An examination of time control

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Title: An examination of time control
Author: Macan, Therese Marie
Advisor: Dipboye, Robert L.
Abstract: The popular literature on time control claims that learning time control behaviors results in increased job performance and fewer job tensions. This study examines the relationships of one's control of time to job stress, job performance and job satisfaction from a correlational perspective. In addition, a test of a time and stress management seminar and its effect on job performance, job satisfaction and job stress in an organizational setting is made. Time control is defined as consisting of not only the typically taught behaviors (making lists, goal setting) but also a perception of control of time. 178 employees of a large southwestern social service agency completed several scales including the Time Control instrument (see Macan et al., 1987) and provided demographic information. Supervisors provided performance ratings. In general, the results do not support the conventional notions of time management. First of all, Time Control was not found to be a unitary concept. Instead, Time Control was found to be multi-dimensional, consisting of four relatively individual factors. The factors were: perceived control of time, goal setting/prioritizing, mechanics--scheduling, planning, and work organization. Only those who perceived control of their time reported fewer job-induced and somatic tensions and were more satisfied in their job situation. The relationship between time control and job performance was non-significant. In addition, perceived control of time was not significantly correlated with the other factors. Overall, those tending toward Type B and those on the job fewer months accounted for the variance in individual differences on three of the four time control factors. Individual differences due to education, age and minority/nonminority also played a role. In addition, an evaluation of a time and stress management training seminar was made. Acknowledging the limitations of the data on 20 training and 24 control group participants, the results of this study do not support the claims made by time management consultants. The findings indicated that time control training was not related to increased job performance ratings or fewer tensions four- to-five months following training. Taken as a whole, the present results call into question the assertations made by advocates of time management training.
Citation: Macan, Therese Marie. (1989) "An examination of time control." Doctoral Thesis, Rice University.
Date: 1989

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