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Plant size and reproductive state affect the quantity and quality of rewards to animal mutualists
(British Ecological Society, 2014)
Many plants engage ants in defensive mutualisms by offering extrafloral nectar (EFN). Identifying sources of variation in EFN quantity (amount) and quality (composition) is important because they can affect ant visitation ...
Experimental evidence that both parties benefit in a facultative plant-spider mutualism
(Ecological Society of America, 2004-06)
Spiders are known to influence plant fitness, and vice versa. Yet, it has not been appreciated that these facultative relationships can be mutualistic. I examined the interaction between Phryganoporus candidus, a subsocial ...
Balancing anti-herbivore benefits and anti-pollinator costs of defensive mutualists
(Ecological Society of America, 2014)
Quantifying costs and benefits of ostensibly mutualistic interactions is an important step toward understanding their evolutionary trajectories. In food-for-protection interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar ...