Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Fe2O3/Fe3C-Graphene Heterogeneous Thin Films for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Three-dimensional self-organized nanoporous thin films integrated into a heterogeneous Fe2O3/Fe3C-graphene structure were fabricated using chemical vapor deposition. Few-layer graphene coated on the nanoporous thin film was used as a conductive passivation layer, and Fe3C was introduced to improve capacity retention and stability of the nanoporous layer. A possible interfacial lithium storage effect was anticipated to provide additional charge storage in the electrode. These nanoporous layers, when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries, deliver greatly enhanced cyclability and rate capacity compared with pristine Fe2O3: a specific capacity of 356 μAh cm–2 μm–1 (3560 mAh cm–3 or ∼1118 mAh g–1) obtained at a discharge current density of 50 μA cm–2 (∼0.17 C) with 88% retention after 100 cycles and 165 μAh cm–2 μm–1(1650 mAh cm–3 or ∼518 mAh g–1) obtained at a discharge current density of 1000 μA cm–2(∼6.6 C) for 1000 cycles were achieved. Meanwhile an energy density of 294 μWh cm–2 μm–1(2.94 Wh cm–3 or ∼924 Wh kg–1) and power density of 584 μW cm–2 μm–1 (5.84 W cm–3 or ∼1834 W kg–1) were also obtained, which may make these thin film anodes promising as a power supply for micro- or even nanosized portable electronic devices.
heterogeneous structure; nanoporous; lithium-ion battery; thin film; anode