Sustained delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from perlecan domain I - functionalized electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds for bone regeneration
Background: Biomaterial scaffolds that deliver growth factors such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (rhBMP-2) have improved clinical bone tissue engineering by enhancing bone tissue regeneration. This approach could be further improved if the controlled delivery of bioactive rhBMP-2 were sustained throughout the duration of osteogenesis from fibrous scaffolds that provide control over dose and bioactivity of rhBMP-2. In nature, heparan sulfate attached to core proteoglycans serves as the co-receptor that delivers growth factors to support tissue morphogenesis. Methods: To mimic this behavior, we conjugated heparan sulfate decorated recombinant domain I of perlecan/HSPG2 onto an electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, hypothesizing that the heparan sulfate chains will enhance rhBMP-2 loading onto the scaffold and preserve delivered rhBMP-2 bioactivity. Results: In this study, we demonstrated that covalently conjugated perlecan domain I increased loading capacity of rhBMP-2 onto PCL scaffolds when compared to control unconjugated scaffolds. Additionally, rhBMP-2 released from the modified scaffolds enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in W20–17 mouse bone marrow stromal cells, indicating the preservation of rhBMP-2 bioactivity indicative of osteogenesis. Conclusions: We conclude that this platform provides a sophisticated and efficient approach to deliver bioactive rhBMP-2 for bone tissue regeneration applications.