High-resolution Millimeter Imaging of the CI Tau Protoplanetary Disk: A Massive Ensemble of Protoplanets from 0.1 to 100 au
We present high-resolution millimeter continuum imaging of the disk surrounding the young star CI Tau, a system hosting the first hot Jupiter candidate in a protoplanetary disk system. The system has extended mm emission on which are superposed three prominent annular gaps at radii ~13, 39, and 100 au. We argue that these gaps are most likely to be generated by massive planets so that, including the hot Jupiter, the system contains four gas giant planets at an age of only 2 Myr. Two of the new planets are similarly located to those inferred in the famous HL Tau protoplanetary disk; in CI Tau, additional observational data enables a more complete analysis of the system properties than was possible for HL Tau. Our dust and gas dynamical modeling satisfies every available observational constraint and points to the most massive ensemble of exoplanets ever detected at this age, with its four planets spanning a factor 1000 in orbital radius. Our results show that the association between hot Jupiters and gas giants on wider orbits, observed in older stars, is apparently in place at an early evolutionary stage.
planet–disk interactions; protoplanetary disks; submillimeter: planetary systems