A hierarchical classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Identifying the distinguishing features in 3D spinal deformities
Pasha, Saba; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Ecker, Malcolm; Ho, Victor
This study aimed to identify the differentiating parameters of the spinal curves’ 2D projections through a hierarchical classification of the 3D spinal curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A total number of 103 right thoracic left lumbar pre-operative AIS patients were included retrospectively and consecutively. A total number of 20 non-scoliotic adolescents were included as the control group. All patients had biplanar X-rays and 3D reconstructions of the spine. The 3D spinal curve was calculated by interpolating the center of vertebrae and was isotropically normalized. A hierarchical classification of the normalized spinal curves was developed to group the patients based on the similarity of their 3D spinal curve. The spinal curves’ 2D projections and clinical spinal measurements in the three anatomical planes were then statistically compared between these groups and between the scoliotic subtypes and the non-scoliotic controls. A total of 5 patient groups of right thoracic left lumbar AIS patients were identified. The characteristics of the posterior-anterior and sagittal views of the spines were: Type 1: Normal sagittal profile and S shape axial view. T1 is leveled or tilted to the right in the posterior view. Type 2: Hypokyphotic and a V shape axial view. T1 is tilted to the left in the posterior view. Type 3: Hypokyphotic (only T5-T10) and frontal imbalance, S shape axial view. T1 is leveled or tilted to the right, and 3 frontal curves. Type 4: Flat sagittal profile (T1-L2), slight frontal imbalance with a V shape axial view, T1 tilted to the left. Type 5: flat sagittal profile and forward trunk shift with a proximal kyphosis and S shape axial view. T1 is leveled or tilted to the right. In conclusion, a hierarchical classification of the 3D scoliotic spine allowed identifying various distinguishing features of the spinal curves in patients with a right thoracic curve in an orderly fashion. The subtypes’ characteristics resulting from this 3D classification can be identified from the pairs of the frontal and sagittal spinal curves i.e. X-rays in right thoracic AIS patients.