Now showing items 1-20 of 5118

    • Living Situation and Physical Activity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Among American Private University Students 

      Villarreal, Eduardo Gonzalez; Kabiri, Laura S.; Diep, Cassandra S.; Perkins, Hedi Y.; Perkins-Ball, Amanda M.; (2022)
       Many university students experienced changes during the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential changes in physical activity (PA) levels and living situation. As PA behaviors in young adulthood help establish life-long habits and future health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate overall change in PA, as well as change in PA due to ...
    • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Takeover Performance During Conditionally Automated Driving 

      Weaver, Bradley W.; DeLucia, Patricia R. (2022)
      Objective: The aim of this paper was to synthesize the experimental research on factors that affect takeover performance during conditionally automated driving. Background: For conditionally automated driving, the automated driving system (ADS) can handle the entire dynamic driving task but only for limited domains. When the system reaches a limit, ...
    • Effect of motorcycle lighting configurations on drivers’ perceptions of closing during nighttime driving 

      Weaver, Bradley W.; DeLucia, Patricia R. (2022)
      Objective: The aims were to better understand how drivers perceive an approaching set of motorcycle headlights during nighttime driving and to determine whether alternative motorcycle headlight configurations improve drivers’ perceptual judgments of closing for an oncoming motorcycle. Background: Motorcyclists account for a disproportionate number ...
    • Explicit computation of symmetric differentials and its application to quasihyperbolicity 

      Bruin, Nils; Thomas, Jordan; Várilly-Alvarado, Anthony (2022)
      We develop explicit techniques to investigate algebraic quasihyperbolicity of singular surfaces through the constraints imposed by symmetric differentials. We apply these methods to prove that rational curves on Barth’s sextic surface, apart from some well-known ones, must pass through at least four singularities, and that genus 1 curves must pass ...
    • An olivine cumulate outcrop on the floor of Jezero crater, Mars 

      Liu, Y.; Tice, M. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Treiman, A. H.; Kizovski, T. V.; (2022)
      The geological units on the floor of Jezero crater, Mars, are part of a wider regional stratigraphy of olivine-rich rocks, which extends well beyond the crater. We investigated the petrology of olivine and carbonate-bearing rocks of the Séítah formation in the floor of Jezero. Using multispectral images and x-ray fluorescence data, acquired by the ...
    • Gypsum scale formation and inhibition kinetics with implications in membrane system 

      Dai, Zhaoyi; Zhao, Yue; Paudyal, Samridhdi; Wang, Xin; Dai, Chong; (2022)
      Water desalination using membrane technology is one of the main technologies to resolve water pollution and scarcity issues. In the membrane treatment process, mineral scale deposition and fouling is a severe challenge that can lead to filtration efficiency decrease, permeate quality compromise, and even membrane damage. Multiple methods have been ...
    • A New Kinetic Assay Method for Effective Scale Inhibitor Concentration Determination with Low Detection Limit 

      Dai, Zhaoyi; Ko, Saebom; Wang, Xin; Dai, Chong; Paudyal, Samridhdi; (2022)
      Scale inhibitors are widely used for mineral scale control in various industries, including oil and gas productions, geothermal energy acquisitions, and heat exchanger scale control to mention a few. In most applications, these scale inhibitors are effective at substoichiometric concentrations (e.g., 1 mg/L or lower), and the optimization of these ...
    • Optimal pathways control fixation of multiple mutations during cancer initiation 

      Teimouri, Hamid; Spaulding, Cade; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (2022)
      Cancer starts after initially healthy tissue cells accumulate several specific mutations or other genetic alterations. The dynamics of tumor formation is a very complex phenomenon due to multiple involved biochemical and biophysical processes. It leads to a very large number of possible pathways on the road to final fixation of all mutations that ...
    • Spin Seebeck effect at low temperatures in the nominally paramagnetic insulating state of vanadium dioxide 

      Luo, Renjie; Zhao, Xuanhan; Chen, Liyang; Legvold, Tanner J.; Navarro, Henry; (2022)
      The low temperature monoclinic, insulating phase of vanadium dioxide is ordinarily considered nonmagnetic, with dimerized vanadium atoms forming spin singlets, though paramagnetic response is seen at low temperatures. We find a nonlocal spin Seebeck signal in VO2 films that appears below 30 K and that increases with a decrease in temperature. The ...
    • Rates of Future Climate Change in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea: Implications for Coral Reef Ecosystems 

      Lawman, A.E.; Dee, S.G.; DeLong, K.L.; Correa, A.M.S. (2022)
      Rising temperatures and ocean acidification due to anthropogenic climate change pose ominous threats to coral reef ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and the western Caribbean Sea. Unfortunately, the once structurally complex coral reefs in the GoM and Caribbean have dramatically declined since the 1970s; relatively few coral reefs still exhibit ...
    • Quantum spin liquids bootstrapped from Ising criticality in Rydberg arrays 

      Slagle, Kevin; Liu, Yue; Aasen, David; Pichler, Hannes; Mong, Roger S. K.; (2022)
      Arrays of Rydberg atoms constitute a highly tunable, strongly interacting venue for the pursuit of exotic states of matter. We develop a strategy for accessing a family of fractionalized phases known as quantum spin liquids in two-dimensional Rydberg arrays. We specifically use effective field theory methods to study arrays assembled from Rydberg ...
    • Magnetic field effects in an octupolar quantum spin liquid candidate 

      Gao, Bin; Chen, Tong; Yan, Han; Duan, Chunruo; Huang, Chien-Lung; (2022)
      Quantum spin liquid (QSL) is a disordered state of quantum-mechanically entangled spins commonly arising from frustrated magnetic dipolar interactions. However, QSL in some pyrochlore magnets can also come from frustrated magnetic octupolar interactions. Although the key signature for both dipolar and octupolar interaction-driven QSL is the presence ...
    • Effect of automation failure type on trust development in driving automation systems 

      Mishler, Scott; Chen, Jing (2023)
      The performance of a driving automation system (DAS) can influence the human drivers' trust in the system. This driving-simulator study examined how different types of DAS failures affected drivers' trust. The automation-failure type (no-failure, takeover-request, system-malfunction) was manipulated among 122 participants, when a critical hazard event ...
    • Single-crystal growth and superconductivity in RbNi2Se2 

      Liu, Hui; Hu, Xunwu; Guo, Hanjie; Teng, Xiao-Kun; Bu, Huanpeng; (2022)
      We report the synthesis and characterization of RbNi2Se2, an analog of the iron chalcogenide superconductor RbxFe2Se2, via transport, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. A superconducting transition at Tc=1.20 K is identified. In the normal state, RbNi2Se2 shows paramagnetic and Fermi-liquid behaviors. ...
    • Multidomain peptide hydrogel adjuvants elicit strong bias towards humoral immunity 

      Pogostin, Brett H.; Yu, Marina H.; Azares, Alon R.; Euliano, Erin M.; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; (2022)
      Adjuvants play a critical role in enhancing vaccine efficacy; however, there is a need to develop new immunomodulatory compounds to address emerging pathogens and to expand the use of immunotherapies. Multidomain peptides (MDPs) are materials composed of canonical amino acids that form injectable supramolecular hydrogels under physiological salt and ...
    • Sulfonated polymer coating enhances selective removal of calcium in membrane capacitive deionization 

      Nnorom, Njideka C.; Rogers, Tanya; Jain, Amit; Alazmi, Abdullah; Elias, Welman Curi; (2022)
      There is a need for membranes and processes that can selectively separate target ions from other similar ionic species. Recent studies have shown that electrified processes for ion removal such as membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) and electrodialysis (ED) are selective towards specific ionic species, but selectivities are generally limited. ...
    • Optimization of FLASH proton beams using a track-repeating algorithm 

      Wang, Qianxia; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Guan, Fada; Zhao, Yao; (2022)
      Background: Radiation with high dose rate (FLASH) has shown to reduce toxicities to normal tissues around the target and maintain tumor control with the same amount of dose compared to conventional radiation. This phenomenon has been widely studied in electron therapy, which is often used for shallow tumor treatment. Proton therapy is considered a ...
    • Observations of CO2 Corrosion-Induced Carbonate Scale Formation and Inhibition on Mild Steel 

      Li, Wei; Dai, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xin; Ko, Saebom; Paudyal, Samiridhdi; (2022)
      Aqueous CO2-containing environment is ubiquitous in oil and gas production. Carbonate scales (e.g., calcite) tend to form in such an environment. Meanwhile, the CO2 corrosion of mild steel infrastructure may result in corrosion-induced scales including siderite (FeCO3). Previously, siderite was generally treated as a corrosion problem rather than a ...
    • Non-equilibrium BaxSr1-xSO4 solid solution compositions at elevated Sr2+ concentration, ionic strength, and temperature 

      Zhao, Yue; Dai, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xin; Dai, Chong; Paudyal, Samridhdi; (2022)
      The BaxSr1-xSO4 solid solution is ubiquitously present in both geological and industrial processes, where they mostly form under non-equilibrium conditions. Compared with those formed under equilibrium conditions, the BaxSr1-xSO4 solid solution formed at non-equilibrium condition has significantly higher Sr incorporation at the same aqueous phase ...
    • Impact of Processing Effects on Surface Segregation of Bottlebrush Polymer Additives 

      Lee, Dongjoo; Charpota, Nilesh; Mei, Hao; Terlier, Tanguy; Pietrzak, Danica; (2022)
      The surface properties of polymeric materials govern interactions with the surroundings and are responsible for various application-relevant properties. Recent studies have shown that bottlebrush polymers can be used to modify the surface chemistry of the polymers because they spontaneously segregate to the interfaces when they are blended with the ...