Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in a Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide by Mode Interactions
Developing highly efficient nanoscale coherent light sources is essential for advances in technological applications such as integrated photonic circuits, bioimaging, and sensing. An on-chip wavelength convertor based on second harmonic generation (SHG) would be a crucial step toward this goal, but the light-conversion efficiency would be low for small device dimensions. Here we demonstrate strongly enhanced SHG with a high conversion efficiency of 4 × 10–5 W–1 from a hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a CdSe nanowire coupled with a Au film. The strong spatial overlap of the waveguide mode with the nonlinear material and momentum conservation between the incident and reflected modes are the key factors resulting in such high efficiency. The SHG emission angles vary linearly with excitation wavelength, indicating a nonlinear steering of coherent light emission at the subwavelength scale. Our work is promising for the realization of efficient and tunable nonlinear coherent sources and opens new approaches for efficient integrated nonlinear nanophotonic devices.
hybrid waveguide; momentum conservation; second harmonic generation; semiconductor nanowire; surface plasmon polariton