Structural determination of Enzyme-Graphene Nanocomposite Sensor Material
Rai, Durgesh K.; Gurusaran, Manickam; Urban, Volker; Aran, Kiana; Ma, Lulu Li, Pingzuo; More... Qian, Shuo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Liepmann, Dorian; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Álvarez-Cao, María-Efigenia; Escuder-Rodríguez, Juan-José; Cerdán, María-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Renugopalakrishnan, Venkatesan Less...
State-of-the-art ultra-sensitive blood glucose-monitoring biosensors, based on glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently linked to a single layer graphene (SLG), will be a valuable next generation diagnostic tool for personal glycemic level management. We report here our observations of sensor matrix structure obtained using a multi-physics approach towards analysis of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on graphene-based biosensor functionalized with GOx under different pH conditions for various hierarchical GOx assemblies within SLG. We developed a methodology to separately extract the average shape of GOx molecules within the hierarchical assemblies. The modeling is able to resolve differences in the average GOx dimer structure and shows that treatment under different pH conditions lead to differences within the GOx at the dimer contact region with SLG. The coupling of different analysis methods and modeling approaches we developed in this study provides a universal approach to obtain detailed structural quantifications, for establishing robust structure-property relationships. This is an essential step to obtain an insight into the structure and function of the GOx-SLG interface for optimizing sensor performance.