Cancer-Related NEET Proteins Transfer 2Fe-2S Clusters to Anamorsin, a Protein Required for Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis
Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is executed by distinct protein assembly systems. Mammals have two systems, the mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly system (ISC) and the cytosolic assembly system (CIA), that are connected by an unknown mechanism. The human members of the NEET family of 2Fe-2S proteins, nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and mitoNEET (mNT), are located at the interface between the mitochondria and the cytosol. These proteins have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation, and they can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to a standard apo-acceptor protein. Here we report the first physiological 2Fe-2S cluster acceptor for both NEET proteins as human Anamorsin (also known as cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor-1; CIAPIN-1). Anamorsin is an electron transfer protein containing two iron-sulfur cluster-binding sites that is required for cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. We show, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, that both NAF-1 and mNT can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to apo-Anamorsin with second order rate constants similar to those of other known human 2Fe-2S transfer proteins. A direct protein-protein interaction of the NEET proteins with apo-Anamorsin was detected using biolayer interferometry. Furthermore, electrospray mass spectrometry of holo-Anamorsin prepared by cluster transfer shows that it receives both of its 2Fe-2S clusters from the NEETs. We propose that mNT and NAF-1 can provide parallel routes connecting the mitochondrial ISC system and the CIA. 2Fe-2S clusters assembled in the mitochondria are received by NEET proteins and when needed transferred to Anamorsin, activating the CIA.