Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection
Ma, Yufei; Tong, Yao; He, Ying; Jin, Xingang; Tittel, Frank K.
A compact and sensitive quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based sensor for carbon monoxide (CO) detection was demonstrated by using a mid-infrared all-fiber structure as well as a 3D-printed acoustic detection module. An all-fiber configuration has advantages of easier optical alignment, lower insertion loss, improvement in system stability, reduction in sensor size and lower cost. The 3D-printed acoustic detection module was introduced to match the mid-infrared all-fiber structure and further decrease the sensor volume, which resulted in a small size of 3.5 cm3 and a weight of 5 grams. A 2.33 μm distributed feedback fiber-coupled diode laser was used as the laser excitation source. A custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a small-gap of 200 μm was used as the acoustic wave transducer in order to improve the signal level of the QEPAS sensor. An acoustic micro resonator was utilized as the acoustic wave enhancer. The gas pressure and laser wavelength modulation depth were optimized, respectively. Water vapor was used to accelerate the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of the targeted CO molecule. Finally, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 4.2 part per million (ppm) was achieved, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 7.4 × 10−9 cm−1W/√Hz. An Allan deviation analysis was used to evaluate the long-term stability of the reported CO-QEPAS sensor system. With an integration time of 150 s, the MDL was improved to be 1.3 ppm.