Gold nanoparticles and radiofrequency in experimental models for hepatocellular carcinoma
Corr, Stuart J.
Cisneros, Brandon T.
Kaluarachchi, Warna D.
Wilson, Lon J.
Curley, Steven A.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and chemo-refractory cancers, clearly, alternative treatment strategies are needed. We utilized 10 nm gold nanoparticles as a scaffold to synthesize nanoconjugates bearing a targeting antibody (cetuximab, C225) and gemcitabine. Loading efficiency of gemcitabine on the gold nanoconjugates was 30%. Targeted gold nanoconjugates in combination with RF were selectively cytotoxic to EGFR expressing Hep3B and SNU449 cells when compared to isotype particles with/without RF (P < 0.05). In animal experiments, targeted gold nanoconjugates halted the growth of subcutaneous Hep3B xenografts in combination with RF exposure (P < 0.05). These xenografts also demonstrated increased apoptosis, necrosis and decreased proliferation compared to controls. Normal tissues were unharmed. We have demonstrated that non-invasive RF-induced hyperthermia when combined with targeted delivery of gemcitabine is more effective and safe at dosages ~ 275-fold lower than the current clinically-delivered systemic dose of gemcitabine.
Gemcitabine; Hepatocellular; Hyperthermia; Nanoparticle; Radiofrequency