Toroidal Dipole-Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation of Deep Ultraviolet Light Using Plasmonic Meta-atoms
Halas, Naomi J.
The harmonic generation of light with plasmonic and all-dielectric nanostructures has gained much recent interest. This approach is especially promising for short wavelength (i.e., ultraviolet (UV)) generation, where conventional nonlinear crystals reach their limits both in transparency and in their ability to achieve phase-matching between the input and output fields. Here, we demonstrate that the third harmonic generation of deep UV light in an indium tin oxide (ITO) film can be substantially enhanced by a metasurface consisting of metallic toroidal meta-atoms covered with an alumina layer for protection against laser-induced damage. This approach combines the benefits of the large nonlinear susceptibility of ITO with the unique field enhancement properties of a toroidal metasurface. This ITO–meta-atom combination produces a third harmonic signal at a wavelength of 262 nm that is nominally five times larger than that of an ITO film patterned with a conventional hotspot-enhanced plasmonic dimer array. This result demonstrates the potential for toroidal meta-atoms as the active engineered element in a new generation of enhanced nonlinear optical materials and devices.
Third harmonic generation; deep-ultraviolet light; indium tin oxide; metamaterial; toroidal resonance