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  • Oleuropein derivatives from olive fruit extracts reduce α-synuclein fibrillation and oligomer toxicity 

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Aliakbari, Farhang; Sahin, Cagla; Lomax, Charlotte; Tawfike, Ahmed; (2019)
    Aggregation of α-synuclein (αSN) is implicated in neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease and has prompted searches for natural compounds inhibiting αSN aggregation and reducing its tendency to form toxic oligomers. Oil from the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) represents the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and contains variable levels ...
  • The application of amine-based materials for carbon capture and utilisation: an overarching view 

    Hamdy, Louise B.; Goel, Chitrakshi; Rudd, Jennifer A.; Barron, Andrew R.; Andreoli, Enrico (2021)
    In the ongoing research campaign to reduce the global atmospheric CO2 concentration, technologies are being developed to enable the capture of CO2 from dilute sources and conversion into higher-value products. Amine and polyamine-based materials feature widely in the literature as solid CO2 sorbents and as catalyst modifiers for CO2 electrochemical ...
  • Synthesis of precision antibody conjugates using proximity-induced chemistry 

    Cao, Yu J.; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Xuechun; Liu, Dong; (2021)
    Rationale: Therapeutic antibody conjugates allow for the specific delivery of cytotoxic agents or immune cells to tumors, thus enhancing the antitumor activity of these agents and minimizing adverse systemic effects. Most current antibody conjugates are prepared by nonspecific modification of antibody cysteine or lysine residues, inevitably resulting ...
  • Quantification of Myxococcus xanthus Aggregation and Rippling Behaviors: Deep-Learning Transformation of Phase-Contrast into Fluorescence Microscopy Images 

    Zhang, Jiangguo; Comstock, Jessica A.; Cotter, Christopher R.; Murphy, Patrick A.; Nie, Weili; (2021)
    Myxococcus xanthus bacteria are a model system for understanding pattern formation and collective cell behaviors. When starving, cells aggregate into fruiting bodies to form metabolically inert spores. During predation, cells self-organize into traveling cell-density waves termed ripples. Both phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy are used to ...
  • Macroscopic weavable fibers of carbon nanotubes with giant thermoelectric power factor 

    Komatsu, Natsumi; Ichinose, Yota; Dewey, Oliver S.; Taylor, Lauren W.; Trafford, Mitchell A.; (2021)
    Low-dimensional materials have recently attracted much interest as thermoelectric materials because of their charge carrier confinement leading to thermoelectric performance enhancement. Carbon nanotubes are promising candidates because of their one-dimensionality in addition to their unique advantages such as flexibility and light weight. However, ...
  • Sterically confined rearrangements of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein control cell invasion 

    Dodero-Rojas, Esteban; Onuchic, Jose N; Whitford, Paul Charles; Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (2021)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious, and transmission involves a series of processes that may be targeted by vaccines and therapeutics. During transmission, host cell invasion is controlled by a large-scale (200–300 Å) conformational change of the Spike protein. This conformational rearrangement leads to ...
  • Light emission from plasmonic nanostructures 

    Cai, Yi-Yu; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Ostovar, Behnaz; Lee, Stephen; Link, Stephan (2021)
    The mechanism of light emission from metallic nanoparticles has been a subject of debate in recent years. Photoluminescence and electronic Raman scattering mechanisms have both been proposed to explain the observed emission from plasmonic nanostructures. Recent results from Stokes and anti-Stokes emission spectroscopy of single gold nanorods using ...
  • Local Anti–PD-1 Delivery Prevents Progression of Premalignant Lesions in a 4NQO-Oral Carcinogenesis Mouse Model 

    Shi, Yewen; Xie, Tong-xin; Leach, David G.; Wang, Bingbing; Young, Simon; (2021)
    Although the principle of systemic treatment to prevent the progression of oral premalignant lesions (OPL) has been demonstrated, there remains a lack of consensus about an optimal approach that balances clinical efficacy with toxicity concerns. Recent advances in cancer therapy using approaches targeting the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) ...
  • Temporal order of mutations influences cancer initiation dynamics 

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (2021)
    Cancer is a set of genetic diseases that are driven by mutations. It was recently discovered that the temporal order of genetic mutations affects the cancer evolution and even the nature of the decease itself. The mechanistic origin of these observations, however, remain not well understood. Here we present a theoretical model for cancer initiation ...
  • A synthetic circuit for buffering gene dosage variation between individual mammalian cells 

    Yang, Jin; Lee, Jihwan; Land, Michelle A.; Lai, Shujuan; Igoshin, Oleg A.; (2021)
    Precise control of gene expression is critical for biological research and biotechnology. However, transient plasmid transfections in mammalian cells produce a wide distribution of copy numbers per cell, and consequently, high expression heterogeneity. Here, we report plasmid-based synthetic circuits – Equalizers – that buffer copy-number variation ...
  • Design and proof of concept for targeted phage-based COVID-19 vaccination strategies with a streamlined cold-free supply chain 

    Staquicini, Daniela I.; Tang, Fenny H. F.; Markosian, Christopher; Yao, Virginia J.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; (2021)
    Development of effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global imperative. Rapid immunization of the entire human population against a widespread, continually evolving, and highly pathogenic virus is an unprecedented challenge, and different vaccine approaches are being pursued. Engineered filamentous bacteriophage (phage) ...
  • Structural basis of the stereoselective formation of the spirooxindole ring in the biosynthesis of citrinadins 

    Liu, Zhiwen; Zhao, Fanglong; Zhao, Boyang; Yang, Jie; Ferrara, Joseph; (2021)
    Prenylated indole alkaloids featuring spirooxindole rings possess a 3R or 3S carbon stereocenter, which determines the bioactivities of these compounds. Despite the stereoselective advantages of spirooxindole biosynthesis compared with those of organic synthesis, the biocatalytic mechanism for controlling the 3R or 3S-spirooxindole formation has been ...
  • Highly active and selective oxygen reduction to H2O2 on boron-doped carbon for high production rates 

    Xia, Yang; Zhao, Xunhua; Xia, Chuan; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Peng; (2021)
    Oxygen reduction reaction towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) provides a green alternative route for H2O2 production, but it lacks efficient catalysts to achieve high selectivity and activity simultaneously under industrial-relevant production rates. Here we report a boron-doped carbon (B-C) catalyst which can overcome this activity-selectivity dilemma. ...
  • Harnessing the power of antibodies to fight bone metastasis 

    Tian, Zeru; Wu, Ling; Yu, Chenfei; Chen, Yuda; Xu, Zhan; (2021)
    Antibody-based therapies have proved to be of great value in cancer treatment. Despite the clinical success of these biopharmaceuticals, reaching targets in the bone microenvironment has proved to be difficult due to the relatively low vascularization of bone tissue and the presence of physical barriers. Here, we have used an innovative bone-targeting ...
  • Rheological, physicochemical, and microstructural properties of asphalt binder modified by fumed silica nanoparticles 

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Wistuba, Michael P.; Kiani, Sajad; Barron, Andrew R.; Behnood, Ali (2021)
    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is gaining increased attention in the asphalt paving industry as an eco-friendly and sustainable technology. WMA technologies are favorable in producing asphalt mixtures at temperatures 20–60 °C lower in comparison to conventional hot mix asphalt. This saves non-renewable fossil fuels, reduces energy consumption, and minimizes ...
  • Single-particle scattering spectroscopy: fundamentals and applications 

    Al-Zubeidi, Alexander; McCarthy, Lauren A.; Rafiei-Miandashti, Ali; Heiderscheit, Thomas S.; Link, Stephan (2021)
    Metallic nanoparticles supporting a localized surface plasmon resonance have emerged as promising platforms for nanoscopic labels, sensors, and (photo-) catalysts. To use nanoparticles in these capacities, and to gain mechanistic insight into the reactivity of inherently heterogeneous nanoparticles, single-particle characterization approaches are ...
  • Moving beyond static snapshots: Protein dynamics and the Protein Data Bank 

    Miller, Mitchell D.; Phillips, George N. (2021)
    Proteins are the molecular machines of living systems. Their dynamics are an intrinsic part of their evolutionary selection in carrying out their biological functions. Although the dynamics are more difficult to observe than a static, average structure, we are beginning to observe these dynamics and form sound mechanistic connections between structure, ...
  • DNA Looping Mediated by Site-Specific SfiI–DNA Interactions 

    Vemulapalli, Sridhar; Hashemi, Mohtadin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L. (2021)
    Interactions between distant DNA segments play important roles in various biological processes, such as DNA recombination. Certain restriction enzymes create DNA loops when two sites are held together and then cleave the DNA. DNA looping is important during DNA synapsis. Here we investigated the mechanisms of DNA looping by restriction enzyme SfiI ...
  • Long-Range Supercoiling-Mediated RNA Polymerase Cooperation in Transcription 

    Klindziuk, Alena; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (2021)
    It is widely believed that DNA supercoiling plays an important role in the regulation of transcriptional dynamics. Recent studies show that it could affect transcription not only through the buildup and relaxation of torsional strain on DNA strands but also via effective long-range supercoiling-mediated interactions between RNA polymerase (RNAP) ...
  • Single-Particle Hyperspectral Imaging Reveals Kinetics of Silver Ion Leaching from Alloy Nanoparticles 

    Al-Zubeidi, Alexander; Stein, Frederic; Flatebo, Charlotte; Rehbock, Christoph; Hosseini Jebeli, Seyyed Ali; (2021)
    Gold–silver alloy nanoparticles are interesting for multiple applications, including heterogeneous catalysis, optical sensing, and antimicrobial properties. The inert element gold acts as a stabilizer for silver to prevent particle corrosion, or conversely, to control the release kinetics of antimicrobial silver ions for long-term efficiency at minimum ...

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