p62/SQSTM1 is required for cell survival of apoptosis-resistant bone metastatic prostate cancer cell lines
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) paracrine factor(s) can induce apoptosis in bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. However, the PCa cells that escape BMSC-induced apoptosis can upregulate cytoprotective autophagy. METHODS: C4-2, C4-2B, MDA PCa 2a, MDA PCa 2b, VCaP, PC3, or DU145 PCa cell lines were grown in BMSC conditioned medium and analyzed for mRNA and/or protein accumulation of p62 (also known as sequestome-1/SQSTM1), Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), or lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), Western blot, or immunofluorescence. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine if p62 is necessary PCa cell survival. RESULTS: BMSC paracrine signaling upregulated p62 mRNA and protein in a subset of the PCa cell lines. The PCa cell lines that were insensitive to BMSC-induced apoptosis and autophagy induction had elevated basal p62 mRNA and protein. In the BMSC-insensitive PCa cell lines, siRNA knockdown of p62 was cytotoxic and immunostaining showed peri-nuclear clustering of autolysosomes. However, in the BMSC-sensitive PCa cell lines, p62 siRNA knockdown was not appreciably cytotoxic and did not affect autolysosome subcellular localization. CONCLUSIONS: A pattern emerges wherein the BMSC-sensitive PCa cell lines are known to be osteoblastic and express the androgen receptor, while the BMSC-insensitive PCa cell lines are characteristically osteolytic and do not express the androgen receptor. Furthermore, BMSC-insensitive PCa may have evolved a dependency on p62 for cell survival that could be exploited to target and kill these apoptosis-resistant PCa cells in the bone.
autophagy; bone marrow; bone paracrine factors; p62/SQSTM1; prostate cancer