Remodeling the Proteostasis Network to Rescue Glucocerebrosidase Variants by Inhibiting ER-Associated Degradation and Enhancing ER Folding
Gaucherﾒs disease (GD) is characterized by loss of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GC) activity. Mutations in the gene encoding GC destabilize the proteinﾒs native folding leading to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of the misfolded enzyme. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity by remodeling the proteostasis network promotes native folding and lysosomal activity of mutated GC variants. However, proteostasis modulators reported so far, including ERAD inhibitors, trigger cellular stress and lead to induction of apoptosis. We show herein that lacidipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker that also inhibits ryanodine receptors on the ER membrane, enhances folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of the most severely destabilized GC variant achieved via ERAD inhibition in fibroblasts derived from patients with GD. Interestingly, reprogramming the proteostasis network by combining modulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and ERAD inhibition remodels the unfolded protein response and dramatically lowers apoptosis induction typically associated with ERAD inhibition.