Functionalization of Nanocarbons for Composite, Biomedical and Sensor Applications
Billups, W. Edward
Doctor of Philosophy
New derivatives of carbon nanostructures: nanotubes, nano-onions and nanocrystalline diamonds were obtained through fluorination and subsequent functionalization with sucrose. Chemically modified nanocarbons show high solubility in water, ethanol, DMF and can be used as biomaterials for medical applications. It was demonstrated that sucrose functionalized nanostructures can find applications in nanocomposites due to improved dispersion enabled by polyol functional groups. Additionally, pristine and chemically derivatized carbon nanotubes were studied as nanofillers in epoxy composites. Carbon nanotubes tailored with amino functionalities demonstrated better dispersion and crosslinking with epoxy polymer yielding improved tensile strength and elastic properties of nanocomposites. Reductive functionalization of nanocarbons, also known as Billups reaction, is a powerful method to yield nanomaterials with high degree of surface functionalization. In this method, nanocarbon salts prepared by treatment with lithium or sodium in liquid ammonia react readily with alkyl and aryl halides as well as bromo carboxylic acids. Functionalized materials are soluble in various organic or aqueous solvents. Water soluble nanodiamond derivatives were also synthesized by reductive functionalization of annealed nanodiamonds. Nanodiamond heat pretreatment was necessary to yield surface graphene layers and facilitate electron transfer from reducing agent to the surface of nanoparticles. Other carbon materials such as activated carbon and anthracite coal were also derivatized using reductive functionalization to yield water soluble activated carbon and partially soluble in organic solvents anthracite. It was shown that activated carbon can be effectively functionalized by Billups method. New derivatives of activated carbon can improve water treatment targeting specific impurities and bio active contaminants. It was demonstrated that functionalized carbon nanotubes are suitable for real time radiation measurements. Radiation sensor incorporating derivatized carbon nanotubes is lightweight and reusable. In summary, functionalization of carbon nanomaterials opens new avenues for processing and applications ranging from biomedicine to radiation sensing in space.
Carbon nanotubes; Nano onions; Onion like structures; Nanodiamond; Nanocarbon; More... Nanomaterials; Water soluble nanocarbons; Nanocomposites; Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy composites; Functionalization; Covalent modification; Functionalization of nanocarbons; Functionalization of nanomaterials; Chemical modification of nanocarbons nanomaterials; Functionalized nanotubes; Functionalized nano-onions; Functionalized nanodiamond; Fluorination; Fluorinated nanocarbons; Fluorinated nanomaterials; Valery Khabashesku; Nanodiamond graphitization; Radiation sensor; Functionalized anthracite coal; Functionalized activated carbon; Activated carbon for water treatment; Water soluble activated carbon; Sucrose functionalized nanocarbons; Water soluble nanocarbons for biomedical applications; Reinforcement of epoxy with functionalized carbon nanotubes Less...