Universal Impurity-Induced Bound State in Topological Superfluids
We predict a universal midgap bound state in topological superfluids, induced by either nonmagnetic or magnetic impurities in the strong scattering limit. This universal state is similar to the lowest-energy Caroli–de Gennes–Martricon bound state in a vortex core, but is bound to localized impurities. We argue that the observation of such a universal bound state can be a clear signature for identifying topological superfluids. We theoretically examine our argument for a spin-orbit coupled ultracold atomic Fermi gas trapped in a two-dimensional harmonic potential by performing extensive self-consistent calculations within the mean-field Bogoliubov–de Gennes theory. A realistic scenario for observing a universal bound state in ultracold 40K atoms is proposed.