Dictionary learning for data recovery in positron emission tomography
Valiollahzadeh, SeyyedMajid; Clark, John W. Jr.; Mawlawi, Osama
Compressed sensing (CS) aims to recover images from fewer measurements than that governed by the Nyquist sampling theorem. Most CS methods use analytical predefined sparsifying domains such as total variation, wavelets, curvelets, and finite transforms to perform this task. In this study, we evaluated the use of dictionary learning (DL) as a sparsifying domain to reconstruct PET images from partially sampled data, and compared the results to the partially and fully sampled image (baseline).A CS model based on learning an adaptive dictionary over image patches was developed to recover missing observations in PET data acquisition. The recovery was done iteratively in two steps: a dictionary learning step and an image reconstruction step. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed CS recovery algorithm: an IEC phantom study and five patient studies. In each case, 11% of the detectors of a GE PET/CT system were removed and the acquired sinogram data were recovered using the proposed DL algorithm. The recovered images (DL) as well as the partially sampled images (with detector gaps) for both experiments were then compared to the baseline. Comparisons were done by calculating RMSE, contrast recovery and SNR in ROIs drawn in the background, and spheres of the phantom as well as patient lesions.For the phantom experiment, the RMSE for the DL recovered images were 5.8% when compared with the baseline images while it was 17.5% for the partially sampled images. In the patients' studies, RMSE for the DL recovered images were 3.8%, while it was 11.3% for the partially sampled images. Our proposed CS with DL is a good approach to recover partially sampled PET data. This approach has implications toward reducing scanner cost while maintaining accurate PET image quantification.