Noncontact conductivity and dielectric measurement for high throughput roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing
Advances in roll-to-roll processing of graphene and carbon nanotubes have at last led to the continuous production of high-quality coatings and filaments, ushering in a wave of applications for flexible and wearable electronics, woven fabrics, and wires. These applications often require specific electrical properties, and hence precise control over material micro- and nanostructure. While such control can be achieved, in principle, by closed-loop processing methods, there are relatively few noncontact and nondestructive options for quantifying the electrical properties of materials on a moving web at the speed required in modern nanomanufacturing. Here, we demonstrate a noncontact microwave method for measuring the dielectric constant and conductivity (or geometry for samples of known dielectric properties) of materials in a millisecond. Such measurement times are compatible with current and future industrial needs, enabling real-time materials characterization and in-line control of processing variables without disrupting production.