Cooling fermions in an optical lattice by adiabatic demagnetization
Mirasola, Anthony E.
Wall, Michael L.
Hazzard, Kaden R.A.
The Fermi-Hubbard model describes ultracold fermions in an optical lattice and exhibits antiferromagnetic long-ranged order below the Néel temperature. However, reaching this temperature in the laboratory has remained an elusive goal. In other atomic systems, such as trapped ions, low temperatures have been successfully obtained by adiabatic demagnetization, in which a strong effective magnetic field is applied to a spin-polarized system and the magnetic field is adiabatically reduced to zero. Unfortunately, applying this approach to the Fermi-Hubbard model encounters a fundamental obstacle: the SU(2) symmetry introduces many level crossings that prevent the system from reaching the ground state, even in principle. However, by breaking the SU(2) symmetry with a spin-dependent tunneling, we show that adiabatic demagnetization can achieve low-temperature states. Using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations in one dimension, we numerically find that demagnetization protocols successfully reach low-temperature states of a spin-anisotropic Hubbard model, and we discuss how to optimize this protocol for experimental viability. By subsequently ramping spin-dependent tunnelings to spin-independent tunnelings, we expect that our protocol can be employed to produce low-temperature states of the Fermi-Hubbard model.