Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Derived from Alzheimer’s Disease Mice Worsens Brain Trauma Outcomes in Wild-Type Controls
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, both of which increase the risk and accelerate the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The gut microbiome is an essential modulator of the immune system, impacting the brain. AD has been related with reduced diversity and alterations in the community composition of the gut microbiota. This study aimed to determine whether the gut microbiota from AD mice exacerbates neurological deficits after TBI in control mice. We prepared fecal microbiota transplants from 18 to 24 month old 3×Tg-AD (FMT-AD) and from healthy control (FMT-young) mice. FMTs were administered orally to young control C57BL/6 (wild-type, WT) mice after they underwent controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as a model of TBI. Then, we characterized the microbiota composition of the fecal samples by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. We collected the blood, brain, and gut tissues for protein and immunohistochemical analysis. Our results showed that FMT-AD administration stimulates a higher relative abundance of the genus Muribaculum and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii compared to FMT-young in WT mice. Furthermore, WT mice exhibited larger lesion, increased activated microglia/macrophages, and reduced motor recovery after FMT-AD compared to FMT-young one day after TBI. In summary, we observed gut microbiota from AD mice to have a detrimental effect and aggravate the neuroinflammatory response and neurological outcomes after TBI in young WT mice.