Creation and Characterization of Matter-Wave Breathers
We report the creation of quasi-1D excited matter-wave solitons, “breathers,” by quenching the strength of the interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions. We characterize the resulting breathing dynamics and quantify the effects of the aspect ratio of the confining potential, the strength of the quench, and the proximity of the 1D–3D crossover for the two-soliton breather. Furthermore, we demonstrate the complex dynamics of a three-soliton breather created by a stronger interaction quench. Our experimental results, which compare well with numerical simulations, provide a pathway for utilizing matter-wave breathers to explore quantum effects in large many-body systems.