Electrochemical CO 2 reduction to high-concentration pure formic acid solutions in an all-solid-state reactor
Fan, Lei; Xia, Chuan; Zhu, Peng; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian
Electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) to liquid fuels is currently challenged by low product concentrations, as well as their mixture with traditional liquid electrolytes, such as KHCO3 solution. Here we report an all-solid-state electrochemical CO2RR system for continuous generation of high-purity and high-concentration formic acid vapors and solutions. The cathode and anode were separated by a porous solid electrolyte (PSE) layer, where electrochemically generated formate and proton were recombined to form molecular formic acid. The generated formic acid can be efficiently removed in the form of vapors via inert gas stream flowing through the PSE layer. Coupling with a high activity (formate partial current densities ~450 mA cm−2), selectivity (maximal Faradaic efficiency ~97%), and stability (100 hours) grain boundary-enriched bismuth catalyst, we demonstrated ultra-high concentrations of pure formic acid solutions (up to nearly 100 wt.%) condensed from generated vapors via flexible tuning of the carrier gas stream.