Optical Molecular Imaging in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Recent developments in optical molecular imaging allow for real-time identification of morphological and biochemical changes in tissue associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. This review summarizes widefield and high resolution imaging modalities currently in pre-clinical and clinical evaluation for the detection of colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer. Widefield techniques discussed include high definition white light endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluoresence imaging, and chromoendoscopy; high resolution techniques discussed include probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Finally, new approaches to enhance image contrast using vital dyes and molecular-specific targeted contrast agents are evaluated.