Optimal Parameters to Determine the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Diffusion Weighted Imaging via Simulation
Master of Science
Diffusion weighted (DW) Imaging is a non-invasive MR technique that provides information about the tissue microstructure using the diffusion of water molecules. The diffusion is generally characterized by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parametric map. The purpose of this study is to investigate in silico how the calculation of ADC is affected by image SNR, b-values, and the true tissue ADC. Also, to provide optimal parameter combination depending on the percentage accuracy and precision for prostate peripheral region cancer application. Moreover, to suggest parameter choices for any type of tissue, while providing the expected accuracy and precision. In this research DW images were generated assuming a mono-exponential signal model at two different b-values and for known true ADC values. Rician noise of different levels was added to the DWI images to adjust the image SNR. Using the two DWI images, ADC was calculated using a mono-exponential model for each set of b-values, SNR, and true ADC. 40,000 ADC data were collected for each parameter setting to determine the mean and the standard-deviation of the calculated ADC, as well as the percentage accuracy and precision with respect to the true ADC. The accuracy was calculated using the difference between known and calculated ADC. The precision was calculated using the standard-deviation of calculated ADC. The optimal parameters for a specific study was determined when both the percentage accuracy and precision were minimized. In our study, we simulated two true ADCs (ADC 0.00102 for tumor and 0.00180 mm2/s for normal prostate peripheral region tissue). Image SNR was varied from 2 to 100 and b-values were varied from 0 to 2000s/mm2. The results show that the percentage accuracy and percentage precision were minimized with image SNR. To increase SNR, 10 signal-averagings (NEX) were used considering the limitation in total scan time. The optimal NEX combination for tumor and normal tissue for prostate peripheral region was 1: 9. Also, the minimum percentage accuracy and percentage precision were obtained when low b-value is 0 and high b-value is 800 mm2/s for normal tissue and 1400 mm2/s for tumor tissue. Results also showed that for tissues with 1 x 10-3 < ADC < 2.1 x 10-3 mm2/s the parameter combination at SNR = 20, b-value pair 0, 800 mm2/s with NEX = 1:9 can calculate ADC with a percentage accuracy of less than 2% and percentage precision of 6-8%. Also, for tissues with 0.6 x 10-3 < ADC < 1.25 x 10-3 mm2/s the parameter combination at SNR = 20, b-value pair 0, 1400 mm2/s with NEX =1:9 can calculate ADC with a percentage accuracy of less than 2% and percentage precision of 6-8%.
apparent diffusion coefficient; diffusion weighted; DW MRI; ADC