Galba. Otho. Vitellius.
69-79. Vespasian (p. 14) was first proclaimed emperor at Alexandria. From this city his son Titus (79-81) started on his expedition against Palestine, which terminated with the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70. The temple of Onias (p. cviii) was closed.
81-96. Domitian favoured the worship of Isis and Serapis at Rome.
96-98. Nerva.
98-117. Trajan (pp. 13, 182). The canal connecting the Nile with the Red Sea was re-opened (Amnis Trajanus).
117-138. Hadrian (p. 14) visited Egypt in 130. His favourite Antinous was drowned in the Nile, and was commemorated by the founding of the town of Antinoupolis (p. 209).
138-161. Antoninus Pius.
161-180. Marcus Aurelius (p. 14).
172. Rebellion of the Bucolians, or cow-herds, who had long been settled among the marshes to the E. of Alexandria, quelled by Avidius Cassius.
175. Avidius Cassius was proclaimed emperor by the Egyptian legions, but was assassinated in Syria.
176. Marcus Aurelius visited Alexandria (p. 14).
180-192. Commodus.
ca. 190.
et seq.
School of the Cathechists flourished at Alexandria under Pantaenus (the first head on record), Clement, and Origen.
193-211. Septimius Severus (p. 14).
204. Edict prohibiting Roman subjects from embracing Christianity. The Delta at this period was thickly studded with Christian communities.
211-217. Caracalla (p. 14) visited Egypt. Massacre at Alexandria.
212. The Constitutio Antonina admitted provincials to the Roman citizenship.
Caracalla was assassinated by the perfect of his guards —
217-218. Macrinus, who was recognized as emperor by the Egyptians. After his death a series of contests for the possession of the throne took place at Alexandria.
249-251. Decius (p. 14). Persecution of the Christians in 250 A.D. under Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria.
253-260. Valerian. Persecution of the Christians (p. 14).
260-268. Gallienus accorded a certain measure of religious toleration to the Christians. Plague in Egypt.
260. Rebellion of Macrianus, who was recognized as emperor by the Egyptians. He marched into Illyria against Domitian, the general of Gallienus.
265. Æmilianus (Alexander) was proclaimed emperor by the army at Alexandria and recognized by the people, but was defeated and put to death by the Roman legions.
268. Lower Egypt occupied by an army of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, and part of Upper Egypt by the Blemmyes.
268-270. Claudius II,
270-275. Aurelian.
270. Probus reconquered Egypt for the empire.
ca. 271. Anthony of Coma, a Copt, became the first hermit.
276-282. Probus obtained the purple at Alexandria.
278. His successful campaign against the Blemmyes.
284-305. Diocletian.
292. Rebellion in Upper Egypt.
294. Insurrection of the Alexandrians.
295. Diocletian took Alexandria.
303. Persecution of the Christians.
305-313 Maximinus. Beginning of the Arian controversies.
ca. 320. Pachomius founded the first convent in Tabennēsē (p. 222).
324-337. Constantine the Great, the first emperor who was really a friend of the Christians. The government of Egypt was reorganized; the country was made into a diocese and subdivided into six provinces, viz. Egypt, Augustamnica, Heptanomis (afterwards called Arcadia), Thebaïs, Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt.
325. Council of Nice. The doctrine of the presbyter Arius of Alexandria that Christ was begotten by God before all time, for the purpose of creating the world, and was godlike, but not very God, was condemned; while the doctrine that Father and Son are homousioi, or of the same nature, was sanctioned.
326. Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria.
328. Constantine founded Constantinople as a new metropolis of Greek art and science.
ca. 330. Beginning of the communities of anchorites in the Sketian and Nitrian deserts (Macarius, Amûn).
337-361. Constantius. He favoured Arianism. Athanasius was banished from Alexandria more than once.
ca. 350. The earliest Coptic translations of the Bible date from about this period.
361-363. Julian, surnamed the Aposlate from his renunciation of Christianity (p. 14).
373. Athanasius died, after witnessing the success of his cause in the last years of his life.
379-395. Theodosius I. the Great. He formally declared Christianity to be the religion of the empire. Persecution of the Arians and heathens (p. 14). Destruction of the Serapeum (p. 14).
395. Partition of the Roman empire, Arcadius being emperor of the East, and Honorius of the West.
3. Byzantine Period.
395-368.
395-408.
Arcadius. Theophilus, the bigoted Patriarch of Alexandria (p. 15), carried fire and sword against the opponents of anthropomorphism, the doctrine that God must be considered to have a human form.
408-450. Theodosius II.
413. Theophilus died and was succeeded by Cyril (p. 15).
415. Hypatia, the female pagan philosopher (p. 15), died a martyr's death at Alexandria.
431. The Patriarch Cyril defended his view, that the Virgin was η Θεοτόχος, against Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the Third œ;cumenical Council, held at Epesus.
444. Death of Cyril.
449. In the so-called ‘Robber Council’ at Ephesus the Patriarch Dioscurus of Alexandria obtained a victory as representative of the monophysite view (see p. cxiii).
450. Marcian.
451. At the Fourth œ;cumenical Council, that of Chalcedon, the monophysite doctrine, to the effect that Christ possessed a double nature before his incarnation, but that his human nature was afterwards absorbed by his divine, was condemned, chiefly through the influence of Pope Leo the Great. At this council the doctrine that Christ possesses two natures. ἀσυγχῦτως and ἀτρέππως, but at the same time ἀδιαιρέτως and ἀχωρίστως, i.e. unmixed and unchangeable, but also indistinguishable and inseparable, was formally adopted by the Church. The Egyptian Christians, to this day, adhere to the monophysite doctrine. Establishment of the national Egyptian or Coptic Church.
474-491. Zeno.
491-518 Anastasius.
502. Famine in Egypt.
527-565. Justinian (p. 15). New administrative measures.
610-641. Heraclius (p. 15).
619. The Persians under Chosroes II. invaded Egypt (p. 15). Alexandria was taken. Chosroes ruled with moderation.
622. The Hegïra, the beginning of the Mohammedan calendar (p. lxxxiv).
626. The Persians expelled by Heraclius.
632 Death of Mohammed. Abu Bekr, his successor, becomes the first caliph.
631. Beginning of the conquest of Syria by the Arabs. Death of Abu Bekr. Omar becomes the second caliph.
636. Decisive victory of the Arabs over the Byzantines on the Yarmûḳ. Fall of Damascus.
637. Victory of the Arabs over the Persians at Kadesia; fall of Ktesiphon. End of the Sassanide empire.
638. Fall of Jerusalem. Omar in Syria.

II. THE MIDDLE AGES

Egypt as a Province of the Empire of the Caliphs.

640. ‘Amr ibn el-‘Aṣ (pp. 15, 44, 109), general of Caliph Omar, conquered Pelusium (p. 186) and defeated the Byzantines at Heliopolis (p. 120).
641. The fortified city of Babylon was handed over (p. 44) through the intervention of the Patriarch Cyrus (Muḳauḳis). Alexandria taken (p. 15).
642. Fusṭâṭ was founded as military headquarters and seat of the government (p. 44).
644-656. ‘Othmân. He was overthrown in a revolt which had its origin in Egypt.
645. Alexandria was relieved by the Byzantine fleet.
646. ‘Amr recaptured Alexandria. Egypt now became an undisputed possession of the Arabs and the base for their naval campaigns against Byzantium and for their conquest of N. Africa.
656-661. Civil war between Caliph‘Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, and Mu‘âwia, the founder of the dynasty of the Omaiyades. Egypt belonged at first to ‘Ali, but after 658 to the Omaiyades.
Omaiyades. 658-750.
This illustrious Arabian dynasty had its residence in Damascus. Arabian tribes were settled in the Nile valley and the system of government was based on Arabian models. Many Copts embraced Islâm. Egypt was ruled by governors, who were often princes of the house of the caliphs.
756. Merwân II., the last of this dynasty, fled to Egypt, and was put to death there. His tomb is at Abuṣîr el-Meleḳ (p. 206). The Omaiyades were then exterminated, with the exception of ‘Abd er-Raḥmân, who fled to Spain, and founded an independent caliphate at Cordova.
Abbasides. 750-868.
The new dynasty, which had risen to power on Iranian soil and with Persian assistance, transferred the royal residence and seat of government from Syria to the ‘Irâḳ. Baghdad was founded and the caliphate reached its zenith. Egypt was ruled by frequently changing governors. The Copts were oppressed and frequent revolts occurred.
813-883. Ma'mûn, the son of Hârûn er-Rashîd, visited Egypt and quelled the resistance of the Copts and the Beduin tribes that had settled in Egypt. The fusion between the Arabs and the Copts began and Arabic became the language of the fellahin.
Under Ma'mûn's successors the power of the caliphs began to decline; the government became dependent upon Turkish Mamelukes, and the provinces regained their independence.
Tulunides. 868-905.
Egypt became again for a short time independent.
868-883. Aḥmed ibn Ṭulûn, governor of Egypt, declared himself an independent sultan, and extended the boundaries of Egypt beyond Syria and as far as Mesopotamia. Numerous buildings were erected during his reign (pp. 44, 71, et seq.) and that of his son —
883-895. Khumâraweih (p. 44). The latter and his successors were unable to preserve their independence.
Abbasides. 905-935.

Egypt again came under the dominion of the Abbaside sultans at Baghdad.
925. The Shiite Fatimites of Kairawân (Kairwan) attacked Egypt, but were defeated.
Ikhshidides. 935-969.
935. Mohammed el-Ikhshid, a Turk and governor of Egypt, took possession of the throne and founded a short-lived dynasty. His successors ruled under the direction of—
965-968. Kâfûr, an Abyssinian eunuch, who afterwards usurped the throne and recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasides. Syria and the sacred towns were subordinate to Egypt, and the court at Old Caire was very brilliant. On his death Kâfûr was succeeded by his grandson, who was not yet of age, and the Fatimites took advantage of this moment of weakness to conquer Egypt.

Egypt under Independent Rulers.

Fatimites. 969-1171.
The Fatimites, the rulers of a kingdom which had arisen in the W. part of N. Africa in 909, as the result of a religious Shiite movement, attributed their origin to Fâtima, the daughter of Mohammed.
969. Gôhar conquered Egypt for his master, the Fatimite Mu‘izz, and founded the new capital Cairo (p. 44).
973. Mu‘izz came himself to Cairo and resided there until his death (975). He conquered Syria also.
975-996. El-‘Aziz, son of Mu‘izz, distinguished himself by his tolerance and his love of science (p. 55) and Egypt prospered under his rule.
996-1021. El-Hâkim (p. 77), his son by a Christian mother, was a fanatic, capable of extraordinary cruelty. Subsequently, at the instigation of Ed-Darazi, a Persian sectary, he declared himself to be an incarnation of ‘Ali (p. cxiv), and exacted the veneration due to a god. Ed-Darazi became the founder of the sect of the Druses (see Baedeker's Palestine and Syria.) Hâkim disappeared on one of his nightly rides on the Mokattam hills, where he was probably assassinated at the instigation of his sister. The Druses believe that he voluntarily withdrew from the world in consequence of its sinfulness and that he will one day re-appear as a divine prophet.
1021-1036. Ez-Ẓàhir, Hâkim's effeminate and cruel son, succeeded at the age of sixteen.
1036-1094. El-Mustansir, a weak and incapable prince.
1047-1077. Under Christodulos, the Coptic Patriarch, the seat of the Patriarch was removed from Alexandria to Cairo.
1065. The country was ravaged for seven years by pestilence and famine, owing to the failure of the Nile inundation. Palestine and Syria were overrun by the Seljuks, who attacked them from the E. There were revolts among the Turkish and Berber mercenaries. The palace and the library were plundered.
1074-1094. Badr el-Gamâli, Mustansir's Armenian vizier, restored order in the capital, and governed with almost unlimited power, to the great advantage of Egypt. His son —
1094. El-Afḍal became vizier to the young caliph, —
1094-1101. El-Musta‘li, son of Mustansir, who conquered —
1096-1098. Jerusalem and the towns on the Syrian coast, but was deprived of his conquests by the army of the First Crusade.
1099 King Baldarin of Jerusalem attacked Egypt unsuccessfully.
1101-1159. Owing to a succession of incapable caliphs the Empire of the Fatimites gradually fell to pieces. The viziers, El-Afdal (assassinated in 1121) and his successors, were the actual rulers of the country.
1160-1171. El-‘Âdid, the last Fatimite caliph.
Contests for the office of vizier took place during this reign between Shâwer and Dirghâm. The former, being exiled, obtained an asylum with Nûr ed-Dîn, the ruler of Aleppo, who assisted him to regain his office with Kurd mercenary troops, under the brave generals Shîrkûh and Saladin. Shâwer, quarrelling with the Kurds, invoked the aid of Amalarich I., King of Jerusalem, who came to Egypt and expelled the Kurds. A second army of Kurds, which was about to invade Egypt, was driven back in the same way, whereupon Amalarich himself endeavoured to obtain possession of Egypt. Shâwer next invoked the aid of his enemy Nûr ed-Dîn, whose Kurdish troops expelled Amalarich. Egypt thus fell into the hands of the Kurds Shîrkûh and Saladin. Shâwer was executed. Shîrkûh became chief vizier, and on his death —
169-1193. Saladin (Salâh ed-Dîn Yûsuf ibn Aiyûb, p. 45) ruled in the name of the incapable caliph. On the death of the latter Saladin became sole ruler of Egypt, and founded the dynasty of the —
Aiyubides. 1171-1250.
Saladin's reign was the most brilliant in the mediæval history of Cairo, though he resided only eight years in the city and spent the rest of the time in campaigns in Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia. He began the citadel (p. 68). The Shiite doctrines and forms of worship, introduced into Egypt by the Fatimites, were abolished. Syria was conquered.
1200-1218. Malik el-‘Âdil, his brother, for a short time preserved the dominions intact; on Saladin's death they had been temporarily divided, and the empire was again dismembered at his brother's death, Egypt falling to the share of the latter's son —
1218-1238. Malik el-Kâmil (pp. 173, 176), a prudent and vigorous ruler. Damietta (Dumyât) was captured by the army of the Fifth Crusade, but was surrendered again in 1221 (p. 176).
1229. Kàmil concluded a treaty with the Emperor Frederick II., who led an army into Palestine. By this compact Jerusalem and the coast-towns were surrendered to the emperor for ten years. — El-Kàmil was succeeded by his sons —
1238-1240. El-Âdil II. and —
1240-1250. Es-Sâlih Aiyûb. The latter built the castle on the island of Rôḍa in the Nile.
1219. Louis IX., the Saint, of France undertook the Sixth Crusade, marched against Egypt, and took Damietta, but was captured along with his army at Manṣûra (p. 173) by Túrânshàh, who had succeeded his father Es-Salih. During the negotiations for the release of Louis Tûrânshàh was murdered by his body-guards, the Mamelukes. One of the Mameluke leaders, named Aibek, was raised to the throne, after the short interregnum under a woman, and founded the —
Dynasty of the Bahrite Mamelukes1250-1382.
In the space of 132 years there were twenty-five sultans, some of whom reigned several times.
1260-1277. Beybars I. (Baibars), one of the ablest of this dynasty, annihilated the last remnants of the kingdom of Jerusalem in the course of four campaigns. He brought to Cairo the last representative of the Abbaside caliphs, who had been overthrown by the Mongols and expelled from Baghdad, and permitted him and his successors nominally to occupy the throne.
1279-1290. Kalâûn, el-Mansûr Kalâûn (p. 75), succeeded, to the exclusion of a youthful son of Beybars (1277-1279), successfully opposed the Mongols, and entered into treaties with the Emperor Rudolph and other princes.
1290-1293. El-Ashraf Khalil captured Acre, the last place in the Holy Land held by the Christians.
1293-1310. En-Nâsir, Nâsir ed-Dîn Mohammed (p. 45), succeeded his brother Khalil at the age of nine years, but owing to internal dissensions was compelled to retire to Syria. With the aid of the Syrian emirs, however, he regained his throne in 1298. Once more expelled in the same year, he regained his throne in 1309 and retained possession of it till his death in 1340. Distrust, vindictiveness, and cupidity soon showed themselves to be prominent characteristics of En-Nâṣir, who treated his emîrs with the utmost capriciousness, loading them with rich gifts or ordering them to execution as the humour seized him. The emîr Ismûîl Abûlfidû, known also as a historian, succeeded, however, in retaining his master's favour until his death (1331). Towards the mass of the population En-Nâsir was liberal and condescending, and towards the clergy indulgent. In order to provide the enormous sums required for the expenses of his court and his love of building he appointed Christian officials in the custom-house and finance departments, as they were considered especially clever and cunning.
1347-1361. Hassan en-nâsir (p. 660), the sixth son of En-Nâṣir, was still a minor when he ascended the throne. The lawless independence of the Mamelukes and emîrs was aggravated by a plague in 1348-49 which exterminated whole families, whose property was immediately seized by the government. After having been dethroned in 1351 by Sâlih (p. 45) Ḥasan regained his sceptre three years later, but in 1361 he was assassinated. — The following sultans became more and more dependent on the emirs.
Dynasty of the Circassian Mamelukes. 1382-1517.
1382-1399. Barḳûḳ (pp. 45, 76, 112), a Circassian slave, succeeded in usurping the throne by treacherously setting aside Ḥaggi, a boy of six years and great-grandson of En-Nàṣir. The exasperated emîrs dethroned him in 1389; but he triumphantly re-entered Cairo in 1390. He fought successfully against the Mongols under Timur and the Osmans under Bayazid.
1399-1412. Farag (pp. 45, 112), his son, had scarcely ascended the throne, as a boy of thirteen years of age, before the Osmans, and a little later the Mongols, again began to threaten the Egyptian dominions. Farag proceeded victoriously as far as Damascus; but owing to dissensions among his emîrs he was obliged to return to Cairo. After the defeat of the Turks by the Mongols under Timur at the battle of Angora, Farag had to enter into negotiations with Timur. The latter years of Farag's reign were constantly disturbed by the rebellions of his emîrs, particularly Sheikh cl-Maḥamûdi, who after-wards became Sultan El-muaiyad. Farag was at length compelled by the insurgents to capitulate at Damascus, and his execution was followed by the accession of —.
1412-1421. Sheikh el-Maḥmúdi Muaiyad (p. 59). His reign was chiefly occupied with victorious campaigns against his unruly Syrian vassals, in which he was greatly aided by the military talents of his son Ibrâhîm.
He exacted heavy contributions from Christians and Jews, and he re-enacted and rigorously enforced the sumptuary laws of Omar, Mutawakkil, Ḥâkim, and En-Nâṣir. Not only were the colours to be worn by the Christians and Jews prescribed (the costume of the former being dark-blue, with black turbans, and a wooden cross weighing 5lbs, hung round their necks; that of the latter, yellow, with black turbans, and a black ball hung from their necks); but the fashion of their dress and length of their turbans, and even the costume of their women, were so regulated as entirely to distinguish them from the followers of the prophet.
1422-1438. El-Ashraf Bars Bey (Bursbey; pp. 53, 113), who had for a time been the vicegerent of an infant sultan, ascended the throne on April 1st, 1422. He waged successful campaigns against Cyprus and the Mongols.
1468-1496. Ḳâït Bey (pp. 73, 113) was one of the last independent Mameluke sultans of Egypt. Both as a general and a diplomatist he successfully maintained his position against the Turks (Sultans Mohammed and Bayazid), and even inflicted serious losses on them; but the refractory Mamelukes obstructed his undertakings and in 1496 compelled him to abdicate in favour of his son Mohammed, a boy of fourteen.
1501-1516. El-Ghúri, Ḳânṣûh el - Ghûri (p. 59), once a slave of Ḳâït Bey, was upwards of sixty years of age when he ascended the throne, but he still possessed sufficient vigour to keep the unruly emîrs in check. Already seriously injured by the discovery of the Cape route to India by the Portugese, the trade of Egypt was terribly depressed by high taxes and by the accompanying debasement of the coinage. At the instigation of the Venetians, El-Ghûri equipped a fleet against the Portuguese in India, and in 1508 he gained a naval victory over Lorenzo, son of the viceroy Francisco d'Almeida, at Chaul, near Bombay; but in 1509 his fleet was compelled to retreat to Arabia. El-Ghûri fell, while fighting against the army of the Osman sultan Selîm I. on the plain of Merj Dâbiḳ (N. of Aleppo).
1517. Ṭûmân Bey (p. 61) was dethroned by the Osman Sultan Selim I. of Constantinople (pp. 45, 120). Cairo was taken by storm. Egypt thenceforth became a Turkish Pashalic. Selîm compelled Mutawakkil, the last scion of the family of the Abbaside caliphs, to convey to him his nominal supremacy, and thus became Khalif (Caliph), the spiritual and temporal sovereign of all the professors of El-Islâm.

III. MODERN HISTORY.

Turkish Domination after 1517.

The authority of the Osman sultans soon declined, and with it that of their governors. The Egyptian pashas were now obliged, before passing any new measure, to obtain the consent of the 24 Mameluke Beys, or princes, who governed the different provinces. These beys collected the taxes, commanded the militia, and merely paid tribute to the pasha. Ali Bey, originally a slave, raised himself to the dignity of an independent sultan of Egypt. He conquered Syria, but died on the point of returning to Egypt, where his son-in-law Mohammed Bey Abu Dahab (p. 58) had seized the throne. After Dahab's death the beys —
1773. Mûrâd and Ibrâhîm shared the supremacy, and rendered themselves almost independent of Turkey.

The French Occupation.

1798, July 1st. Napoleon Bonaparte (pp. 30, 46, 183) arrived at Alexandria, hoping to destroy the British trade in the Mediterranean, and, by occupying Egypt, to neutralize the power of England in India.
July 2nd. Storming of Alexandria.
July 13th. The Mameluke Bey Mûrâd defeated.
July 21st. Battle of the Pyramids (p. 79).
July 1st. Destruction of the French fleet at Abuḳir by the British fleet commanded by Nelson (p. 30).
Sept. 13-25th, 1799, Jan.-May. Insurrection at Cairo quelled.
Central and Upper Egypt conquered.
July 25th. Defeat of the Turks at Abukîr (p. 30).
Aug 24th. Napoleon returned from Alexandria to France, leaving General Klêber in Egypt.
1800, March 20th. Kléber defeated the Turks at Matârîyeh (p. 120).
June 14th. Klêber was assassinated at Cairo (p. 46).
1801, Sept. The French were compelled by a British army to capitulate in Cairo and Alexandria, and to evacuate Egypt.

Mohammed Ali and his Successors.

1803.
1805-1848.
1807.
The retirement of the French was contemporary with the rise of the star of Mohammed Ali, the ablest ruler that the East has produced for a long time. Born at Kavala in Macedonia in 1769, as the son of an agha of police, he was orphaned at an early age and was brought up by the governor of his native town, whose daughter he married. He was sent to Egypt in 1800 as a captain in the contingent from Kavala and so distinguished himself in action against the French that Kusruf Pasha, the new governor, appointed him bim-bashi (colonel) of a corps of Albanians in the contests between the Turks and the Mamelukes. In this position Mohammed adopted the policy of apparent impartiality, while he worked in secret for the destruction of both parties. When the Turkish governor was expelled Mohammed Ali became pasha, with the approval of the Porte, and on Aug. 3rd, 1805, he took possession of the citadel of Cairo (p. 46). The British meanwhile, had occupied Alexandria and Damietta, but Mohammed, allying himself with the Mamelukes, inflicted two defeats upon them, in consequence of which the British fleet withdrew in autumn, 1807. The pasha next disembarrassed himself of his now inconvenient allies by inviting the Mameluke beys to Cairo, where they, with their followers (480 in all), were treacherously massacred in the citadel by Mohammed's Albanians, on March 1st, 1811 (p. 68).
1811. A campaign, begun in 1811 by Mohammed on behalf of the Porte against the Wahabis (p. xci), who had taken possession of Arabia, was brought to a successful close in 1816 by Mohammed's son Ṭusûn. A fresh insurrection of the Wahabis was suppressed in 1819 by Mohammed's adoptive son Ibráhîm Pasha, a military genius of the first order. Mohammed now turned his attention to military reforms. He employed his lawless Albanians in Nubia and the Sûdàn (where his son Isma‘il perished, p. 422) and created a home army of fellahin, which showed its prowess in 1824-27, under Ibráhîm, in helping the sultan in the Greek war of independence, until the Turkish-Egyptian fleet was annihilated at the battle of Navarino (1827).
1827.
1841.
To increase the strength and resources of Egypt Mohammed energetically encouraged agricultural improvements and introduced various manufacturing industries (comp. p. lxv) After the Russian victories over Turkey in 1828-29 he decided that the moment had come to free himself from the suzerainty of the Porte. At the beginning of 1832 Ibráhîm invaded Syria and within a year he was master of Asia Minor, but the intervention of the European powers compelled Mohammed to conclude the peace of Kutâhia or Konia in 1833, which was favourable to the Porte. Sultan Maḥmûd II. renewed hostilites in 1839 against Mohammed Ali, who had extended his power over S.W. Arabia, but the Turkish army was decisively defeated on June 24th by Ibráhîm at Nisib, near Bîirejik, to the W. of the Euphrates, and on the death of the sultan (1st July, 1839) Aḥmed Pasha, the Turkish high admiral, and the entire Turkish fleet declared for Mohammed. The armed intervention of England and Austria, however, obliged Mohammed to yield to the Porte a second time. By the so-called firman of investiture of 1841 the sultan assured the hereditary sovereignty of Egypt to the family of Mohammed Ali, according to the Turkish law of succession (seniorate), and granted to the pasha the right of concluding non-political treaties and of appointing all Egyptian officials and officers up to the rank of colonel. In return the pasha was required to pay to the Porte an annual tribute of 80,000 purses (318,930l.). During the last years of his life Mohammed fell into a state of imbecility. He died on Aug. 2nd, 1849, in his palace at Shubra.
1818. Ibrâhim had already taken the reins of government, in consequence of Mohammed's incapacity, in Jan., 1848, but he died in November of the same year, before his adoptive father.
1819-1854. ‘Abbâs I., a son of Ṭusûn (p. cxxi), had all the dislike of a true son of the desert for European innovations. He, however, maintained the strictest discipline among his officials.
1854-1863. Sa‘id, his successor, was Mohammed Ali's fourth son. He equalized the incidence of taxation, abolished monopolies, completed the railways from Cairo to Alexandria and to Suez, and, above all, zealously supported the scheme for the Suez Canal. During the Crimean war he was obliged to send an auxiliary army and considerable sums of money to the aid of the Porte. He died in 1863 and was succeeded by —
1863-1879.
1867.
1873.
1879.
Ismâ'îl, the second son of Ibrâhîm Pasha (b. 1830). Ismâ‘il had received the greater part of his education in France and had there acquired the strong preference for European institutions which characterized him throughout his reign. Most of his innovations, however, such as the foundation of manufactories and the construction of canals, railways, bridges, and telegraphs, were planned mainly in his own interest, though of course the country shared in the advantage, while even in the establishment of schools, the reorganisation of the system of justice (p. xx), and the like, he acted rather with an eye to produce an impression in Europe than from real concern for the needs of his subjects. As time went on he succeeded in appropriating for his own use about one-fifth of the cultivable land of Egypt. In 1866, in consideration of a large sum of money, he obtained the sanction of the Porte to a new order of succession based on the law of primogeniture, and in 1867 he was raised to the rank of Khedive, or viceroy, having previously borne the title of wâli, or governor of a province only. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened (p. 184). In 1873 the Khedive obtained a new firman confirming and extending his privileges (independence of administration and judiciaries; right of concluding treaties with foreign countries; right of coining money; right of borrowing money; permission to increase his army to 30,000 men). The annual tribute payable to the Porte was fixed at 133,635 purses (about 700,000l.). The warlike successes of the Khedive resulted in the extension of his dominions to the borders of Abyssinia and, on the S., to the 2nd parallel of N. latitude. — The burden of the public debt had now increased to upwards of 100,000,000l., one loan after another having been negotiated. The Powers brought such a pressure to bear on the Khedive that he was compelled to resign his private and family estates to the state and to accept a ministry under the presidency of Nûbar Pasha, with the portfolio of public works entrusted to M. Blignières and that of finance to Mr. Rivers Wilson. This coalition, however, soon proved unworkable; and early in 1879 the whole cabinet was replaced by a native ministry under Sherîf Pasha. The patience of the Great Powers was now at an end; and on the initiative of Germany they demanded from the Porte the deposition of Ismâ‘il, which accordingly took place on June 26th. He died at Constantinople in 1895.
1879-82.
1881.
1882.
Ismâ‘il was succeeded by his son Taufîk (or Tewfîk, in the Turkish pronunciation), under whom the government was carried on in a more rational spirit. The debts were regulated, an international commission of liquidation was appointed, and an extensive scheme of reform was under-taken. In Sept., 1881, however, a military revolution broke out in Cairo, which had for its chief object the emancipation of Egypt from European influences. The Khedive was besieged in his palace and had to yield; he appointed Sherîf president of a new ministry and arranged for an election of Notables, or representatives. As the latter espoused the ‘national’ cause. Sherîf resigned in Feb., 1882, and Maḥmûd Pasha formed a new ministry, the soul of which was Arabi Bey, the energetic minister of war. This cabinet at once proceeded, without receiving the consent of the Khedive, to pass several measures intended to diminish the European influence in the political and financial administration of the country. At the end of May the British and French fleets made their appearance before Alexandria. In the middle of June serious disturbances broke out in that town, in the course of which many Europeans were killed, while the others found refuge on board the ships. On July 11th and 12th Alexandria was bombarded by the British fleet, and on Sept. 13th the fortified camp of Arabi at Tell el-Kebîr (p. 181) was stormed by a British force under Sir Garnet Wolseley. Arabi and his associates were captured and sent as exiles to Ceylon. Since then British influence has been paramount in Egypt. Arabi, who had been released and pensioned in 1901, died at Cairo in 1911.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1887.
In 1883 Sir Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) became British diplomatic agent and consul-general in Egypt. In his hands lay the control of British policy in that country and he has won high distinction as one of the makers of modern Egypt. In the autumn of the same year a widespread rebellion broke out among the Nubian tribes of the Sûdân under the leadership of Moḥammed Aḥmed, the so-called ‘Mahdi’ (p. xci), which proved fatal to the Egyptian supremacy in the Sûdân. An Egyptian force of 10,000 men under an Englishman named Hicks Pasha was annihilated in Nov., 1883, by the Mahdi's forces (comp. p. 433), and a second expedition of 3500 regular troops of the Egyptian army, led by Baker Pasha, was likewise vanquished at Tokar in February, 1884. On the 18th of the same month General Gordon, who had been Governor General of the Sûdân in 1877-79, after a perilous ride across the desert, entered Kharṭûm, which he had undertaken to save from the Mahdi; while on Jan. 29th and March 13th the rebels under the Mahdi's lieutenant Osman Digna were defeated at Et-Teb and Tamâï by the British under Graham. The Mahdi himself, however, still maintained his position near Kharṭûm, and towards the close of the year a second British expedition (of 7000 men) was sent out under Wolseley to rescue Gordon.
Wolseley selected the tedious and laborious Nile route for this expedition in preference to the shorter but more dangerous desert route from Suakin to Berber. An advanced brigade under General Stewart was, however, sent on from Korti at the beginning of 1885, which accomplished its march across the Bayûda Desert with complete success, gaining severely contested victories over large bodies of the Mahdi's followers at Abu Klea (Jan. 17th) and at Abu Khrûg, near Metemmeh (Jan. 19th). Stewart, however, was mortally wounded at the latter engagement. The British reached the Nile at Gubat, just above Metemmeh meh, on the evening of Jan. 19th, and on Jan. 24th a small body of men under Sir Chas. Wilson set out for Kharṭûm in two steamboats which Gordon had sent to meet them. Sir Charles reached Kharṭûm on the 28th, but found that it had already fallen on the 26th, apparently through treachery, and that Gordon had perished (comp. p. 427).
The project of reconquering the Egyptian Sûdan from the Mahdists was temporarily abandoned, and Wâdi Ḥalfa remained the S. limit of the Khedive's dominions (p. xlvi). In 1885 the Mahdi died and was succeeded by the Khalîfa ‘Abdallâh. — Though Suâkin became the basis of more or less desultory operations against Osman Digna, the British devoted their chief attention to developing and improving the administration of Egypt proper. Negotiations on the part of the Porte, instigated by France and Russia, to bring the British occupation of Egypt to a close, proved fruitless. A loan of 9,000,000l. was raised by the British for the purpose of regulating the Egyptian finances. In 1887 a convention with France established the unconditional neutrality of the Suez Canal.
1892. The Khedive Taufîḳ died on January 7th, 1892, and was succeeded by his eldest son Abbâs II. Ḥilmi (b. May 29th, 1874). His independence of action is controlled by the British diplomatic agent (see below).
1896. In the spring of 1896 a British-Egyptian military force under Sir Herbert Kitchener (now Viscount Kitchener of Kharṭûm) commenced operations against the Mahdists to the S. of Wâdi Ḥalfa. On Sept. 2nd, 1898, the army of the Khalîfa ‘Abdallâh was defeated in a decisive engagement at Kerreri (p. 431), and Omdurmân, the Mahdist capital, on the left bank of the Nile, opposite Kharṭûm, was taken. Since then the Egyptian Sûdân, reunited to Egypt, has been under a special Anglo-Egyptian administration (see p. 415), at the head of which is a British Governor-General, or Sirdâr.
1899. In Egypt itself numerous reforms were accomplished by the British administration, and, in especial, much was done to further agriculture by the building of light railways and the extension of the irrigation system.
1902. The Great Nile Dam of Assuân was opened.
1904. Anglo-French understanding by which England promised not to alter the existing conditions in Egypt, while France gave up all claim to set any period for the evacuation of Egypt.
1907. Lord Cromer, the British diplomatic agent (1883-1907), resigned office and was replaced by Sir Eldon Gorst, who retired in 1911 and was succeeded by —
1911. Viscount Kitchener of Kharṭûm (see above).

cxxvi

V. Hieroglyphics.

By Professor G. Steindorff.

Repeated attempts were made in the 17th and 18th centuries to decipher the peculiar picture-writing of the ancient Egyptians, the Jesuit father Athanasius Kircher (1601-80) being among the earliest to take up the subject. It was not, however, until the beginning of the 19th century that the key was found, though Sacy, a Frenchman, Åkerblad, a Swede, and Thomas Young, the English physicist (1773-1829), had previously attained a certain amount of success in their efforts. François Champollion, a Frenchman, succeeded in 1822 in discovering the long-sought alphabet from a careful comparison of royal cartouches, and so found the clue to the principles of the Egyptian style of writing. Champollion afterwards followed up his initial discovery with such success that he may fairly rank as the real interpreter of the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The first clue was afforded by the famous ‘Rosetta Stone’ (now in the British Museum), discovered in 1799 in the Forst St. Julien at Rosetta (p. 31). This tablet of basalt bears three inscriptions: one in the ancient Egyptian language, written in hieroglyphics, one in the popular language of a later period, inscribed in demotic characters, and a third in Greek; but the two last are merely translations of the first. The subject of the triple inscription is a decree of the Egyptian priests issued in 196 B.C. in honour of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes. The first step towards deciphering the hieroglyphics was made when it was ascertained that the frequently occurring groups of signs each enclosed in an oval (so-called cartouche; comp. p. cxxx) were the names of kings and that the name of Ptolemy must be found among them.
Champollion and his successors established the phonetic signification of a large number of hieroglyphic characters, and it then became possible, from a knowledge of Coptic, the latest form of the ancient Egyptian language, not only to read but also to interpret the inscriptions. H. Brugsch, who led the way to the complete interpretation of demotic texts, was also the first to point out that in hieroglyphic writing, as in the Semitic systems of writing, only the consonants were inscribed, while the vowels were omitted as not essential.
The Egyptian hieroglyphics form a system of picture-writing, in which concrete objects were originally expressed by pictures representing them (i.e. by so-called ideographs); e.g.
  • ‘Face’ ḥr
  • ‘Moon’ y'ḥ
  • ‘Pigeon’ wr
  • ‘Eye’ yrt
  • ‘Sun’ r‘
  • ‘Plough’ hb'
Abstract ideas and verbs were represented on the same principle by the use of pictures of objects suggesting in some sort the idea to be expressed. Thus the idea ‘to rule’ ḥḳ' was expressed by the picture of a sceptre , ‘Upper Egypt’ šm‘ by a lily , its botanical emblem, ‘to write’ sh, by a writing apparatus , etc.

cxxvii

A great advance was made when words, for which there was no special sign, began to be expressed by the pictures of other and different objects, the phonetic significance of which, however, happened to be the same. Thus, e.g., pr ‘to go out’ was expressed by the picture of a house , because a ‘house’ also was called pr; s' ‘son’ by a ‘goose’ s'; tpy ‘first’ by the sign tp ‘dagger’.
Many of these characters gradually came to be used for so many different words that their original word-signification was lost, and they thenceforth were used as of purely syllabic value. Thus, the sign p', originally ‘to fly’, was afterwards used for the syllable p' in any signification; wr, originally ‘pigeon’ and afterwards also wr ‘great’, was used for any syllable wr. In this way word-signs also came to be used as letters; e.g. r ‘mouth’ was used for r; ś ‘lake’ for ś; ẓ-t ‘serpent’ (t is the feminine termination) for ẓ; etc.
These syllabic and literal signs were probably used at first for grammatical purposes only (as suffixes), but afterwards, owing to frequent ambiguities in the significance of the verbal signs, they were used to indicate the pronunciation in each particular case and thus to render the reading easier. Thus to the sign wr ‘great’ a r was frequently added, written thus wr, in order to indicate the pronunciation; or ‘n ‘to live’ was followed by the two explanatory consonants n and , thus ‘n; or ‘lord’ was preceded by

n, thus nb. Frequently all the consonants in a word were written instead of merely the verbal sign, thus śt ‘field’ instead of śṭ
In addition to these there was another class of hieroglyphics, know as Determinatives, which were placed after the word in order to give some hint as to its meaning. Thus, e.g., swr ‘to drink’ is written , with the determinative (a man with his finger in his mouth) in order to indicate that the idea expressed by swr has something to do with the mouth. These determinatives, which greatly facilitate the reading of inscriptions, were freely used, especially in later hieroglyphic periods.
The hieroglyphic system, as we find it in the earlier Egyptian inscriptions, is already complete; its development, briefly sketched above, had already come to a close. The following different classes of hieroglyphic characters were used simultaneously.

1. Phonetic Symbols.

a. Alphabetic Signs or Letters, of which there were 24 in the earliest
Egyptian alphabet.

  • 1. (corresponds to the Arabic Elif, p. xxix).
  • 2.

    y (in many cases in later inscriptions this sound disappears and is replaced by a simple breathing like ').
  • 3.

    ‘ (a peculiar guttural breathing, corresponding to the Arabic ‘Ain, p. xxix).
  • 4.

    w (as in ‘well’), u.
  • 5.

    b.
  • 6.

    p.
  • 7.

    f.
  • 8.

    m.
  • 9.

    n.
  • 10.

    h.
  • 11.

    h.
  • 12.

    (an emphasized h-sound, like the Arabic Ḥa, p. xxix).
  • 13.

    h. (kh, as ‘eh’ in the Scottish ‘loch’).
  • 14.

    h (kh, resembling the preceding).
  • 15.

    s.
  • 16.

    s.
  • 17.

    š (sh).
  • 18.

    (a sharp k-sound, pronounced at the back of the throat, corresponding to the Arabic Ḳâf).
  • 19.

    k.
  • 20.

    g.
  • 21.

    t.
  • 22.

    th and sometimes t (in consequence of an ancient change of pronunciation).
  • 23.

    d, ṭ (a clear, sharp t-sound, like the Arabic Ṭâ).
  • 24.

    (an emphasized s or z) and sometimes (in consequence of an ancient change in pronunciation).
Several other alphabetic signs were afterwards added; e.g.

y,

y,

w,

m,

n, etc. For the vowels, comp. p. cxxvi.

b. Syllabic Signs, of which some of the most important should be noted.

  • 1.

    mn.
  • 2.

    h‘.
  • 3.

    k‘.
  • 4.

    nb.
  • 5.

    m.
  • 6.

    ‘ ’.
  • 7.

    mr.
  • 8.

    św.
  • 9.

    mr.
  • 10.

    t'.
  • 11.

    s'.
  • 12.

  • 13.

  • 14.

    m‘.
  • 15.

    ḥm.
  • 16.

    rw.

2. Word Signs.

a. In their original signification.

  • 1.

    , Sun, the sun-god Rē.
  • 2.

    ḥ'-t, fore-part; front.
  • 3.

    y‘ḥ, moon.
  • 4.

    M‘t, the goddess M't (Maat).
  • 5.

    Sth, the god Seth.
  • 6.

    R‘, the sun-god Rē.
  • 7.

    Ymn (mn), the god Amon.
  • 8.

    Ptḥ, the god Ptah.
  • 9.

    Ḥw, the god Horus.
  • 10.

    Ṭḥwly, the god Thout.
  • 11.

    Sbk, the god Sobek.
  • 12.

    ḥḳ', to rule; prince.
  • 13.

    yb, heart.
  • 14.

    k', bull.
  • 15.

    nl, to be strong.
  • 16.

    w, to reign.
  • 17.

    śb', star.

b. In their derived signification.

  • 1.

    wśr (originally ‘sceptre’), strong.
  • 2.

    ẓṭ (ṭṭ) (originally ‘sacred pillar’), to remain.
  • 3.

    ḥm (originally ‘hammer’), majesty.
  • 4.

    pḥty (originally ‘chessman’), strength.
  • 5.

    ḥb (originally ‘basket’), festival.
  • 6.

    ẓśr, splendid.
  • 7.

    s' (orig. ‘goose’), son.
  • 8.

    whm (orig. ‘leg of an animal’), to repeat.
  • 9.

    śtp (orig. ‘axe’), to choose.
  • 10.

    b' (orig. ‘ram’), soul.
  • 11.

    ḥtp (orig. ‘table of offerings’), to be content.
  • 12.

    mr (orig. ‘lake’), to love.
  • 13.

    ywn (originally ‘column’), On (Heliopolis).
  • 14.

    ntr (orig. ‘textile fabric’), god.
  • 15.

    'śt (orig. ‘seat’), Isis.
  • 16.

    y' (orig. ‘bird’), spirit, to shine.
  • 17.

    Nrt, the goddess Neith.
  • 18.

    w ḥ, to add to.
  • 19.

    ‘n (orig. ‘sandal-strap), to live.
  • 20.

    rwṭ (orig. ‘bow-string’), to grow.
  • 21.

    nb (orig. ‘chain’), gold.
  • 22.

    pr (orig. ‘beetle’), to become, be, exist.

3. Determinatives.

E.g.

man;

woman;

tree;

house;

town;

abstract idea. To this class belong also the sign of the plural

and the oval ring

(the so-called ‘cartouche’) placed round the names of kings.
These various classes of signs, which were used in accordance with certain fixed rules of orthography, were employed in writing Egyptian words; e.g.

mn, ‘to remain’ (syllabic sign

mn, sound

n, determinative for an abstract idea

);

sp, ‘time’ (

s,

p,

word-sign sp). We cannot, of course, pronounce these words that are written without vowels; but in many instances, by the aid of Coptic (p. cxxxi) or of Cuneiform or Greek transliterations (especially in the case of proper names), we learn what was the pronunciation at later periods, and are thus able to supply vowels to the consonantal skeletons. We know, e.g., that the Coptic for ‘time’ is sop, and we therefore read the above hieroglyphic as sop. When, however, no such guide is obtainable it is the custom of Egyptologists to render the words articulate by inserting an e; thus

k', ‘bull’, is read ke'.
Hieroglyphics are usually written from right to left, sometimes in perpendicular rows, sometimes in horizontal rows; occasionally, but quite exceptionally and only for decorative purposes, they are written from left to right. For the sake of convenience modern reproductions of hieroglyphics are written or printed from left to right. It was almost a matter of course that both the shapes of the hieroglyphics and the orthography of the words should vary very greatly in the course of the thousands of years during which the system was used; and with a little trouble the traveller will soon learn to distinguish the simple and bold characters of the Early Empire from the ornate symbols of the 18th Dyn. (e.g. in the temple at Abydos) and from the small crowded hieroglyphics of the Ptolemaic period.
When the picture characters instead of being carved by the chisel were written with a reed-pen upon papyrus, fragments of limestone, or wooden tablets, they generally assumed a simpler and more rounded form. In this way arose a system of Literary Hieroglyphic, which we meet with mainly in carefully-executed religious manuscripts.
For the purposes of ordinary writings this system was still further simplified and abbreviated and for the sake of speed the separate characters were often united, thus forming a Writing or

Cursive Style, which is usually termed Hieratic Writing. In this style the owl

m, which in literary hieroglyphics (written from right to left) had the form

, degenerates into

, an outline scarcely recognizable as that of an owl. In hieratic writing we possess literary works of almost every kind except dramas. — Further abbreviations and amalgamations of letters developed another cursive style from the hieratic, viz. the Enchorial or Demotic, which was the ordinary character employed in the Græco-Roman period. The sign of the owl, for example, was curtailed to

. This writing was chiefly used for contracts, accounts, letters, and similar documents, whence it was sometimes termed the Epistolographic, or ‘epistolary character’, by the Greeks.
During the second century after Christ Egyptian magical formulæ were frequently written in Greek characters; and after the introduction of Christianity it became the universal custom to write the Egyptian translations of the Scriptures in the simpler Greek letters instead of in the inconvenient hieroglyphics, which were at the same time more difficult to learn. But as the Greek alphabet was not adequate to represent all the Egyptian sounds (e.g. sh, f, kh, etc.) seven supplementary symbols were borrowed from the demotic. Thus arose the Coptic Writing of the Egyptian Christians.

sh,

f,

kh,

h,

g (not identical with the Greek

),

ž, dj, and the syllabic

ti.
The use of hieroglyphics extended beyond the borders of Egypt, especially into Nubia, where they were employed in the temples built by the Pharaohs. And even after the Nubian-Ethiopian kingdom became independent of Egypt in the 8th cent. B.C., hieroglyphics still continued to be used there. At first, however, only inscriptions in the Egyptian language were thus written; some time elapsed before hieroglyphics were adapted to the native language, which was allied to the modern Nubian tongue. In the course of this adaptation various formal modifications took place, resulting in a Meroïtic Hieroglyphic System, which has not as yet been fully deciphered. In the post-Christian era a Meroïtic Cursive Style also, probably based on the demotic, was developed (comp. p. 386). This also has only partly been deciphered.
The following hints will be of service to those who may try to decipher any of the kings' names with the aid of the foregoing lists, consulting first the list of phonetic symbols, then that of the verbal signs. The Egyptian kings frequently had several names, the two most important of which, viz. the official name and the individual name, are enclosed within the cartouche. The official name is preceded by the title

n-śwt bity, ‘King of

Upper and Lower Egypt’, and frequently also by

neb te'wy, ‘lord of both lands’ (p. xcix), or

neb hē‘w, ‘lord of the diadems’. The title

s' R' (se' Rē‘), ‘son of the sun’, is an addition to the individual or birth name. Thutmosis III., for example, a king of the 18th Dyn., was named —

The former is his official name, assumed at his accession to the throne, the latter his individual name.

is the original word-sign (No. 1) r‘, ‘sun, sun-god Rē’;

is the syllabic sign (No. 1) mn, here, however, standing for ‘to remain’;

is the transferred word-sign (No. 22) hpr, ‘to become, to be’. The first name therefore is R‘-mn-hpr, or, rather, as the words signifying god or king are written first out of reverence merely, mn-hēper-Rē‘, ‘remains the being of Rē’ (vocalized Men-hēper-Rē‘, or, according to the system described below, Men-kheper-Rē). In the second cartouche

is the original word-sign (No. 10) Ṭḥwty, ‘the ibis-god Thout’;

and

are the letters t and y, indicating the final syllable of Ṭḥwty;

is the syllabic sign (No. 5) mś; and

the letter ś, added to show the sound of mś. The whole is thus Ṭḥwty-mś (i.e. ‘the god Thout has created’), corresponding to the Greek Thutmosis, and probably to be vocalized Thut-mose.
It may here be remarked that the Egyptian names occurring in the Handbook are usually written in the traditional Greek form and not in the native Egyptian; e.g. Sethos instead of Sthy, Kheops (Cheops) instead of hwfw (Khwfw or Khufu). For names, however, of which the Egyptian forms are more familiar, or of which there are no known Greek transliterations, the Egyptian forms have been retained, with vowels inserted on the principles explained above. In these cases, however, the diacritical signs are omitted, so that no difference is made between t and ṭ, z and z, k and ḳ, h and ḥ; w is sometimes represented by u; y by i; h and h by kh; ś by s; and in certain cases y is altogether omitted. The apostrophes' and ‘ are uniformly omitted. In short, the general rules adopted by the Greeks for the transliteration of Egyptian words are followed.

4. Frequently Recurring Cartouches of Egyptian Kings.

Meny (Menes). 1.

Snofru.

Khufu (Kheops). 4.

Khefrē (Khephren). 4.

Men-kewrē (Mykerinos). 4.

Nuserrē. 5.

Esse. 5.

Unis (Onnos). 5.

Teti (Othoes). 6.

Merenrē (Methusuphis). 6.

Pepi (Phiops). 6.

Nefer-ke-rē (Phiops II.). 6.

Entef. 11.

Mentuhotep. 11.

Amenemhēt I. 12.

Senwosret (Sosostris) I. 12.

Amenemhēt II. 12.

Senwosret (Sesostris) II. 12.

Senwosret (Sesostris) III. 12.

Amenemhēt III. 12.

Amenemhēt IV. 12.

Amenemhēt II. 12.

Sebek hotep. 13.

Epepi (Apophis). Hyksos.

Sekenyenrē. 16.

Ahmose (Amosis). 17.

Amenhotep (Amenophis) I. 17.

Thutmose (Thutmosis) I. 18.

Kemarē Hatshepsut. 18.

Thutmosis II. 18.

Thutmosis III. 18.

Amenophis II. 18.

Thutmosis IV. 18.

Amenophis III. 18.

Amenophis IV. (Ekh-en-Aton). 18.

Haremheb (Harmaïs). 18.

Ramses I. 19.

Sethy (Sethos) I. 19.

Ramses II. 19.

Merenptah (Amenephthes). 19.

Sethy (Sethos) II. 19.

Ramses III. 20.

Ramses IV. 20.

Ramses V. 20.

Ramses VI. 20.

Ramses VII. (Lepsius, Ramses VIII.) 20.

Ramses VIII. (Leps., Ramses XI.) 20.

Ramses IX. 20.

Ramses X. (Leps., Ramses VII.) 20.

Ramses XI. (Leps., Ramses X.) 20.

Ramses XII. (Leps., Ramses XIII.) 20.

Shoshenk (Sesonchis) I. 22.

Bekenranf (Bocchoris). 24.

Osorkon I. 22.

Shabako (Sabakon). 25.

Takelothis I. 22.

Taharka (Tirhakah). 25.

Psametik (Psammetichos) I. 26.

Nekaw (Necho). 26.

Psametik (Psammetichos) II. 26.

Queen Amenertaïs.

Piankhi.

Weh0eb-rē (Apries. Uaphris. Hophrah). 26.

Ahmose II. (Amasis). 26.

Kambizet (Cambyses). 27.

Entaryush (Darius). 27.

Kheshyeresh (Xerxes). 27.

Nekht-Har-ehbēt (Nektanebēs). 30.

Nekhte-nebof (Nekhte-nebof (Nektanebōs). 30.

Alexander the Great.

Philippus Arrhidæus.

Ptulmis (Ptolemy I. Soter I.).

Ptolemy II. Philadelphus I.

Queen Arsinoë

Ptolemy III. Euergetes I.

Queen Berenice.

Ptolemy IV. Philopator I.

Ptolemy V. Epiphanes.

Ptolemy VI. Philometor.

Ptolemy IX. Energetes II. (Physkon).

Six Ptolemaic princesses of the name of Cleopatra occur.

Ptolemy X. Soter II. or Philometor II., usually known as Lathyrus.

Cleopatra VI., with Cæarion, her son by Cæsar and nominal co-regent.

Autokrator (absolute monarch) and Kaisaros (Cæsar). Epithets of all the emperors.

Cæsar Augustus.

Tiberius.

Caius Caligula.

Claudius (Tiberius).

Nero.

Vespasian.

Domitian.

Trajan.

Hadrian.

Antoninus Pius.

Marcus Aurelius.

Commodus.

Severus.

Antoninus (Caracalla).

Geta.

Decius.


cxl

VI. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians.

By Professor G. Steindorff.

In spite of the numerous religious inscriptions and representations that have come down to us from Egyptian antiquity our knowledge of the Egyptian religion is still comparatively slight. We are indeed acquainted with the names and aspects of many deities, and we know in what temples they were worshipped, but of the true essence of these deities, of the particular significance attributed to them by priests and people, of the myths attached to the personality of each, we know very little. The Egyptians themselves never evolved a clear and complete religious system. Their faith accepted the most glaring incongruities; and no attempt was made to harmonize popular credulity with the esoteric wisdom of the priests, or to reconcile tradition with later accretions.
The complicated religion which the texts of later times make known to us did not exist in prehistoric days. Originally the country was divided into a number of town and village communes, each one of which had its own protecting deity or ‘town god’. We know many of these local deities, without, however, being able to assert positively their original locality. Among them were Horus, who was worshipped in Buto, the ancient capital of Lower Egypt; Thout, the patron deity of Hermopolis; Osiris, originally worshipped at Busiris in the Delta; the gods Ptah of Memphis, Herishef of Heracleopolis, Atum of Heliopolis, Sobek, who was worshipped in the Faiyûm, etc. Frequently there are goddesses also who appear as protecting divinities of places: e.g. Neith, worshipped in Saïs, and Hathor of Dendera. These local deities have often lost their original names, and in many cases were known only by some attribute or some legendary name. Thus, e.g., the lion - goddess who was worshipped in the vicinity of Memphis was known as Sekhmet, i.e. ‘the mighty’; the god worshipped in Assiûṭ in the form of a wolf was named Wep-wawet, the ‘Path Opener’, probably because his image, borne in the van of the troops, led the way into the enemy's country; the local deity of This was called Enhuret (Greek Onuris), ‘he who fetched the distant one’, probably because according to an ancient legend he was said to have brought a lion-goddess, who was worshipped along with him, from a foreign land. Other local deities came to be called after the town to which they belonged. Thus the cat-goddess of the town of Bast (Bubastis), in the Delta, was known as Bastet, i.e. ‘she of Bast’, while the goddess of Nekhab (El-Kâb) was called Nekhbeyet, or ‘she of Nekhab’.
The ancient Egyptians originally represented these deities to themselves under very crude forms, which recall the fetishism still prevailing among uncivilized African tribes at the present day. Thus Osiris of Busiris (Tetu) was believed to dwell in a post, and the god Min of Koptos was worshipped under a similar form. In

the same way a sycamore tree was believed to be the abode of the goddess Hathor, who belonged to the district to the S. of Memphis, while the god Nefertem was worshipped in the form of a lotus flower, and the goddess Neith, of Saïs, as a bundle of arrows. But the belief that gods chose animals as their abode and revealed themselves in the form of animals was much more generally spread; cows, bulls, rams, goats, crocodiles, cats, lions, ichneumons, frogs, certain kinds of fishes, ibises, falcons, vultures were all believed to be thus chosen by one or other god. Thus the god Khnum was represented as a ram, Horus as a falcon, Thout as an ibis, Sobek as a crocodile, the goddess Nekhbeyet as a vulture, the goddess of Bubastis as a cat, Hathor of Dendera as a cow, the local goddess of Athribis as a serpent, and so on.
Besides the local deities who were worshipped in the form of animals there were special sacred animals, distinguished by certain markings, which were worshipped from a very early period. These were kept in the temple, and after their death they were interred with all honour, while their place in the temple was taken by another. The best known example of this worship is afforded by the Apis, the sacred bull, worshipped at Memphis. It was black with white spots; on the forehead it bore a white triangle and on the right flank a crescent. Similarly a light-coloured bull (Mnevis) was worshipped at Heliopolis, at Hermonthis the bull Buchis was sacred, as was the heron Phoenic at Heliopolis. These sacred animals were connected with the local deities; the Apis was thus considered to be ‘living replica of Ptah’, the Phœnix the ‘soul of the sun-god’. At a later period, the worship of sacred animals was carried further. Not only were these individual ‘sacred’ animals revered as holy, but also all the animals in which the local deities inhered. One or more of these animals was preserved in the temple, and all others of the same kind, none of which might be killed within the region sacred to them, were solemnly interred in special cemeteries when they died. The cat-cemeteries of Bubastis and Beniḥasan, the crocodile-graves of Ombos, the ibis-graves of Ashmunein, etc., date from this late epoch of exaggerated animal - worship. It was probably only this excessive expansion of animal - worship that struck the Greeks in Egypt as remarkable. For traces of similar worship were common to various oriental peoples, and even among the Greeks and Romans themselves certain animals were regarded as sacred to the gods, as, e.g., the lions of Cybele, the owl of Athena, and the eagle of Zeus.
A stage beyond fetishism was reached when the Egyptians, in the beginning of the historical period, began to form an anthropomorphic conception of their deities. The gods had human faces and forms and wore clothing such as the Egyptians themselves wore. Like princes, they wore on their heads helmets or crowns, and, like the primæval rulers, they had tails fastened to the back of their aprons. They bore the sceptre or the commander's baton as the symbol of their might. The deities that were conceived of as animals now

received human figures, with the heads of the animals in which they revealed themselves. Thus Sobek appears as a man with a crocodile's head, Khnum with a ram's head, Thout with an ibis's head, Horus with a falcon's head, etc. The various Cow Goddesses have a human head with cow's horns, while over the vulture goddess Mut (worshipped in Thebes) a vulture spreads its wings, and the head of Neith of Saïs was adorned with a bundle of arrows, which was the form in which she was worshipped. Though such a device cannot but appear strange to us as it did to the Greeks, it must be confessed that the Egyptian artists in their reliefs and statues of those animal - headed deities managed the transition from the animal's head to the human body with remarkable skill.
Besides the local deities, whose spheres of influence were limited to particular districts, there were even in the earliest times a certain number of universal deities, who were revered by the whole nation. Among these were the god Keb (the earth), the goddess Nut (the sky), the god Show (the air), the goddess Tefnut (the dew), the sungod Rē, a masculine deity with the Egyptians as with the Greeks (Helios), Hapi (the Nile), and Nun (the ocean); among the stars Orion and Sothis (Sirius or the Dog Star, a female deity) played the leading rôles. These were all impersonal beings, who revealed themselves only in natural phenomena; they were therefore not confined to any particular place of worship, but were everywhere revered. Only at a later period, though still in prehistoric times, did these forces of nature, the great gods of heaven, receive human forms and special places of worship. Thus the sun-god came to be specially worshipped at Heliopolis, and the divine couple Show and Tefnut as lion-headed deities at Leontonpolis (p. 171).
Already at an early period the religious conceptions regarding many of the gods were deepened or expanded, as certain characteristics became especially emphasized. Thus, e.g., the falcon-headed Mont, the local god of Hermonthis, was a war-god; the god Min of Koptos, where the desert road across the mountains from the Red Sea joins the valley of the Nile, became the patron deity of travellers in the desert, then also a god of fertility, whence the Greeks identified him with Pan; Ptah of Memphis was the patron of artists, metal-workers, and smiths, and was thus the Egyptian Hephæstos; the powerful Sekhmet of Memphis became a terrible war-goddess, who annihilated the enemy, while on the other hand stress was laid on the more attractive attributes of Hathor of Dendera, who was worshipped as the goddess of love and joy (res;embling Aphrodite). Many local deities were connected with the moon and the sun and other cosmic powers. Thus Thout of Hermopolis was regarded as a moon-god, who had created the times of day and the cosmic universe; he was the inventor of hieroglyphic writing and therefore the patron deity of scribes and scholars. Above all Horus was transformed into a god of the heavens in connection with the sun and received the

name of Rē-Harakhte, i.e. ‘the sun, the Horus who is on the horizon’. The cow-goddess Hathor (whose name means ‘House of Horus’) became a goddess of the heavens. Many local deities came to be worshipped all over the country under these particular characteristics.
Finally there was also a considerable number of lesser deities, dæmons, and spirits, who exercised influence over human beings, helping or harming at particular junctures, and who therefore must be propitiated. Among these rank, for example, the different Goddesses of Childbirth, who assisted women and could either cut short or protract their pangs; the grotesque god Bes, the protector of the marriage chamber and of women in childbirth; various Goddesses of the Harvest, etc. At a later period unusually distinguished mortals, revered after death as saints, gradually came to be included among the gods, as, e.g., Imhotep of Memphis (p. cli), Amenhotep, the son of Hapu, etc.
Like human beings the god frequently had a wife and a son, and in that case this so-called Triad dwelt and was worshipped in one temple. Divine families of this kind are exemplified in Ptah, with his wife Sekhmet and his son Nefertem, and by Osiris, Isis, and Horus. The theologians of the holy city of On (Heliopolis) even created a ninefold group (Ennead) of gods, at the head of which stood Atum, the local deity of the city. Atum was attended by the four cosmogenic deities Show, his wife Tefnut, Keb, and Nut (p. cxlii). The number nine was made up by Osiris, his wife Isis, Seth (the ancient god of Upper Egypt and the legendary antagonist of Osiris; see below), and his wife Nephthys. The worship of the nine gods became so popular that it was adopted in many different localities, the place of Atum being taken by the chief local god in each.
Human passions and virtues were attributed to the gods; and numerous tales were told by the faithful of the divine exploits and adventures. Unfortunately most of these myths have perished; of the few that have come down to us the best known is the story of Osiris, which in antiquity also was one of the most widely spread. Osiris ruled as king over Egypt and the country enjoyed the blessings of prosperity. But Seth, his wicked brother, conspired against him, and at a banquet persuaded him to enter a cunningly wrought chest, which he and his seventy-two accomplices then closed and threw into the Nile. The river carried the chest down to the sea, and the waves at length washed it ashore near the Phœnician Byblos. Meanwhile Isis roamed in distress throughout the world, seeking her lost husband; and she at length succeeded in discovering his coffin, which she carried to Egypt and there mourned over her husband in solitude. She then buried the coffin before going to visit her son Horus, who was being brought up at Buto. During her absence Seth, while engaged in a boar-hunt, found the body of his brother, cut it into fourteen pieces, and scattered them in every direction. As soon as Isis learned what had happened she sought

for the fragments, and wherever one was found she buried it and erected a monument on the spot to its memory; and this accounts for the numerous tombs of Osiris mentioned as existing in Egypt and elsewhere. When Horus grew up he set out to avenge his father's murder, and after terrible contests was at last victorious. According to other accounts the combatants were separated by Thout. They then divided the country, the S. of Egypt falling to Horus and the N. to Seth. Osiris was afterwards magically restored to life by Horus and continued to rule the W. land as king of the dead.
Among the Egyptians as with other peoples the speculations about the origin of the world, the movements of the heavenly bodies, and the alternation of day and night were closely bound up with their religion. Their conception of the world reveals the limited geographical horizon of the ancient Egyptians. They regarded the earth as a huge oval plain, floating upon the ocean. From one end to the other it was traversed by a broad stream, the Nile, which flows out of the ocean on the S. or rises from two springs near the cataracts of Assuân. All around rose high mountains, and the sky was pictured as a flat slab resting upon four mountains, with the stars hanging from it like lamps. Another view was that the sky had the same form as the earth, and was traversed by a river and intersected by numerous canals; and under the earth there was believed to be an underworld, called Twet, which was exactly like the sky and the earth and was peopled by the dead. After the cow-goddess Hathor had become a goddess of the heavens (see p. cxliii) the sky was sometimes conceived of as a cow, with the sun seated between its horns illuminating the world. Another view was that the sun sailed in a boat by day on the cow, as on the ocean of the sky, while the stars were represented on the body of the cow; Show, the god of the air, stood below the cow of the heavens and supported it.
The sun and the moon, the principal heavenly bodies, were in particular the subject of many theories, probably representing the teachings of the different colleges of priests throughout the country. A very early idea represented the sun and moon as the eyes of the great god who created the world. At the same time this great god is no other than the sun-god Rē himself, so that we have the contradictory idea that the incorporation of the sun (Rē) had the sun as an eye. When Horus became a sun-god the sun and moon were considered to be his eyes. In one way or another the eye of the sun played a very important part in Egyptian mythology. It was thought of as a sun and was transformed into an independent goddess proceeding from the sun-god. With this eye of the sun are identified the serpent-goddess Buto, of Lower Egypt, and afterwards other goddesses also, such as the lion-headed Tefnut and the cow - goddess Hathor. The eye of the sun was sometimes thought of as a poisonous serpent (uræus serpent) rearing itself on the forehead of the sun-god and breathing fire against his enemies. This idea gave rise to the

custom adopted by the kings of Egypt of wearing the uræus serpent as a diadem or as an ornament in their crowns. — Another conception identified the sun with the sun-god Rē, who, in the guise of an Egyptian fisherman, sailed in a boat on the waters of the sky by day, and in the evening stepped into another boat and continued his voyage through the underworld. As the sun-god Re-Harakhte was a falcon the sun was sometimes regarded as a brilliantly plumaged falcon soaring in the firmament; or like Horus the sun was a powerful young hero, waging a ceaseless combat with the hostile powers of darkness. It was conceived of also under the form of a Scarabueus or beetle (p. clxxvii); the sun-god was represented in the form of a scarabæus rolling the round disk of the sun in front of him, in the same way as a scarabæus rolls the small ball in which it has laid its egg.
The Egyptians of course did not believe that the world, the gods, and human beings had always existed, but that they were created. The most widespread belief was that Keb, the god of the earth and Nut, the goddess of the sky, lay in close union in Nun, the primæval ocean, until Show, the god of the air, separated them by raising Nut aloft in his arms. The sun-god Re also was supposed to have arisen from Nun; another view, however, made him the child of Keb and Nut, newborn every morning. These ideas of course conflict with the other conception that Rē himself created the world (see p. cxliv).
In the course of its history the religion of Egypt underwent many transformations. The dominant position in the Egyptian pantheon shifted from one god to another, either through theological speculation and the growth of legends, or through the coming into prominence of royal houses and cities that were devoted to the cult of particular gods. In the primitive period two independent kingdoms were formed in Upper and Lower Egypt, and Seth, of Ombos, and Horus, of Buto, the local deities of the two capitals, were recognized as guardians of the two states. After the first union of the two kingdoms had been operated from Lower Egypt, presumably with Heliopolis as the capital. Horus became recognized as the sole royal god, and henceforth remained the patron of the Pharaohs and god of the empire. In the latest period of the prehistoric epoch Egypt was again divided into two kingdoms, the capitals being El-Kâb (in Upper Egypt) and Buto; the patron deity of the former was the vulture-goddess Nekhbeyet, of the latter the serpent-goddess Buto. These thus became the royal goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt. In the same way at the end of the Ancient Empire Ptah, the local deity of the capital Memphis, became the patron deity of the whole of Egypt. An important role in the religious history of Egypt has been played by the city of ON-HELIOPOLIS (p. 120), which was probably the religious centre of Lower Egypt in the earliest period, and in all likelihood was for a time the capital of the united kingdom of Egypt. The coronation ceremonies of the sovereign seem to have taken place in the temple of this city, and here, too, according to legend, the

goddess Seshet inscribed the years of the coming reign on the leaves of the sacred tree. At On stood also the obelisk-like stone column of Benben, the chosen seat of the sun-god. The local deity, strictly speaking, was, however, Atum; and the astute priests of On put this god on a par with the god of the sun and asserted that he was only another form, another name of Rē-Harakhte. This doctrine obtained a wide currency throughout the country and all the local gods were promptly identified with Re and invested with the symbol of Rē, viz, the sun-disk with the poisonous royal serpent (uræus. p. clxxvii) coiled round it. Thus even the crocodile - god Sobek and Amon of Thebes became sun-gods. This amalgamation of local deities with Rē, which began under the Middle Empire and was carried to great lengths under the New Empire, was a fertile source of confusion in the Egyptian religion. Attempts indeed were made to draw a distinction among the various forms of Rē, Khepre for example being regarded as the morning-sun and Atum as the evening-sun, but nothing like a systematic scheme was ever achieved.
In the same way a number of female local deities, especially when they were of a similar character, were welded into one. Thus Hathor, the goddess of the sky, was identified with Isis; the cat-goddess Bastet with the lion-goddesses Sekhmet and Pekhet, while Sekhmet was identified also with the vulture-goddess Mut.
When the centre of the empire was carried farther to the S. under the Middle Empire and THERES became the capital in place of Memphis, a new phase began in the development of the Egyptian religion, Amon, the Theban local god, who had been identified with the sun-god under the name of Amon-Rē, took precedence of all other gods, and at the beginning of the New Empire became the head of the Egyptian pantheon. The great campaigns against Nubia and Asia were waged in his name by the Theban kings, temples were erected to him in the conquered lands, and the lion's share of the spoil fell to his shrines in Egypt, especially to the temple at Thebes. Amon, in short, became the national god, the successful rival of his predecessor Horus (Rē-Harakhte). It was not to be expected that the priests of Heliopolis should tamely submit to this weakening of their influence. They therefore eagerly seized the first opportunity of overthrowing Amon and of restoring the sun-god to his former official dignity. When Amenophis IV. succeeded to the throne the sun-god of Heliopolis (Rē-Harakhte) regained the position of supreme deity, and shortly afterwards the sun itself (Egypt, Aton) was announced as the one and only god. This revolution was doubtless to some extent prompted by the king's desire to put a stop to the prevailing religious confusion at a blow, and to make practice square with theory, for theoretically all the numerous deities had long been explained as in reality one with the great sun-god (comp. p. 211). The representations and names of Amon and his fellow-gods were everywhere obliterated. But after the death of Amenophis the partisans

of Amon speedily regained the upper hand; the new religion was abolished and the earlier reed restored. The Egyptian religion remained in its former confusion; the process of amalgamating different gods became more and more common; and religious belief gradually lost all living reality. Men clung anxiously to the ancient traditions, and the superstitious belief in amulets and magic as the only protection against harmful influences gained universal sway. But no fresh religious conceptions are to be found in the innumerable tests inscribed upon the temples, tombs, and sarcophagi of the later period. After the decline of Thebes Amon began to lose his prestige, and his place was taken by the deities of the Delta, such as Osiris and his group (Isis, Harpocrates, and Anubis). Under the Ptolemies Osorapis (Sarapis, Serapis), i.e. the deceased Apis-bull identified with Osiris (comp. p. 147). became the national deity of Greek Egypt, and the worship of this god (an infernal deity, like the Pluto of the Greeks) gradually spread beyond Egypt to the East and subsequently also to the Roman empire. The old religion of Egypt was gradually vanquished only by the power of Christianity.
The Future Life. A considerable diversity of doctrine as to the fate of man after death prevailed amongst the Egyptians, and the various views were never reduced to a single authoritative creed. The only point that was common to the whole people was the firm conviction that the life of man did not end at death, but that on the contrary men continued to live just as they had lived upon earth, provided that the necessaries of existence were assured to them. It thus seemed specially necessary that the body should be carefully interred and protected from decay. The next step was to build a house for the deceased, after the pattern of his earthly abode, in which he might dwell, and which, according to the popular belief, he could quit at pleasure during the day. Statues, erected in a special room for the purpose, represented the owner of the house, his family, and his domestics (p. cixviii). Sacrificial offerings provided the deceased with food, and pious endowments ensured him against hunger and thirst even in the distant future. Nor was this all; representations of food, utensils, etc., were painted or carved upon the walls of the tomb or the sides of the sarcophagus, and it was believed that through magic these representations could serve the deceased in place of the real things. Ornaments, clothing, etc., were likewise placed in the tomb or depicted on the walls for the same purpose. The occupations that engrossed the deceased while on earth, the pleasures that he delighted in, the dignities that he enjoyed, awaited him beyond the tomb, and these too were represented on the walls in order that he might really possess them. To this belief we owe those sepulchral paintings that give us so exact a picture of the life of the ancient Egyptians. In the earliest times the grandees alone were allowed to build themselves tombs, and that probably only by favour of the king. Those who were not attached to the court had

to content themselves with simpler tombs, in which the necessaries for the future life were buried with the bodies. But at a later period even the ordinary citizens built ‘everlasting houses for themselves, at least so far as they possessed the means to do so.
The dead were under the protection of the local deities, whose duty it was to superintend the funeral ceremonies and afford security in the tomb. There was also in many towns a special god of the dead, named Khente-Amentiu, ‘the first of the inhabitants of the Western Kingdom’ (i.e. of the dead), who was represented in the form of a dog. At a later date these local gods retired in favour of Osiris.. He was gradually