High-yield single-step catalytic growth of graphene nanostripes by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Bagley, Jacob D.
Teague, Marcus L.
Yang, Kathleen L.
Tour, James M.
We report a single-step growth process of graphene nanostripes (GNSPs) by adding certain substituted aromatics (e.g., 1,2-dichlorobenzene) as precursors during the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Without any active heating and by using low plasma power (≤60 W), we are able to grow GNSPs vertically with high yields up to (13 ± 4) g/m2 in 20 min. These GNSPs exhibit high aspect ratios (from 10:1 to >∼130:1) and typical widths from tens to hundreds of nanometers on various transition-metal substrates. The morphology, electronic properties and yields of the GNSPs can be controlled by the growth parameters (e.g., the species of seeding molecules, compositions and flow rates of the gases introduced into the plasma, plasma power, and the growth time). Studies of the Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy images, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy images, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of these GNSPs as functions of the growth parameters confirm high-quality GNSPs with electrical mobility ∼104 cm2/V-s. These results together with residual gas analyzer spectra and optical emission spectroscopy taken during PECVD growth suggest the important roles of both substituted aromatics and hydrogen plasma in the rapid vertical growth of GNSPs with large aspect ratios.