Redox state of the convective mantle from CO2-trace element systematics of oceanic basalts
The redox state of mantle lithologies, based on xenoliths from continental lithospheric mantle, has been shown to decrease with depth and reach oxygen fugacities (fO2) at which graphite/diamond will be the stable form of carbon at pressures greater than about 3-4 GPa (e.g., Frost and McCammon, 2008). On the other hand, the depth-fO2 profile of the convecting mantle remains poorly known. We compare the CO2-Ba and CO2-Nb systematics of natural oceanic basalts to the CO2-trace element concentrations that can be generated via contributions from depleted peridotite partial melts and graphite-saturated partial melts of subducted lithologies. Results suggest that to produce the CO2enrichments relative to the depleted end member observed in natural oceanic basalts, subducted lithologies cannot be graphite-saturated at the onset of melting or must undergo oxidative transformation below the respective volatile-free solidi. Therefore, the oxygen fugacity profile of the continental lithospheric mantle may not be applicable to the deep convecting upper mantle, with the convecting upper mantle to at least 150 km depth being more oxidised than the carbonate vs.graphite/diamond buffer.