The Fermi Gases and Superfluids: Experiment and Theory
The study of ultracold atomic Fermi gases is a rapidly exploding subject, which is defining new directions in condensed matter and atomic physics. Quite generally what makes these gases so important is their remarkable tunability and controllability. Using a Feshbach resonance, one can tune the attractive two-body interactions from weak to strong and thereby make a smooth crossover from a BCS superfluid of Cooper pairs to a Bose–Einstein condensed superfluid. Furthermore, one can tune the population of the two spin states, allowing observation of exotic spin-polarized superfluids, such as the Fulde Ferrell Larkin Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. A wide array of powerful characterization tools, which often have direct condensed matter analogs, are available to the experimenter. In this chapter, we present a general review of the status of these Fermi gases with the aim of communicating the excitement and great potential of the field.
dilute quantum gas; Fermi gases; BCS-BEC crossover; superfluidity