Spin-imbalanced ultracold Fermi gases in a two-dimensional array of tubes
Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R.A.
Motivated by a recent experiment Revelle et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 235301 (2016)] that characterized the one- to three-dimensional crossover in a spin-imbalanced ultracold gas of 6Li atoms trapped in a two-dimensional array of tunnel-coupled tubes, we calculate the phase diagram for this system by using Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov-de Gennes mean-field theory and compare the results with experimental data. Mean-field theory predicts fully-spin-polarized normal, partially-spin-polarized normal, spin-polarized superfluid, and spin-balanced superfluid phases in a homogeneous system. We use the local density approximation to obtain density profiles of the gas in a harmonic trap. We compare these calculations with experimental measurements in Revelle et al. as well as previously unpublished data. Our calculations qualitatively agree with experimentally measured densities and coordinates of the phase boundaries in the trap and quantitatively agree with experimental measurements at moderate-to-large polarizations. Our calculations also reproduce the experimentally observed universal scaling of the phase boundaries for different scattering lengths at a fixed value of scaled intertube tunneling. However, our calculations have quantitative differences with experimental measurements at low polarization and fail to capture important features of the one- to three-dimensional crossover observed in experiments. These suggest the important role of physics beyond mean-field theory in the experiments. We expect that our numerical results will aid future experiments in narrowing the search for the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase.