Quantum quench phase diagrams of an s-wave BCS-BEC condensate
Yuzbashyan, E.A.; Dzero, M.; Gurarie, V.; Foster, M.S.
We study the dynamic response of an s-wave BCS-BEC (atomic-molecular) condensate to detuning quenches within the two-channel model beyond the weak-coupling BCS limit. At long times after the quench, the condensate ends up in one of three main asymptotic states (nonequilibrium phases), which are qualitatively similar to those in other fermionic condensates defined by a global complex order parameter. In phase I the amplitude of the order parameter vanishes as a power law, in phase II it goes to a nonzero constant, and in phase III it oscillates persistently. We construct exact quench phase diagrams that predict the asymptotic state (including the many-body wave function) depending on the initial and final detunings and on the Feshbach resonance width. Outside of the weak-coupling regime, both the mechanism and the time dependence of the relaxation of the amplitude of the order parameter in phases I and II are modified. Also, quenches from arbitrarily weak initial to sufficiently strong final coupling do not produce persistent oscillations in contrast to the behavior in the BCS regime. The most remarkable feature of coherent condensate dynamics in various fermion superfluids is an effective reduction in the number of dynamic degrees of freedom as the evolution time goes to infinity. As a result, the long-time dynamics can be fully described in terms of just a few new collective dynamical variables governed by the same Hamiltonian only with ﾓrenormalizedﾔ parameters. Combining this feature with the integrability of the underlying (e.g., the two-channel) model, we develop and consistently present a general method that explicitly obtains the exact asymptotic state of the system.