An Adaptive Optimal-Kernel Time-Frequency Representation
Jones, Douglas L.
Baraniuk, Richard G.
Time-frequency representations with fixed windows or kernels figure prominently in many applications, but perform well only for limited classes of signals. Representations with signal- dependent kernels can overcome this limitation. However, while they often perform well, most existing schemes are block-oriented techniques unsuitable for on-line implementation or for tracking signal components with characteristics that change with time. The time-frequency representation developed here, based on a signal-dependent radially Gaussian kernel that adapts over time, overcomes these limitations. The method employs a short-time ambiguity function both for kernel optimization and as an intermediate step in computing constant-time slices of the representation. Careful algorithm design provides reasonably efficient computation and allows on-line implementation. Certain enhancements, such as cone-kernel constraints and approximate retention of marginals, are easily incorporated with little additional computation. While somewhat more expensive than fixed-kernel representations, this new technique often provides much better performance. Several examples illustrate its behavior on synthetic and real-world signals.