Assessing Inhomogeneity in Sorted Samples of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through Fluorescence and Variance Spectroscopy
Kadria-Vili, Yara; Sanchez, Stephen R.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce
Detailed spectroscopic analysis has been used to study the homogeneity of single-walled carbon nanotube fractions carefully prepared by nonlinear density gradient ultracentrifugation sorting. Two distinct colored bands containing (6,5) enantiomers were subdivided into several extracted fractions that were separately diluted with sodium cholate surfactant and characterized by fluorescence, absorption, and variance spectroscopy. Values were measured for emission and absorption peak positions, Stokes shifts, emission peak widths, and emissive quantum yields. In addition, variance data were used to find relative emission per nanotube and to plot covariance slices representing homogeneous emission spectra. It was found that emission from SWCNTs within the upper enantiomer band shifts to shorter wavelengths with increasing depth in the centrifuge tube. In the lower enantiomer band such spectral shifts were not observed, but the emissive quantum yields decreased with depth. Variance analysis revealed spectral differences among SWCNTs within the same fraction of the same band. It is concluded that current methods for density gradient ultracentrifugation sorting produce samples that retain measurable structural and spectral inhomogeneities.
covariance; density gradient ultracentrifugation; enantiomers; separation; SWCNT