Paper-based detection of HIV-1 drug resistance using isothermal amplification and an oligonucleotide ligation assay
Natoli, Mary E.; Rohrman, Brittany A.; De Santiago, Carolina; van Zyl, Gert U.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.
Regular HIV-1 viral load monitoring is the standard of care to assess antiretroviral therapy effectiveness in resource-rich settings. Persistently elevated viral loads indicate virologic failure (VF), which warrants HIV drug resistance testing (HIVDRT) to allow individualized regimen switches. However, in settings lacking access to HIVDRT, clinical decisions are often made based on symptoms, leading to unnecessary therapy switches and increased costs of care. This work presents a proof-of-concept assay to detect M184V, the most common drug resistance mutation after first-line antiretroviral therapy failure, in a paper format. The first step isothermally amplifies a section of HIV-1ﾠreverse transcriptaseﾠcontaining M184V using a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay. Then, an oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is used to selectively label the mutant and wild type amplified sequences. Finally, a lateral flow enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) differentiates between OLA-labeled products with or without M184V. Our method shows 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity when tested with samples that contained 200 copies of mutant DNA and 800 copies of wild type DNA prior to amplification. When integrated with sample preparation, this method may detect HIV-1 drug resistance at a low cost and at a rural hospital laboratory.
recombinase polymerase amplification; HIV drug resistance; lateral flow; oligonucleotide ligation assay