Wave function methods for canonical ensemble thermal averages in correlated many-fermion systems
Harsha, Gaurav; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
We present a wave function representation for the canonical ensemble thermal density matrix by projecting the thermofield double state against the desired number of particles. The resulting canonical thermal state obeys an imaginary-time evolution equation. Starting with the mean-field approximation, where the canonical thermal state becomes an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function, we explore two different schemes to add correlation: by number-projecting a correlated grand-canonical thermal state and by adding correlation to the number-projected mean-field state. As benchmark examples, we use number-projected configuration interaction and an AGP-based perturbation theory to study the hydrogen molecule in a minimal basis and the six-site Hubbard model.