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dc.contributor.authorSimmonds, Maureen J.
Lee, C. Ellen
Etnyre, Bruce R.
Morris, G. Stephen
dc.date.accessioned 2017-08-01T16:30:10Z
dc.date.available 2017-08-01T16:30:10Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.citation Simmonds, Maureen J., Lee, C. Ellen, Etnyre, Bruce R., et al.. "The Influence of Pain Distribution on Walking Velocity and Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces in Patients with Low Back Pain." Pain Research and Treatment, 2012, (2012) Hindawi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/214980.
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1911/96010
dc.description.abstract Objective. The primary purpose of this paper was to evaluate the influence of pain distribution on gait characteristics in subjects with low back problems (LBP) during walking at preferred and fastest speeds. Design. Cross-sectional, observational study. Setting. Gait analysis laboratory in a health professions university. Participants. A convenience age- and gender-matched sample of 20 subjects with back pain only (BPO), 20 with referred leg pain due to back problems (LGP), and 20 pain-free individuals (CON). Methods and Measures. Subjects completed standardized self-reports on pain and disability and were videotaped as they walked at their preferred and fastest speeds along a walkway embedded with a force plate. Temporal and spatial gait characteristics were measured at the midsection of the walkway, and peak medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior components of horizontal ground reaction forces (hGRFs) were measured during the stance phase. Results. Patients with leg pain had higher levels of pain intensity and affect compared to those with back pain only (t = 4.91, P < .001 and t = 5.80, P < 0.001, resp.) and walking had an analgesic effect in the BPO group. Gait velocity was highest in the control group followed by the BPO and LGP group and differed between groups at both walking speeds (F(2.57) = 13.62, P < .001 and F(2.57) = 9.09, P < .001, for preferred and fastest speed condition, resp.). When normalized against gait velocity, the LGP group generated significantly less lateral force at the fastest walking speed (P = .005) and significantly less posterior force at both walking speeds (P ≤ .01) compared to the control group. Conclusions. Pain intensity and distribution differentially influence gait velocity and hGRFs during gait. Those with referred leg pain tend to utilize significantly altered gait strategies that are more apparent at faster walking speeds.
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Hindawi
dc.rights This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.title The Influence of Pain Distribution on Walking Velocity and Horizontal Ground Reaction Forces in Patients with Low Back Pain
dc.type Journal article
dc.citation.journalTitle Pain Research and Treatment
dc.citation.volumeNumber 2012
dc.identifier.digital Influence_Pain_Distribution
dc.type.dcmi Text
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/214980
dc.identifier.pmcid PMC3325118
dc.identifier.pmid 22550576
dc.type.publication publisher version
dc.citation.articleNumber 214980


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.