Obesity, Dietary Factors, Nutrition, and Breast Cancer Risk
Seiler, Annina; Chen, Michelle A.; Brown, Ryan L.; Fagundes, Christopher P.
Purpose of Review: To synthesize the critical role of obesity-associated inflammation, dietary factors, and nutrition in determining breast cancer risk. Recent Findings: Obesity-associated inflammation is strongly linked to breast cancer risk and progression, largely via two processes: inflammatory pathways and dysregulated metabolism. Cytokine production in excess adipose tissues creates a chronic inflammatory microenvironment, which favors tumor development. Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognized as important determinants of breast cancer risk and mortality. Summary: Obesity increases the risk of developing breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women and also negatively affects breast cancer recurrence and survival. Poor dietary habits characterized by the high intake of refined starches, sugar, and both saturated and trans-saturated fats, as well as the low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants, and fiber, modulate inflammation and, thereby, appear to be linked to increased risk of breast cancer and mortality.