Adaptive robot path planning with obstacle avoidance in a dynamic environment
Pham, Trung Tat
de Figueiredo, Rui J. P.
Doctor of Philosophy
The problem of path planning for a robotic system is considered, under the conditions in which both the target to be reached and the obstacles with which collision must be avoided are moving in a way not known in advance. To address this situation, an adaptive path planning scheme is proposed: A path is designed for a short time interval I between consecutive data points based on the data gathered at the beginning of I. In addition to this adaptive path planning scheme, a key contribution of this research has been the introduction, in the obstacle avoidance problem, of a new artificial potential energy function. This function, induced by an obstacle, depends not only on the robot's position but also on its velocity. Its use permits avoidance of false alarm and trapping caused by obstacles. Both the cases of a mobile robot system and a manipulator system are considered in detail. For a mobile robot, the system is modeled as a linear time-invariant system. The path planning problem is formulated in the form of two optimization problems: (i) Find the path as if there are no obstacles by minimizing the error between the state of the robot and that of the destination, and (ii) Find the path with obstacle avoidance by minimizing the sum of the deviation from the path computed in (i) and the artificial potential energy function resulting from the obstacles. For a manipulator, the problem is formulated and solved in a similar way. Solutions, analytical examples, and computer simulations are presented for both the mobile robot and manipulator cases.
Electronics; Electrical engineering