Now showing items 402-421 of 5118

    • Backpropagation-Based Decoding for Multimodal Machine Translation 

      Yang, Ziyan; Pinto-Alva, Leticia; Dernoncourt, Franck; Ordonez, Vicente (2022)
      People are able to describe images using thousands of languages, but languages share only one visual world. The aim of this work is to use the learned intermediate visual representations from a deep convolutional neural network to transfer information across languages for which paired data is not available in any form. Our work proposes using ...
    • Bacteria as Bio-Template for 3D Carbon Nanotube Architectures 

      Ozden, Sehmus; Macwan, Isaac G.; Owuor, Peter S.; Kosolwattana, Suppanat; Autreto, Pedro A.S.; (2017)
      It is one of the most important needs to develop renewable, scalable and multifunctional methods for the fabrication of 3D carbon architectures. Even though a lot of methods have been developed to create porous and mechanically stable 3D scaffolds, the fabrication and control over the synthesis of such architectures still remain a challenge. Here, ...
    • Bacterial Endospores as Phage Genome Carriers and Protective Shells 

      Gabiatti, Naiana; Yu, Pingfeng; Mathieu, Jacques; Lu, Grant W.; Wang, Xifan; (2018)
      Bacterial endospores can serve as phage genome protection shells against various environmental stresses to enhance microbial control applications. The genomes of polyvalent lytic Bacillus phages PBSC1 and PBSC2, which infect both B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. cereusNRS 248, were incorporated into B. subtilis endospores (without integration into ...
    • Bacterial Swarms Recruit Cargo Bacteria To Pave the Way in Toxic Environments 

      Finkelshtein, Alin; Roth, Dalit; Ben Jacob, Eshel; Ingham, Colin J.; Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (2015)
      Swarming bacteria are challenged by the need to invade hostile environments. Swarms of the flagellated bacterium Paenibacillus vortex can collectively transport other microorganisms. Here we show that P.ᅠvortex can invade toxic environments by carrying antibiotic-degrading bacteria; this transport is mediated by a specialized, phenotypic subpopulation ...
    • Bacteriophage SP01 Gene Product 56 Inhibits Bacillus subtilis Cell Division by Interacting with FtsL and Disrupting Pbp2B and FtsW Recruitment 

      Bhambhani, Amit; Iadicicco, Isabella; Lee, Jules; Ahmed, Syed; Belfatto, Max; (2020)
      Previous work identified gene product 56 (gp56), encoded by the lytic bacteriophage SP01, as being responsible for inhibition of Bacillus subtilis cell division during its infection. Assembly of the essential tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent site of cytokinesis determines the timing and position of division in ...
    • (Bad) reputation in relational contracting 

      Deb, Rahul; Mitchell, Matthew; Pai, Mallesh M. (2022)
      Motivated by markets for “expertise,” we study a bandit model where a principal chooses between a safe and risky arm. A strategic agent controls the risky arm and privately knows whether its type is high or low. Irrespective of type, the agent wants to maximize duration of experimentation with the risky arm. However, only the high type arm can generate ...
    • Balanced truncation for linear switched systems 

      Gosea, Ion Victor; Petreczky, Mihaly; Antoulas, Athanasios C.; Fiter, Christophe (2018)
      We propose a model order reduction approach for balanced truncation of linear switched systems. Such systems switch among a finite number of linear subsystems or modes. We compute pairs of controllability and observability Gramians corresponding to each active discrete mode by solving systems of coupled Lyapunov equations. Depending on the type, each ...
    • Balancing act: weighing the factors affecting the taxation of capital income in a small open economy 

      McKeehan, Margaret K.; Zodrow, George R.; Baker Institute (2016)
      Alternative economic theories yield dramatically different prescriptions for optimal capital taxation in small open economies. On the one hand, foreign firms, including those with investments that yield firm-specific above-normal returns, have a large number of alternative investment opportunities; this suggests that the supply of foreign direct ...
    • Balancing anti-herbivore benefits and anti-pollinator costs of defensive mutualists 

      (2014)
      Quantifying costs and benefits of ostensibly mutualistic interactions is an important step toward understanding their evolutionary trajectories. In food-for-protection interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar (EFN)-bearing plants, tending by aggressive ants may deter herbivores, but it may also deter pollinators. The fitness costs of pollinator ...
    • Balancing strength and toughness of calcium-silicate-hydrate via random nanovoids and particle inclusions: Atomistic modeling and statistical analysis 

      Zhang, Ning; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh (2016)
      As the most widely used manufactured material on Earth, concrete poses serious societal and environmental concerns which call for innovative strategies to develop greener concrete with improved strength and toughness, properties that are exclusive in man-made materials. Herein, we focus on calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase of ...
    • Balancing supply and demand under bilateral constraints 

      (2012)
      In a moneyless market, a nondisposable homogeneous commodity is reallocated between agents with single-peaked preferences. Agents are either suppliers or demanders. Transfers between a supplier and a demander are feasible only if they are linked. The links form an arbitrary bipartite graph. Typically, supply is short in one segment of the market, ...
    • Band Jahn-Teller structural phase transition inᅠY2In 

      Svanidze, E.; Georgen, C.; Hallas, A.M.; Huang, Q.; Santiago, J.M.; (2018)
      The number of paramagnetic materials that undergo a structural phase transition is rather small, which can perhaps explain the limited understanding of the band Jahn-Teller mechanism responsible for this effect. Here we present a structural phase transition observed in paramagnetic Y2In at temperature T0=250±5 K. Below T0, the high-temperature ...
    • Band structure dependent electronic localization in macroscopic films of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes 

      Gao, Weilu; Adinehloo, Davoud; Li, Xinwei; Mojibpour, Ali; Yomogida, Yohei; (2021)
      Significant understanding has been achieved over the last few decades regarding chirality-dependent properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), primarily through single-tube studies. However, macroscopic manifestations of chirality dependence have been limited, especially in electronic transport, despite the fact that such distinct behaviors ...
    • Basal Accretion Along the South Central Chilean Margin and Its Relationship to Great Earthquakes 

      Bangs, N.L.; Morgan, J.K.; Tréhu, A.M.; Contreras‐Reyes, E.; Arnulf, A.F.; (2020)
      The south central Chilean margin regularly produces many of the world's largest earthquakes and tsunami, including the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule and 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia events. In 2017, we acquired seismic reflection data along ~1,000 km of the margin using the R/V Langseth's 15 km long receiver array and 108.2 l (6,600 in3) seismic source to image structures ...
    • BayesBD: An R Package for Bayesian Inference on Image Boundaries 

      Syring, Nicholas; Li, Meng (2017)
      We present the BayesBD package providing Bayesian inference for boundaries of noisy images. The BayesBD package implements flexible Gaussian process priors indexed by the circle to recover the boundary in a binary or Gaussian noised image. The boundary recovered by BayesBD has the practical advantages of guaranteed geometric restrictions and convenient ...
    • A Bayesian Approach to Social Structure Uncovers Cryptic Regulation of Group Dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster 

      (2015)
      Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to social structure is central to predicting the evolutionary and ecological outcomes of social interactions. Modeling this process is challenging, because all individuals simultaneously behave in ways that shape their social environments—a process called social niche construction (SNC). In earlier work, ...
    • Bayesian data synthesis and the utility-risk trade-off for mixed epidemiological data 

      Feldman, Joseph; Kowal, Daniel R. (2022)
      Much of the microdata used for epidemiological studies contain sensitive measurements on real individuals. As a result, such microdata cannot be published out of privacy concerns, and without public access to these data, any statistical analyses originally published on them are nearly impossible to reproduce. To promote the dissemination of key ...
    • Bayesian graphical models for modern biological applications 

      Ni, Yang; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Vannucci, Marina; Stingo, Francesco C. (2021)
      Graphical models are powerful tools that are regularly used to investigate complex dependence structures in high-throughput biomedical datasets. They allow for holistic, systems-level view of the various biological processes, for intuitive and rigorous understanding and interpretations. In the context of large networks, Bayesian approaches are ...
    • Bayesian Graphical Network Analyses Reveal Complex Biological Interactions Specific to Alzheimer's Disease 

      Rembach, Alan; Stingo, Francesco C.; Peterson, Christine; Vannucci, Marina; Do, Kim-Anh; (2015)
      With different approaches to finding prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), many studies pursue only brief lists of biomarkers or disease specific pathways, potentially dismissing information from groups of correlated biomarkers. Using a novel Bayesian graphical network method, with data from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers ...
    • A Bayesian hierarchical model for maximizing the vascular adhesion of nanoparticles 

      (2014)
      The complex vascular dynamics and wall deposition of systemically injected nanoparticles is regulated by their geometrical properties (size, shape) and biophysical parameters (ligand–receptor bond type and surface density, local shear rates). Although sophisticated computational models have been developed to capture the vascular behavior of nanoparticles, ...