Sub-communities within this community

Collections in this community

Recent Submissions

  • Three types of incremental learning 

    van de Ven, Gido M.; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Tolias, Andreas S. (2022)
    Incrementally learning new information from a non-stationary stream of data, referred to as ‘continual learning’, is a key feature of natural intelligence, but a challenging problem for deep neural networks. In recent years, numerous deep learning methods for continual learning have been proposed, but comparing their performances is difficult due to ...
  • Adaptive coding across visual features during free-viewing and fixation conditions 

    Nigam, Sunny; Milton, Russell; Pojoga, Sorin; Dragoi, Valentin (2023)
    Theoretical studies have long proposed that adaptation allows the brain to effectively use the limited response range of sensory neurons to encode widely varying natural inputs. However, despite this influential view, experimental studies have exclusively focused on how the neural code adapts to a range of stimuli lying along a single feature axis, ...
  • Mechanism for plasmon-generated solvated electrons 

    Al-Zubeidi, Alexander; Ostovar, Behnaz; Carlin, Claire C.; Li, Boxi Cam; Lee, Stephen A.; (2023)
    Solvated electrons are powerful reducing agents capable of driving some of the most energetically expensive reduction reactions. Their generation under mild and sustainable conditions remains challenging though. Using near-ultraviolet irradiation under low-intensity one-photon conditions coupled with electrochemical and optical detection, we show ...
  • Computational chromatography: A machine learning strategy for demixing individual chemical components in complex mixtures 

    Bajomo, Mary M.; Ju, Yilong; Zhou, Jingyi; Elefterescu, Simina; Farr, Corbin; (2022)
    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) holds exceptional promise as a streamlined chemical detection strategy for biological and environmental contaminants compared with current laboratory methods. Priority pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), detectable in water and soil worldwide and known to induce multiple adverse health ...
  • Electrostatic polarization fields trigger glioblastoma stem cell differentiation 

    Cabada, Tamara Fernandez; Ruben, Massimo; Merhie, Amira El; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti; Alabastri, Alessandro; (2022)
    Over the last few years it has been understood that the interface between living cells and the underlying materials can be a powerful tool to manipulate cell functions. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that the electrical cell/material interface can regulate the differentiation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Electrospun polymer fibres, ...
  • Binary and analog variation of synapses between cortical pyramidal neurons 

    Dorkenwald, Sven; Turner, Nicholas L; Macrina, Thomas; Lee, Kisuk; Lu, Ran; (2022)
    Learning from experience depends at least in part on changes in neuronal connections. We present the largest map of connectivity to date between cortical neurons of a defined type (layer 2/3 [L2/3] pyramidal cells in mouse primary visual cortex), which was enabled by automated analysis of serial section electron microscopy images with improved handling ...
  • Towards the characterization of the tumor microenvironment through dictionary learning-based interpretable classification of multiplexed immunofluorescence images 

    Krishnan, Santhoshi N.; Barua, Souptik; Frankel, Timothy L.; Rao, Arvind (2022)
    Objective. Histology image analysis is a crucial diagnostic step in staging and treatment planning, especially for cancerous lesions. With the increasing adoption of computational methods for image analysis, significant strides are being made to improve the performance metrics of image segmentation and classification frameworks. However, many developed ...
  • The Family Level Assessment of Screen Use–Mobile Approach: Development of an Approach to Measure Children’s Mobile Device Use 

    Perez, Oriana; Vadathya, Anil Kumar; Beltran, Alicia; Barnett, R. Matthew; Hindera, Olivia; (2022)
    Background: There is a strong association between increased mobile device use and worse dietary habits, worse sleep outcomes, and poor academic performance in children. Self-report or parent-proxy report of children’s screen time has been the most common method of measuring screen time, which may be imprecise or biased. Objective: The objective of ...
  • Distinct organization of two cortico-cortical feedback pathways 

    Shen, Shan; Jiang, Xiaolong; Scala, Federico; Fu, Jiakun; Fahey, Paul; (2022)
    Neocortical feedback is critical for attention, prediction, and learning. To mechanically understand its function requires deciphering its cell-type wiring. Recent studies revealed that feedback between primary motor to primary somatosensory areas in mice is disinhibitory, targeting vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing interneurons, in addition ...
  • Singular Value Perturbation and Deep Network Optimization 

    Riedi, Rudolf H.; Balestriero, Randall; Baraniuk, Richard G. (2022)
    We develop new theoretical results on matrix perturbation to shed light on the impact of architecture on the performance of a deep network. In particular, we explain analytically what deep learning practitioners have long observed empirically: the parameters of some deep architectures (e.g., residual networks, ResNets, and Dense networks, DenseNets) ...
  • A review of ultrawide bandgap materials: properties, synthesis and devices 

    Xu, Mingfei; Wang, Dawei; Fu, Kai; Mudiyanselage, Dinusha Herath; Fu, Houqiang; (2022)
    Ultrawide bandgap (UWBG) materials such as diamond, Ga2O3, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and AlN, are a new class of semiconductors that possess a wide range of attractive properties, including very large bandgap, high critical electric field, high carrier mobility and chemical inertness. Due to these outstanding characteristics, UWBG materials are ...
  • Advances in non-invasive biosensing measures to monitor wound healing progression 

    Short, Walker D.; Olutoye, Oluyinka O.; Padon, Benjamin W.; Parikh, Umang M.; Colchado, Daniel; (2022)
    Impaired wound healing is a significant financial and medical burden. The synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in a new wound is a dynamic process that is constantly changing and adapting to the biochemical and biomechanical signaling from the extracellular microenvironments of the wound. This drives either a regenerative or fibrotic ...
  • Spin Seebeck effect at low temperatures in the nominally paramagnetic insulating state of vanadium dioxide 

    Luo, Renjie; Zhao, Xuanhan; Chen, Liyang; Legvold, Tanner J.; Navarro, Henry; (2022)
    The low temperature monoclinic, insulating phase of vanadium dioxide is ordinarily considered nonmagnetic, with dimerized vanadium atoms forming spin singlets, though paramagnetic response is seen at low temperatures. We find a nonlocal spin Seebeck signal in VO2 films that appears below 30 K and that increases with a decrease in temperature. The ...
  • Quantum spin liquids bootstrapped from Ising criticality in Rydberg arrays 

    Slagle, Kevin; Liu, Yue; Aasen, David; Pichler, Hannes; Mong, Roger S. K.; (2022)
    Arrays of Rydberg atoms constitute a highly tunable, strongly interacting venue for the pursuit of exotic states of matter. We develop a strategy for accessing a family of fractionalized phases known as quantum spin liquids in two-dimensional Rydberg arrays. We specifically use effective field theory methods to study arrays assembled from Rydberg ...
  • Tuning Light Emission Crossovers in Atomic-Scale Aluminum Plasmonic Tunnel Junctions 

    Zhu, Yunxuan; Cui, Longji; Abbasi, Mahdiyeh; Natelson, Douglas (2022)
    Atomic-sized plasmonic tunnel junctions are of fundamental interest, with great promise as the smallest on-chip light sources in various optoelectronic applications. Several mechanisms of light emission in electrically driven plasmonic tunnel junctions have been proposed, from single-electron or higher-order multielectron inelastic tunneling to ...
  • MHC Class II Expression Influences the Composition and Distribution of Immune Cells in the Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Microenvironment 

    Griffith, Brian D.; Turcotte, Simon; Lazarus, Jenny; Lima, Fatima; Bell, Samantha; (2022)
    Despite advances in therapy over the past decades, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains a highly morbid disease. While the impact of MHC-I on immune infiltration in mCRC has been well studied, data on the consequences of MHC-II loss are lacking. Multiplex fluorescent immunohistochemistry (mfIHC) was performed on 149 patients undergoing curative ...
  • RobustPPG: camera-based robust heart rate estimation using motion cancellation 

    Maity, Akash Kumar; Maity, Akash Kumar; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; (2022)
    Camera-based heart rate measurement is becoming an attractive option as a non-contact modality for continuous remote health and engagement monitoring. However, reliable heart rate extraction from camera-based measurement is challenging in realistic scenarios, especially when the subject is moving. In this work, we develop a motion-robust algorithm, ...
  • Mid-infrared chalcogenide slot waveguide plasmonic resonator sensor embedded with Au nanorods for surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy 

    Pi, Mingquan; Zhao, Huan; Li, Chunguang; Min, Yuting; Peng, Zihang; (2022)
    The problem of a traditional waveguide plasmonic resonator sensor is that part of the near-field intensity enhanced area is confined in the waveguide dielectric layer, which decreases the interaction effect between light and analyte. In order to solve this problem, a novel mid-infrared (MIR) chalcogenide (ChG) slot waveguide plasmonic resonator (SWGPR) ...
  • High-surface-area corundum nanoparticles by resistive hotspot-induced phase transformation 

    Deng, Bing; Advincula, Paul A.; Luong, Duy Xuan; Zhou, Jingan; Zhang, Boyu; (2022)
    High-surface-area α-Al2O3 nanoparticles are used in high-strength ceramics and stable catalyst supports. The production of α-Al2O3 by phase transformation from γ-Al2O3 is hampered by a high activation energy barrier, which usually requires extended high-temperature annealing (~1500 K, > 10 h) and suffers from aggregation. Here, we report the synthesis ...
  • Snapshot polarimetric diffuse-specular separation 

    Dave, Akshat; Dave, Akshat; Hold-Geoffroy, Yannick; Hašan, Miloš; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; (2022)
    We present a polarization-based approach to perform diffuse-specular separation from a single polarimetric image, acquired using a flexible, practical capture setup. Our key technical insight is that, unlike previous polarization-based separation methods that assume completely unpolarized diffuse reflectance, we use a more general polarimetric model ...

View more