The relationship between individual, work, organizational, and non-work variables and expatriate adjustment: A conceptual and meta-analytic review
Dipboye, Robert L.
Doctor of Philosophy
A meta-analytic investigation was conducted to conceptually and quantitatively examine the effects of five individual (language ability), work (role ambiguity), organizational (organizational support), non-work (family support), and host-country factors (culture distance) on expatriate adjustment. This study integrates empirical data and estimates population parameters for the relationships of the aforementioned predictors and expatriate adjustment. Consistent with predictions from prior research and theory, the results showed positive relations of language ability, organizational support, and family support and negative relations of role ambiguity and culture distance with expatriate adjustment. The significant moderators of self-report versus external and work versus non-work criteria, predictor measurement, culture distance, and average length of stay underscore the importance of measurement issues and sample characteristics in expatriate adjustment research and provide evidence for the multidimensionality of expatriate adjustment. The theoretical, practical, and research implications of the results of this meta-analysis contribute to an increased understanding of expatriate adjustment.
Management; Industrial psychology; Business administration; Psychology